AS RevisionEach day different questions…..Clickon the photo and name them to seethe answers!!!
Advent Calendar29thApril3othApril1stMay2ndMay3rdMay4thMay5thMay6thMay7thMay8thMay9thMay10thMay11thMay12thMay13thMay14thMay...
29th AprilBefore anything else, preparation is the key to success.Alexander Graham BellAnatomyDescribe how the blood trave...
30th AprilOur greatest weakness lies in giving up. The mostcertain way to succeed is always to try just onemore time.Thoma...
1st MayWhat you do today can improve all yourtomorrows.Ralph Marston• AnatomyDescribe atherosclerosis (3marks)• SkillExpla...
2nd MayAchievement seems to be connected with action. Successfulmen and women keep moving. They make mistakes, but theydon...
3rd May“The winners in life think constantly in terms of I can, I will,and I am”Waitely. D• Anatomy• Skill• Socio Cultural...
4th MayThe difference between the impossible and thepossible lies in a person’s determination” Lasorda, T• Anatomy• Skill•...
5th MayFor every finish-line tape a runner there are the hours of hardand often lonely work that rarely gets talked about....
6th MayMy main focus is on my game.Woods. T• Anatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalA cool down has a number of effects on the vasc...
7th MayMost of us who aspire to be tops in our fields dont reallyconsider the amount of work required to stay tops.Althea ...
8th MayFor every pass I caught in a game, I caught a thousandin practice. Don HutsonAnatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalWhy do t...
9th May"Think little goals and expect little achievements. Thinkbig goals and win big success."David Joseph SchwartzSocio ...
10th May"By working hard, you get to play hard guilt-free"Rohn, J.Socio CulturalExplain how education, physical recreation...
11th May“Hard work brings prosperity, playing around brings poverty”The BibleSocio CulturalWhat can young people gain as a...
12th MayGuidanceYou need to be able to.........Describe the different types of guidanceEvaluate critically the types of gu...
13th May“Follow your dreams and enjoy the ride!”Father of Davis Love IIISocio CulturalDefine sports sponsorship and identi...
14th May“Defeat is not the worst of failures. Not to have tried is the true failure.”George Edward WoodberrySocio Cultural...
15th MaySuccess is how high you bounce when you hit bottom.George S. PattonSocio CulturalDiscuss both the positive and neg...
16th May"Ive never known anybody to achieve anything withoutovercoming adversity."---Lou HoltzSocio CulturalDescribe publi...
17th MaySuccess isnt something that just happens - success is learned, successis practiced and then it is shared.-- Sparky...
18th MayThe Six Ws: Work will win when wishing wont.-- Todd BlackledgeSocio CulturalWhy might performer take drugs in spor...
19th MayThe difference between failure and success is doing a thing nearly right anddoing it exactly right.-- Edward C. Si...
20th May“Striving for success without hard work is liketrying to harvest where you haven’t planted.”~ David BlyDescribe th...
21st May“You may never know what results come ofyour action, but if you do nothing there willbe no result.” ~ Mahatma Gand...
22nd MayAll the quotes, all the work, all the effort – itsdone now; stay cool, think straight and thebest of luck! Matt Wa...
29th April – Johnny WilkinsonAnatomyDiastole1. The atria/ventricles/heart is relaxed2. Semi Lunar valves are closed3. Bloo...
30th April – Katherine GraingerAnatomyLess efficient gas exchange or diffusion / decreased(oxygen) diffusion or concentrat...
1st May – David BeckhamAnatomycholesterol or fatty deposits or fat or lipids build up on thearterial walls(fatty) plaque f...
2nd May – Amy WilliamsAnatomy1. Skeletal muscle pump - muscles contract to squeezeblood back to the heart2. Valves prevent...
3rd May – Steven RedgraveAnatomy1. Dissolves in the plasma2. Combines withhaemoglobin3. Formscarbaminohaemoglobin4. Dissol...
4th May Answers - AP McCoyAnatomy• Structural - 1. Size - Small• 2. Colour - Red• 3. Capillaries - Many• Function 4. Slow ...
5th May – Mo Farrah1. Flushesout lacticacid/wasteproducts2. Keepscapillariesdilated/maintains bloodflow tomuscles3. Mainta...
6th May – Ronnie O SullivanAnatomy1. Maintain stroke volume/cardiac output2. Gradual decrease in temperature3. Maintain bl...
7th May – Andy MurrayAnatomy• Contraction Phase• 1. Systolic 100-130 mmHg• Relaxation Phase• 2. Diastolic 70 – 90 mmHgSkil...
8th May – Toby FloodAnatomy1. Less oxygen available,2. Partial pressure of oxygen is reduced3. Increased rate ofbreathing/...
9th Answers – Jessica EnnisAnatomy• 1. attached to haemoglobin• 2. forms oxyhaemoglobin• 3. dissolved in plasmaSkill• 1. K...
10th Answers – Andrew FlintoffAnatomy• 1. attached to haemoglobin• 2. forms oxyhaemoglobin• 3. dissolved in plasmaSkill• 1...
11th Answers – Paul GascoigneAnatomy• 1. Valves• 2. Respiratory Pump• 3. Skeletal Muscle Pump• 4. Gravity forces blood fro...
12th – Lance Armstrong4 types.......................Draw a picture to help rememberV__ISUALV__ERBALM_ANUALM_ECHANICALThey ...
13th Answers – Lewis HamiltonAnatomy• 1. The partial pressure of oxygen is reduced• 2. Less oxygen available at high altit...
14th Answers – Shane WarneAnatomy• 1. Increase in muscle temperature• 2. Allows greater stretch/elasticity• 3. Decreases r...
15th Answers – Tom DaleyAnatomy• 1. Dissolves in the plasma• 2. Combines with haemoglobin• 3. Forms carbaminohaemoglobin• ...
16th Answers – Tanni Grey ThompsonAnatomy• Shape of bone/socket - wide range ofmovement allowed• Ligaments - hold bone in ...
17th Answers – Graeme McDowellAnatomy• 1. Increase Heart Rate, 2. Increase in strokevolume, 3. Adrenaline is released• 4. ...
18th Answers – Graham SwannAnatomy• 1. There is high partial pressure of oxygen inthe lungs/alveoli• 2. There is a low par...
