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Skill Acquisition - Considerations for Sport Part 1

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This presentation discusses the science and application of how to effectively teach and correct movement patterns through the use of constraints and session variability (Implicit coaching framework). Based on the science of dynamic systems and movement variability, this presentation showcases a framework for designing drills and practice sessions that effectively leverage constraints and variability. Considerations for the impact these strategies have on skill acquisition will be discussed.

Published in: Sports

Skill Acquisition - Considerations for Sport Part 1

  1. 1. Part1
  2. 2. Performance
  3. 3. Performance temporary changes in motor behavior or knowledge that can be observed & measured during or immediately after Practice SoderstroM & Bjork, 2015 = Practice
  4. 4. Learning
  5. 5. Learning relatively permanent changes in Motor behavior or knowledge that supports long- term retention and transfer to competition SoderstroM & Bjork, 2015 = Competition
  6. 6. Attention
  7. 7. “The mechanism by which our brain registers information is what we call attention” - Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  8. 8. “You dispose of a limited budget of attention that you can allocate to activities, and if you try to go beyond your budget, you will fail” - Daniel Kahneman
  9. 9. “It is not simply the case that the longer a piece of information stays in STM then the more likely it is to go into LTM. Instead, the more significant a stimulus or event is then the greater likelihood it is retained in LTM” - Williams et al. (2008)
  10. 10. “Two of the most crucial principles used by the