19th Answers – Strictly come dancing!Anatomy• 1. Vasodilation of arteries supplying theworking muscles/Vascular shunt• 2. ...
20th May – Answers Carl FrochDescription of characteristics of CHD:(CHD is) the failure of the (coronary) arteries to supp...
20th May – Answers 2 Carl FrochExplanation of how an active, healthy lifestyle can prevent CHD CHD prevention(frequency) i...
21st May – Becky AdlingtonCauses of violence: Players and Spectators1 (frustration) frustration with match officials or ot...
22nd May – 4 leaf clover1. Demonstration – watching demonstration/watching the model(accurate development of demo. point)...
22nd May 2 – 4 leaf clover9. observer must have drive to or want to learn to copy modeluse of praise or positive reinforc...
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As revision advent summer to use

  1. 1. AS RevisionEach day different questions…..Clickon the photo and name them to seethe answers!!!
  2. 2. Advent Calendar29thApril3othApril1stMay2ndMay3rdMay4thMay5thMay6thMay7thMay8thMay9thMay10thMay11thMay12thMay13thMay14thMay15thMay16thMay17thMay18thMay19thMay20thMay21stMay22ndMay
  3. 3. 29th AprilBefore anything else, preparation is the key to success.Alexander Graham BellAnatomyDescribe how the blood travels through the heart in the following stages of thecardiac cycle 1) Diastole, 2) Atrial Systole 3) Ventricular Systole (Marks3)SkillThe classification of skills can help us to understand and learn newmovement skills. Using a practical example for each, describe what ismeant by a simple skill and a complex skill. (4 marks)Socio CulturalOutline the origins of Australian Rules footballand factors that have helped to develop the game in Australia.(5 marks)
  4. 4. 30th AprilOur greatest weakness lies in giving up. The mostcertain way to succeed is always to try just onemore time.Thomas A. EdisonAnatomyGive two effects of carbon monoxide on the transport of oxygen in the blood.• SkillWhat are the characteristics of abilities? And using practical examples, what isA gross motor ability and psychomotor ability? (4 Marks)• Socio CulturalModern technological products are a key feature of contemporary sport.Outline the advantages and disadvantages onperformance in sport of using modern technology.Use examples of specific technology to support each of your points.(4 marks)
  5. 5. 1st MayWhat you do today can improve all yourtomorrows.Ralph Marston• AnatomyDescribe atherosclerosis (3marks)• SkillExplain two factors which influence the selection of most appropriate and effective practice methods toimprovethe performance of movement skills (2marks)• Socio CulturalDescribe the traditional amateur approach to sport in the UK.Suggest reasons why this traditional amateur approach is being replaced by a moreprofessional approach in contemporary sport (5marks)
  6. 6. 2nd MayAchievement seems to be connected with action. Successfulmen and women keep moving. They make mistakes, but theydont quit. Conrad Hilton• Anatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalDescribe the mechanisms of venous return that ensureenough blood is returned to the heart during thetraining run 4 MARKSThe long term memory is almost limitless in its capacity andinformation can be retained in there for many years.Describe four strategies that could help a performer retaininformation in the long term memory. 4 MARKSHow can both funding and the media help todevelop sporting excellence in the UK?6 MARKS
  7. 7. 3rd May“The winners in life think constantly in terms of I can, I will,and I am”Waitely. D• Anatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalIdentify two ways in which carbon dioxide is carried in theblood during aerobic performanceMarks 2Identify and explain three factors that can influence aperformers reaction timeMarks 3What are the characteristics of physical recreationMarks 3
  8. 8. 4th MayThe difference between the impossible and thepossible lies in a person’s determination” Lasorda, T• Anatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalDuring sub maximal exercise (aerobic) the predominant musclefibre type would be slow oxidative (type I). Give one structuraland one functional characteristic of this fibre typeMarks 2Explain why selective attention is important to the shortterm memoryMarks 2Name each stage of the performance pyramidMarks 4
  9. 9. 5th MayFor every finish-line tape a runner there are the hours of hardand often lonely work that rarely gets talked about.Grete WaitzAnatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalHow will a cool down aid the vascular systemMarks 2Give three characteristics of the short term memoryMarks 3What are the positive effects of fair play on sport ora sporting situationMarks 4
  10. 10. 6th MayMy main focus is on my game.Woods. T• Anatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalA cool down has a number of effects on the vascular systemwhich aid the performer. One effect is the prevention of bloodpooling. Identify two other effects.Marks 2Why is variability of practice important to schema theory?Marks 1What is meant by the terms physical prowess andphysical endeavourMarks 2
  11. 11. 7th MayMost of us who aspire to be tops in our fields dont reallyconsider the amount of work required to stay tops.Althea GibsonAnatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalIdentify the name and blood pressure value for an adult at restin both phases of the cardiac cycle.Marks 4Identify the three different types of reinforcement used inacquiring movement skills.Marks 3Describe the nature of sport in the USA.Marks 5
  12. 12. 8th MayFor every pass I caught in a game, I caught a thousandin practice. Don HutsonAnatomy• Skill• Socio CulturalWhy do the changes in pressure at altitude reduce performanceMarks 4Drive reduction is one method that can be used tomotivate a performer in Physical Education and Sport. Use apractical example to explain Drive Reduction Theory.Marks 4How do National Governing Bodies supportperformers at the top of the performance pyramid?Marks 5
  13. 13. 9th May"Think little goals and expect little achievements. Thinkbig goals and win big success."David Joseph SchwartzSocio CulturalIdentify 4 roles of a National Governing BodyMarks 4AnatomyExplain how oxygen is transported in the blood to the working muscletissuesMarks 2SkillUse the example of a gymnast performing a handstand to explainclosed loop controlMarks 4
  14. 14. 10th May"By working hard, you get to play hard guilt-free"Rohn, J.Socio CulturalExplain how education, physical recreation and sport can all existwithin a school PE programmeMarks 3AnatomyExplain the conduction system of the heartMarks 3SkillUse an example from Physical Education or sport to explain recall andrecognition schemaMarks 4
  15. 15. 11th May“Hard work brings prosperity, playing around brings poverty”The BibleSocio CulturalWhat can young people gain as a result of a positive OutdoorEducation experienceMarks 4AnatomyIdentify two mechanisms that aid venous return during exerciseMarks 2SkillUse a practical example to explain the stages of the psychologicalrefractory periodMarks 5
  16. 16. 12th MayGuidanceYou need to be able to.........Describe the different types of guidanceEvaluate critically the types of guidance4 types.......................Draw a picture to help rememberV_________________V_________________M________________M_________________They are all best suited for the different phases of learning._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the first phase. Performances are often _ _ _ _ _ and uncoordinated. They need to have _ __ _ _ _ _ _ feedback as they are beginners. They rely heavily on _ _ _ _ _ _ guidance, for example a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ which must be accurate so it can be copied. It also provides the learner with a_ _ _ _ _ _ image of the skill. This is often backed up and reinforced with -_ _ _ _ _ _ guidance. This cannot betoo much or it will -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the performer.VERBAL JERKY OVERLOAD VISUAL COGNITIVECORRECT DEMONSTRATION’pain is temporary. quitting lastsforever’’Lance Armstrong........Nb – 2013 – maybeDrugs helped????
  17. 17. 13th May“Follow your dreams and enjoy the ride!”Father of Davis Love IIISocio CulturalDefine sports sponsorship and identify possible negative effects ofsponsorship to sports performersMarks 4AnatomyWhy would endurance performance decrease when performing ataltitudeMarks 2SkillExplain the term motor programmeMarks 3
  18. 18. 14th May“Defeat is not the worst of failures. Not to have tried is the true failure.”George Edward WoodberrySocio CulturalIdentify two roles of the mediaMarks 2AnatomyHow would a warm up benefit the strength of muscle contractionswhen performing the strengthening exerciseMarks 3SkillExplain proactive and retroactive transfer and give an example ofeachMarks 4
  19. 19. 15th MaySuccess is how high you bounce when you hit bottom.George S. PattonSocio CulturalDiscuss both the positive and negative effects of the media on sportMarks 4AnatomyIdentify two ways in which carbon dioxide is carried in the bloodduring aerobic performanceMarks 2SkillUse an example from Physical Education or sport to explain how aperformer learns by operant conditioningMarks 4
  20. 20. 16th May"Ive never known anybody to achieve anything withoutovercoming adversity."---Lou HoltzSocio CulturalDescribe public, private and voluntary funding of sportMarks 3AnatomyIdentify 2 structures of the hip joint and describe their role duringphysical performanceMarks 4SkillWhat strategies are used to ensure that information can be storedand easily retrieved from the long term memoryMarks 3
  21. 21. 17th MaySuccess isnt something that just happens - success is learned, successis practiced and then it is shared.-- Sparky AndersonSocio CulturalWhat is meant by the term American Dream?Marks 1AnatomyDescribe how cardiac output is increased during endurance activitiesMarks 4SkillUse a practical example to illustrate Thorndikes Laws of Learning andhow each law can be applied to Physical Education or sport. 1) Lawof Effect 2) Law of exercise 3) Law of readinessMarks 6
  22. 22. 18th MayThe Six Ws: Work will win when wishing wont.-- Todd BlackledgeSocio CulturalWhy might performer take drugs in sportMarks 5AnatomyExplain how gas exchange is increased at the lungs to ensure that agreater amount of oxygen is diffused into the blood during exerciseMarks 4SkillNegative transfer can adversely affect the learning of movement skills.Give three ways in which negative transfer a can be avoidedMarks 3
  23. 23. 19th MayThe difference between failure and success is doing a thing nearly right anddoing it exactly right.-- Edward C. SimmonsSocio CulturalWhat are some of the possible causes of crowd violence at sportingeventsMarks 3AnatomyDuring the training run blood needs to be diverted away from non-essential organs to the working muscles. Explain how the vasomotorcentre controls this distribution.Marks 3SkillExplain what is meant by an open skill and a closed skillMarks 4
  24. 24. 20th May“Striving for success without hard work is liketrying to harvest where you haven’t planted.”~ David BlyDescribe the characteristics of coronary heart disease.Explain how the lifelong involvement in anactive healthy lifestyle can help preventcoronary heart disease. [10]
  25. 25. 21st May“You may never know what results come ofyour action, but if you do nothing there willbe no result.” ~ Mahatma GandhiViolence by spectators and players is acontemporary sporting issue.Discuss violence in sport with reference to bothcauses and solutions.10 marks in total
  26. 26. 22nd MayAll the quotes, all the work, all the effort – itsdone now; stay cool, think straight and thebest of luck! Matt Watson• Using practical examples, explain the processof observational learning when it is used foracquiring movement skills and• learning to follow an active and healthylifestyle. Refer to Bandura’s model in youranswer.• 10 marks
  27. 27. 29th April – Johnny WilkinsonAnatomyDiastole1. The atria/ventricles/heart is relaxed2. Semi Lunar valves are closed3. Blood flows into right and left atrium4. Via pulmonary vein and vena cava5. Pressure rises and forces blood into ventriclesAtrial systole6. The atria contract forcing the blood into the ventricles7. Through AV valves/bicuspid/tricuspidVentricular systole8. The ventricles contract9. Bicuspid and tricuspid valves prevent backflow of blood10. Blood is forced through pulmonary artery and Aorta11. Semi-lunar valves forced openSkill(simple skill)One or few stimuli to process / limited information toprocess/one or few decisions to make / skill with fewsubroutines / limited decision making(e.g. simple)Swimming / running / sprinting / sprint start /(complex skill)Many stimuli to process / lots of information to process / manydecisions to make / more feedback / skill with more or manysubroutines(e.g. complex)Batting or bowling in cricket / basketball dribble / tennis serve /hitting a ball /gymnastics routine / somersault / high jump / triple jump / golfswingSocio Cultural1850s / ‘150’ years ago / in Melbourne / in VictoriaSet up or organised or invented by Tom Wills...as winter training game for cricketers(probably) the combination of aboriginal (leaping)game and Rugby (union)(some argue) the combination of Gaelic football andRugby (union)Socio CulturalA (successful) media product / good for TV / media interest / media exposure impactof commercialism or sponsorship /links with ‘golden triangle’Taught or played in schools / interschool gamesThere are (effective) pathway programmes to elite levelGame appeals to all / game can be played by men and women /game can be played by all body typesAustralia keen to have ‘own’ game / (display of) bush culture or manliness /Some players have changed from other games or codesOpportunities for players to gain financial rewards or celebrity statusAvailability of space / access to cricket pitches in winter / young population or nationfavourable climate / sporting obsession / government funding for sport
  28. 28. 30th April – Katherine GraingerAnatomyLess efficient gas exchange or diffusion / decreased(oxygen) diffusion or concentration gradientHaemoglobin or Hb has a higher affinity for carbonmonoxide (than O2..) /...less oxygen combines with haemoglobin /haemoglobin not fully saturated with oxygen /lessoxyhaemoglobinThe partial pressure of oxygen (PPO2) in the blooddecreasesLess oxygen is carried or transported (in the blood) /less O2 delivered to musclesSkill1 innate / genetic / natural / born with them2 enduring / stable / underlying / a potential (fordifferent types of movement)3 specific / can underpin skills or skill learning / thefoundations or building blocks or basis of skill(s)Practical example of gross motor abilities4 speed / power / flexibility / endurance /strength / stamina / flexibility /Practical example of psychomotor abilities5 decision making / reaction time /hand-eye co-ordination / spatial awareness /co-ordination /aiming / perception / control / precision/response orientation / rate control / (manual or finger)dexterity / arm-hand steadiness /wrist or finger or arm speedSocio CulturaladvantagesFairer outcome / fewer disputes / clarification of goals or tries or whether ball in orout e.g. video playback / third or TV umpire / Hawk –Eyeentertainment or interest for crowds e.g. waiting for result from TMO / Hawk –EyeSafety e.g. gum shields / cricket head gear / landing matsComfort e.g. clothing / equipment design such as footwearMore skilful / improved or more efficient or more effective performance /e.g. body suits (athletics / swimming) / graphite or titanium equipment / modernfootballs allow better swing or curveBetter understanding of rules e.g. refs or umpires being ‘miked up’ for all to hearAnalysis e.g. use of video or other playback equipmentTo enhance training e.g. tyre towing / elastic cord / diet / supplementsTo aid recovery / recover from injury e.g. medical products such as artificialligament and/or joint replacementInclusion or participation e.g. carbon fibre blades/artificial legs/wheelchairs /surfaces that allow play throughout the yearPurity of sport enhanced e.g. use of drug testing equipment or methodsDisadvantagesCheating e.g. drugs in sportDisruption to ‘game’ e.g. time taken for video playbackInjury e.g. from bladed bootsUnfair advantage / expensive / dependent on sponsor e.g. F1 technologyTechnology not equally available / not everyone has the item e.g. high tech bikes tomore wealthy v less wealthy countriesLoss of traditional ethic or nature of sport / win at all costs rather than participationfor enjoymente.g. use of high tech equipment at junior or local level
  29. 29. 1st May – David BeckhamAnatomycholesterol or fatty deposits or fat or lipids build up on thearterial walls(fatty) plaque forms in the arterial walls (of the heart) /atheroma formsnarrowing of (the lumen in) the (coronary) arteries / restrictedflow of blood or oxygen to heart muscleincreased likelihood of blood clotsLeading to high blood pressure / hypertension / heart attack /myocardial infarction / angina / arteriosclerosisSkillclassification or type of skill /the nature of the taskthe ability or skill level or level of performance or maturationor age or fitness of performer /stage or phase of learning (cognitive, associative,autonomous)(level of) motivation of performeravailability of resourcesthe situation or context in which skill performed /Socio Culturaltaking part for pleasure or enjoyment or intrinsicrewards / not paid to play ‘for the love of the game’/taking part more important than winning.limited or no training or coachingorganisation or administration (often) unreliable orinconsistent /sport or NGBs organised or administered by part time orinexperienced enthusiasts(C19th) public schools / (C19th) middle or upper class /‘gentlemen’ (amateurs)linked to how life should be lived (as well as how sportshould be played)Reasons replaced by more professional approachbecause a more reliable or effective or serious orconsistent system neededincreased seriousness or win ethic or Lombardian ethic /sport has become more competitiveto do well in international competitions or gain medalsor increase excellenceto be a realistic contender on world stage / to keep upwith other nationsimpact or influence of sponsors or media or goldentriangle /sport now ‘big business’ or an industryparticipation/to increase participation /to increase BAHLs
  30. 30. 2nd May – Amy WilliamsAnatomy1. Skeletal muscle pump - muscles contract to squeezeblood back to the heart2. Valves prevent backflow3. Respiratory pump - changes in pressure aroundabdominal cavity squeezes blood back to the heart4. Blood above the heart will return due to gravity5. Venoconstriction of veins returning blood back to theheartSkill1. Practice/Overlearning/Repetition2. Link information to that alreadystored/relate to past experiences3. Make information meaningful/relevant4. Experience is enjoyable/novel/interesting5. Use of visual imagery/mental rehearsal6. Reward and reinforce success7. Chunk/group information together8. Intensify the stimulus9. Make information unique/unusualSocio Cultural1. performers can: concentrate on sport / train full time / become professional2. performers can compete more equally with those from better funded countries3. provision of or money for high level or specialist facilities or equipment or clothing4. provision of or money for high level training or coaching5. fund: UK Sport / UKSI (EIS) / NGBs / H.C. councils / YST / Sports Colleges 6.6. attracts or provides world class events or competitions7. scholarships / World Class (Performance) Programme / TASS / gifted and talented8. raises profile or awareness of sport/s / promotes sport/s9. positive role models / raises profile or awareness of performers10. sponsorship / money to sport/s or performer/s11. influence on : rules or timings or seasons or format or structure of sport12. use of dvds or videos or websites13. Increases participation / mass participation / build base of performance pyramid / shatter stereotypes / money / to clubs
  31. 31. 3rd May – Steven RedgraveAnatomy1. Dissolves in the plasma2. Combines withhaemoglobin3. Formscarbaminohaemoglobin4. Dissolves in waterSkill1. RT deteriorates with age2. Males have faster RT then females3. Experience of a skill speeds up RT4. Anticipation of the stimulus,5. Warning signals - information given prior to thestimulus6. The strength/clarity of the stimulus7. Expecting a particular response to a stimulus8. Expecting a stimulus to be presented,9. PRP - presentation of a second stimulus before a firstis cleared10. The colder the body the slower the reactions11. Arms react quicker than legs - length of neuralpathway12. Extroverts tend to react quicker than introverts13. levels of motivation/alertness affect RT,14. Drugs/Alcohol can affect RT15. Number of choices affect RT - Hicks LawSocio Cultural1. Limited skill/fitness2. Limited organisation/no officials3. Flexible rules4. Limited competition5. Enjoyable/Non serious6. Basic equipment7. Time decided by participants8. Amateur/Hobby/Choice9. Space decided by participants
  32. 32. 4th May Answers - AP McCoyAnatomy• Structural - 1. Size - Small• 2. Colour - Red• 3. Capillaries - Many• Function 4. Slow to fatigue• 5. Slow contractile speed• 7. Low force output• 8. High aerobic capacitySkill• 1. Limited capacity/5-9 items/Up to30 seconds• 2. Only allows relevant informationthrough/filters irrelevant information• 3. Brain operates as a single channelorgan/bottleneck occurs when morethan one item tries to pass through• 4. STM initiates movement thereforethe quicker the relevant detail entersthe STM the quicker the responseSocio Cultural•1. Excellence/elite•2. Performance•3. Participation•4. Foundation
  33. 33. 5th May – Mo Farrah1. Flushesout lacticacid/wasteproducts2. Keepscapillariesdilated/maintains bloodflow tomuscles3. Maintainsskeletalpump/muscular pump4. Preventsbloodpooling5. Maintainsvenousreturn6. Maintainsstrokevolume/cardiac output7. Maintainsbloodpressure8. Graduallydecreasesheart rate1. Limited capacity/5-9 items, 2.Up to 30 seconds3. Initiates movement/workingmemory/two way process betweenSTSS/STM/LTM4. Chunking information canextend capacity, 5. Information isencoded/passed onto LTM1. helps officials2. helps the flowof thegame/improvesspirit of the game3. increasesenjoyment/goodwill amongstplayers4. increasesenjoymentamongstcrowd/preventshooliganism5. raises statusof thesport/positiveimage6. producespositive rolemodels/reinforces positivebehaviour
  34. 34. 6th May – Ronnie O SullivanAnatomy1. Maintain stroke volume/cardiac output2. Gradual decrease in temperature3. Maintain blood pressure4. Removal of waste products/carbondioxide/lactic acid5. Keeps capillaries dilated/maintains bloodflow/oxygen to muscles/reduces oxygendebt6. Maintains skeletal pump/respiratory pump7. Maintains venous returnSkillDifferent experiences inpractice situations willbuild up/extend theschema/schema will beable to be used in manysituations/greatertransfer of skillsSocio CulturalPhysical Prowess - Physical skill/expertise/proficiency/fitnessPhysical Endeavour - Effort/commitment/determination
  35. 35. 7th May – Andy MurrayAnatomy• Contraction Phase• 1. Systolic 100-130 mmHg• Relaxation Phase• 2. Diastolic 70 – 90 mmHgSkill1. Positive (reinforcement)2. Negative (reinforcement)3. Punishment.Socio Cultural1. (American Dream)Sport a vehicle for achieving the American Dream or going from rags to riches or achieving upward socialmobility2. (win ethic) (Driven by) ‘win ethic’ or Lombardian ethic / win at all costs / very competitive / no draws3. (commercialism) Commercialism / sport is (big) business /sport or performers make money / used to promote or advertise products / performers or sports or teams heavily sponsored orendorsed / performer as commodity or billboards4. Media media (& advertising) fund pro. sport or influence it e.g. influence rules or timings or dictate commercial breaks5. (golden triangle) Golden triangle / relationship between sport, sponsorship and media / sport linked with sponsorship6. (entertainment) Sport is entertainment or part of entertainment industry /e.g. marching band or ‘pom pom’ girls or cheerleading squads or other suitable example7. (capitalist) Reflects capitalism or free enterprise or private enterprise8. (dominates) ‘Big 4’ or professional sport dominates / little mass participation / limited or no system of local sports clubs9. (school / uni sport) High status of high school or uni sport / high school players local stars / scholarships to universities /university sport feeds professional sport /large crowds at high school or uni ‘games’10. (draft) (Importance of the) draft system / (top) college athletes drafted into professional sport.11. (hero worship) Sport stars as heroes
  36. 36. 8th May – Toby FloodAnatomy1. Less oxygen available,2. Partial pressure of oxygen is reduced3. Increased rate ofbreathing/hyperventilation,4. A reduction in the diffusion gradient occurs5. Haemoglobin saturation depends on thepartial pressure of oxygen6. Haemoglobin is not fully saturated,7. Less oxygen is carried in the blood8. Less oxygen available for the muscles,9. Fatigue sets in quickerSkill1. Drive to learn a new task2. Action is taken to satisfy the drive/skill ispracticed3. Skill is successful/skill is learned/S-R bondis strengthened4. Drive is reduced5. Too much practice/Overlearning leads toinhibition (lack of drive)6. New tasks/goals need to be set to re-motivatedSocio Cultural1. select or manage national team / talent ID / select for World Class Programme2. provide funding3. provide sports science information4. high level coaching or training / performance directors / national coach / train high performance coaches or officials / academies5. seek sponsorship or develop commercial links / obtain media coverage / negotiate with media6. give access to high level facilities or equipment.7. Work with UK SPORT or UKSI or HCSCs eg Sp England or sports colleges or high level clubs8. organise or provide or inform about competitions9. provide anti-doping education10. encourage or support academic education / provide lifestyle or career advice
  37. 37. 9th Answers – Jessica EnnisAnatomy• 1. attached to haemoglobin• 2. forms oxyhaemoglobin• 3. dissolved in plasmaSkill• 1. Kinaesthetic/Proprioceptive/Internalfeedback informs performer about positionof the body• 2. Information goes to central controlmechanism• 3. Comparison is made between actualmovement and memory trace• 4. Changes that may be required are initiatedby effector mechanism• 5. Muscular system adjusts the body• 6. Kinaesthetic/Proprioceptive/Internalfeedback occurs again• 7. Level 2 involves sub-conscious control• 8. Level 3 involves conscious controlSocio Cultural1. Encourage participation/develop grassroots, 2. Select national team, 3.Talent identification/select performers for world class programme4. Trains coaches/officials, 5. Controls the finance of their sport/seekssponsorship, 6. Maintains rules/oversees rule changes7. Deal with discipline issues, 8. work with other organisations, 9. Organisesleagues/cups/competitions10. Obtains media coverage, 11. Gives information/supports clubs, 12.Improves facilities for participation
  38. 38. 10th Answers – Andrew FlintoffAnatomy• 1. attached to haemoglobin• 2. forms oxyhaemoglobin• 3. dissolved in plasmaSkill• 1. Information about theenvironment - eg, stance neededwhen serving in tennis• 2. How hard the pass needs to be- what direction• 3. Sensory information during orafter the movement - eg,overbalancing during a headstand• 4. Knowledge of results - eg balllanded on the green in golfSocio Cultural1. Education - theory/things learnt/exams/NC2. Physical recreation - PE run clubs for all/school trips/free time in lessons3. Sport - inter school fixtures/competitive part of PE
  39. 39. 11th Answers – Paul GascoigneAnatomy• 1. Valves• 2. Respiratory Pump• 3. Skeletal Muscle Pump• 4. Gravity forces blood from above the heartSkill• 1. S1 - First stimulus is identified/detected(GK sees free kick struck)• 2. R1 - response to first stimulus is initiated(Keeper moves to his left)• 3. S2 - second stimulus received (Ball strikesthe wall and is deflected)• 4. R2 - Second response is initiated (Keepertries to move back right towards the ball)• 5. X - Delay is second response caused by thebottleneck in the brain/First response is notcleared before second stimulus is receivedSocio Cultural1. Health/Fitness, 2. Outdoor Education specific skills, 3. Leadership4. Personal well being/increased self esteem/confidence, 5. Decisionmaking/problem solving6. Team work/co-operation/communication, 7. Preparation for activeleisure/career in outdoor education8. Appreciation of the natural environment
  40. 40. 12th – Lance Armstrong4 types.......................Draw a picture to help rememberV__ISUALV__ERBALM_ANUALM_ECHANICALThey are all best suited for the different phases of learning.COGNITIVE is the first phase. Performances are often JERKY and uncoordinated. They needto have EXTRINSIC feedback as they are beginners. They rely heavily on VISUAL guidance,for example a DEMONSTRATION which must be accurate so it can be copied. It alsoprovides the learner with a CORRECT image of the skill. This is often backed up andreinforced with VERBAL guidance. This cannot be too much or it will OVERLOAD theperformer.VERBAL JERKY OVERLOAD VISUAL COGNITIVECORRECT DEMONSTRATION
  41. 41. 13th Answers – Lewis HamiltonAnatomy• 1. The partial pressure of oxygen is reduced• 2. Less oxygen available at high altitude• 3. Hyperventilation/ performer breathes faster• 4. A reduction in the diffusion gradient occurs• 5. Haemoglobin saturation depends on the partialpressure of oxygen• 6. Haemoglobin is not fully saturated• 7. Less oxygen is carried in the blood• 8. Less oxygen is available for muscles/aerobicrespiration• 9. Fatigue sets in quickerSkill• 1. Generalised series of movmements/Plan of a skill• 2. Stored in LTM• 3. Made up of sub routines• 4. Hierachy of importance• 5. Initaited by one decision• 6. Programme created through practice• 7. Put into action by effector mechanism• 8. Operate under open/closed loop control• 9. Modified after each attemptSocio CulturalDescription - The money/other support to individuals/teams/events to gainpublicityNegative affects, 1. Money can be withdrawn/limited time, 2. Somesponsorship can give poor image (alcohol, tobacco)3. Sponsors can control/manipulate performer, 4. Performers may be/feelexploited5. Not always available/not available to all, 6. Performers may become relianton a particular sponsor, 7. Pressure to win/cheating
  42. 42. 14th Answers – Shane WarneAnatomy• 1. Increase in muscle temperature• 2. Allows greater stretch/elasticity• 3. Decreases risk of injury/increase in bloodflow/oxygen• 4. Nerve impulse conduction is quicker• 5. Improves co-ordination/increases strengthof contraction• 6. Less resistance within muscle• 7. Increased enzyme activity• 8. More energy available for musclesSkill• 1. Proactive - a skill currently being learnt hasan effect on a skill in the future• 2. Retroactive - a skill currently being learnedhas an effect on a skill already learnedSocio Cultural1. Inform2. Educate3. Advertise/promote/publicise4. Entertain
  43. 43. 15th Answers – Tom DaleyAnatomy• 1. Dissolves in the plasma• 2. Combines with haemoglobin• 3. Forms carbaminohaemoglobin• 4. Dissolves in waterSkill• 1. Trial and error• 2. Behaviour is modified/environmentmanipulated• 3. Reinforcement/Praise helps learning• 4. Behaviour is shaped• 5. Responses not reinforced will disappear• 6. Partial reinforcement given occasionallyensures learning more thorough but takeslonger• 7. Complete reinforcement after everyattempt increases speed of learningSocio CulturalPositive1. Role modes produced, 2. Stereotypes can be shattered3. Can increase participation, 4. Can highlight minority sports/groups5. Sport is now part of the entertainment industry, 6. Money to the sport/money to the clubs7. Rule changes which have been positive for the sportNegative8. Focus on negative behaviour/poor role models, 9. Stereotypes can be reinforced10. Reduces participation, 11. Usually focuses on few sports (football)/unequal coverage12. Financial rewards for only those at the very top
  44. 44. 16th Answers – Tanni Grey ThompsonAnatomy• Shape of bone/socket - wide range ofmovement allowed• Ligaments - hold bone in place/stability/joinbone to bone• Cartilage - Prevents wear andtear/friction/absorb compression• Tendon - provides strength/support• Synovial Fluid - lubricates joint• Pads of fat - absorbs shock/protect fromwear and tear• Synovial Membrane - secretes Synovial fluidSkill• 1. Practice/Overlearning/Repetition• 2. Link information to that alreadystored/relate to past experiences• 3. Make information meaningful/relevant• 4. Experience is enjoyable/novel/interesting• 5. Use of visual imagery/mental rehearsal• 6. Reward and reinforce success• 7. Chunk/group information together• 8. Intensify the stimulusSocio Cultural1. Public - money from government or local authority2. Private - Money from sponsorship/businesses3. Voluntary - Money or donations from individuals and charities/fundraising
  45. 45. 17th Answers – Graeme McDowellAnatomy• 1. Increase Heart Rate, 2. Increase in strokevolume, 3. Adrenaline is released• 4. Increase in venous return, 5. Stretches wallof right atrium which increases firing of SAnode• 6. Starlings Law, 7. Information sent byproprioceptors/baroreceptors/chemoreceptors to Cardiac Control Centre• 8. Increase in sympathetic control, 9.Increase in temperature which speeds upnerve impulsesSkill• Effect• 1. If response is followed by a satisfier thenthe S-R bond is strengthened• 2. eg - A rugby player is pleased to see asuccessful conversion• 3. If the response is followed by an annoyerthe S-R bond will be weakened• 4. eg - The rugby conversion is not a success• Exercise• 5. The S-R bond will be strengthened bypractice• 6. eg - A badminton player practices serving• Readiness• 7. The performer must bephysically/mentally capable of attemptingthe skill• 8. eg - A young footballer must be able topgrasp the principles of offside before he istaught it/the high jump bar must be lowenough for the athlete to be able to clear itSocio Cultural1. Anyone can achieve success/wealth/status2. Rags to Riches3. Everyone has an equal chance of success,4. happiness is achieved through wealth5. Hard work will be rewarded6. Land of opportunity
  46. 46. 18th Answers – Graham SwannAnatomy• 1. There is high partial pressure of oxygen inthe lungs/alveoli• 2. There is a low partial pressure oxygen inthe blood• 3. During exercise there is a greater diffusiongradient• 4. Faster diffusion will occur• 5. Increased blood supply/temperature• 6. Increased surface area of lungs/respirationrate• 7. Reduced resistance to diffusionSkill• 1. Ensure performer understands the taskrequirements• 2. Performers attention drawn to aspectsthat may cause negative transfer• 3. Ensure practice to match/skill to skill assimilar as possible• 4. First skill thoroughly learned beforeintroducing a second skill• 5. Focus on similar aspects• 6. Avoid teaching conflicting skills close toeach otherSocio Cultural1. builds muscles/lose or gain weight/increase energy2. Reduce pain/recover from injury3. steady nerves/increase aggression or motivation4. pressure to win5. to look good/aesthetic6. rewards/money/win at all costs ethic7. lack of education/unaware of dangers8. Belief that everyone else is doing it/level playing field9. Belief that they will get away with it
  47. 47. 19th Answers – Strictly come dancing!Anatomy• 1. Vasodilation of arteries supplying theworking muscles/Vascular shunt• 2. Opening/Vasodilation of the precapillarysphincters supplying the working muscles• 3. Vasoconstriction of arteries supplying non-essential organs• 4. Closing/Vasoconstriction of precapillarysphincters supplying non-essential organs• 5. Sympathetic stimulation/reductionSkill• Open skill• 1. The environment is constantlychanging/affected by the environment• 2. The performer needs to adapt thechanging conditions/performer is reactive• 3. The skill is externally paced• 4. The skill is mainly perceptual• Closed Skill• 5. The skill is self paced/internally paced• 6. The environment does not affect theskill/environment unchanged• 7. The skill is habitual• 8. Movements follow a set pattern/pre-plannedSocio Cultural1. Alcohol/Drugs2. Frustration at the score or officials3. Rivalry/local derbies/religion4. Verbal abuse/provocation/racism5. Pre-match hype/over excitement/importance of game6. Large number of fans/poor policing or stewarding7. Hooliganism at football8. Mass culture/Tribal nature of event/peer group pressure9. Violence or poor behaviour on the pitch copied by crowd10. Lack of suitable punishment or deterrent.
  48. 48. 20th May – Answers Carl FrochDescription of characteristics of CHD:(CHD is) the failure of the (coronary) arteries to supply enough oxygen to the myocardium or heart muscle(CHD is) the deposit of fatty materials in the coronary arteries of the heart (vascular system)CHD - ConditionsAnginachest pain caused by the partial blockage of coronary arterycauses lack of oxygen to myocardium or heart tissueHeart attack or myocardial infarction or cardiac arrestsudden and severe restriction / complete blockage of oxygen supply to myocardium (heart tissue)arteriosclerosisa condition where the walls of the coronary arteries become thicker or hard or less elasticatherosclerosismost common cause of CHDthe accumulation of fatty deposits or cholesterol or plaque or atheroma on walls of coronary arteriesleads to narrowing or blocking of the lumen or blood vesselsleads to stroke or heart attack or myocardial infarctionCHD – Risk Factorssedentary or inactive lifestylesmokingcarbon monoxide increases HR or strain on heartincreased risk of blood clots or blockagesincreased risk of damage to coronary arterieshypertension or high blood pressuresystolic blood pressure equal or greater than 140mmHg / diastolic blood pressure equal or greater than 90mmHgobesityBMI > 30 (kg/m2)high blood cholesterol or blood lipids / high fat or poor dietIncreased LDL cholesterol levels (compared to HDL cholesterol levels)Blood cholesterol level greater than 6mmol/litehigh stress levels or heredity or age or diabetes
  49. 49. 20th May – Answers 2 Carl FrochExplanation of how an active, healthy lifestyle can prevent CHD CHD prevention(frequency) individuals should be physically active on regular basisadults - 30 mins 3 - 5 times per weekchildren and young people - 60 mins a day.(intensity) should leave performer out of breath / aerobic exerciseraise heart rate into age related training zone / working at sub-maximal level or low or medium or moderate intensity or below OBLAE.g. rowing / running / cycling / circuit training (or other suitable example)15. (weight training) isometric training should be avoidedRaises blood pressure to dangerous levelsCauses increased strain on the heart / trigger heart attack or strokeActivity factors (- moderate aerobic activity):improves efficiency of coronary circulationincreases levels of High density lipoproteins / HDLsincrease in HDLs associated with reduced CHDHDLs not harmful to vascular system HDLs break down or carry away LDLsreduces levels of Low density lipoproteins / LDLsbuild up on the walls of arteriesreduces stress levelsmyocardial infarction or heart attack less likelyless risk of hypertension or high blood pressure / reduces blood pressureHealthy resting systolic blood pressure 120mmHg / diastolic blood pressure 80mmHgless risk of arteriosclerosis / atherosclerosis / CHDIncreases ability of the body to regulate blood pressureless risk of angina as coronary circulation improvedless body fat / maintain or manage healthy body weightas more calories burnedNutritional factors:a balanced diet will help prevent CHD (50-70% carbohydrate / 20-30% protein / 10-20% fat)low fat or low cholesterol diet will prevent arteriosclerosis / atherosclerosis / CHDlow salt intake will help prevent CHD / High salt intake can lead to CHDstop smokingreduce alcohol intake
  50. 50. 21st May – Becky AdlingtonCauses of violence: Players and Spectators1 (frustration) frustration with match officials or other suitable example of frustration2 (emotional intensity) emotional intensity or importance of result or pressure/pre-match hype or psyche-up/position in league or cup orcompetition/monetary reward.3 (abuse/provocation) provocation or abuse or ‘cheating’ or rule breaking by opponents or team mates or (where relevant) from crowd/violenceon pitch/racism4 (punishment) lack of punishment or deterrent5 (religion/tradition) religion/traditional rivalry/local derby/team loyaltyCauses of violence: Players6 (weapons) (potential) ‘weapons’ e.g. sticks or clubs7 (nature of game) nature of game/body checking or contract e.g. ice hockey or rugby8 (kit) kit or equipment that ‘de-humanises’ or protectsCauses of violence: Spectators9 (alcohol/drugs) alcohol/drugs10 (numbers) overcrowding /poor spectator provision/poor policing or stewarding.11 (hooligans) hooligans at football/organised violence12 (mass culture) mass culture/peer pressure/tribal nature of event/loss of individual identify or diminished responsibility withincrowd/limited alternative outlets for energyPossible solutions: Players:13 (rule changes) Rule changes14 (punishment) More severe punishments/accept suitable example15 (education) Education/emphasis on fair play/position as role models emphasised16 (officials) More officials/more authority for officials17 (technology) Technology/video playbacksPossible solutions: Spectators:18 (Deterrents) Stricter deterrents or punishments (eg. remove season tickets)19 (control of alcohol) Control of alcohol20 (facilities) Improve spectator facilities/separation of fans/home and away fans to leave seperately21 (CCTV) Use of CCTV or other security measures22 (liaison) Liaison of police from different areas or countries23 (family) Promotion as family entertainment/family sections within crowd
  51. 51. 22nd May – 4 leaf clover1. Demonstration – watching demonstration/watching the model(accurate development of demo. point)2. Attention3. performer cues in to or selectively attends to or focuses or concentrates (on aspects of display or demonstration)role models or high status performers or significant others draw focus / role model educate or encourage or shows how to followan active and healthy lifestyle / degree of attention is influenced by attractiveness or status of modelkey points highlighted / verbal guidance used to highlight key aspect of demoe.g. (movement skill) focus on or watch the arm action of a successful performer’s tennis servee.g. (BAHL) watching or seeing a role model or significant other who does not smoke / or whose alcohol intake is moderatee.g. (BAHL) watching a successful tennis player who follows a healthy lifestylee.g. (BAHL) regular participation in sport by popular people encourages observer to follow active lifestyle4. Retention5. observer needs to remember the demo or movements or behaviours watchedrepetition of the demonstration or role model’s movements or behaviours will aid memory / demo or information should berepeatede.g. (movement skill) coach repeats or gets another athlete to repeat demo of triple jump or other skille.g. (BAHL) information about importance of not smoking / moderation in alcohol consumption is repeated so learner remembers keyinformationuse of mental rehearsal or imagery can help (observer retain demonstration)e.g. (movement skill) imagining the movement of arm action in a tennis serve may help retention/performer mentally rehearses servesymbolic coding by using key/catch phrases can help retention of demonstratione.g. (movement skill) use of phrases such as ‘clean palm, dirty neck’ (Shot Putt)e.g. (BAHL) catch phrases such as ‘change for life’ or ‘five a day’6. Motor reproduction7. observer must be capable of performing the skill / or information must be at a level relevant to performer / performer must be able to matchdemonstrationobserver must have physical capacity to perform skill or follow lifestyle choicesperformer must have mental capacity to understand skill or lifestyle choicese.g. (movement skill) a young child will not be able to perform a slam dunk (basketball) / must have leg strength to complete all threephases of triple jump/ lower school performers must understand components of triple jumpe.g. (BAHL) learners must understand the benefits of not smoking / of a balanced diet
  52. 52. 22nd May 2 – 4 leaf clover9. observer must have drive to or want to learn to copy modeluse of praise or positive reinforcement (to encourage drive to copy model)e.g. (movement skill) coach praises or positively reinforces successful copying of tennis serve / coach uses praise orpositivereinforcement to encourage copying of demonstratione.g. (BAHL) parents praise or support your healthy or lifestyle / role model praises learner for not smoking /moderating alcoholconsumption / for exercising / badge given for eating healthily or exercisinge.g. (BAHL) learners must have mental willpower to stop smoking/moderate alcohol consumption10. Matching performance – performer imitates demonstrationFurther discussion might include:11. copying more likely if behaviour is socially acceptable/follows social normse.g. (movement skill) if sportsmanship shown by tennis player / if tennis player always does thorough warm up12. copying more likely if behaviour or skill is considered to be relevant (to needs)Observer will try to copy model if they can see how copying (the behaviour or skill) will positively affect performanceor lifestylee.g. (movement skill) observer / player wants to play tennis or improve tennis serve or get fittere.g. (BAHL) observer / player wants to follow an active lifestyle to make friends13. copying more likely if observer can identify with model or demonstratorSame sex / age / race / ability model will encourage copyinge.g. (movement skill) female observer more likely to try to copy serve of female demonstratore.g. (BAHL) male observer more likely to want to copy active lifestyle of male demonstrator14. reference to bobo dolls experiment

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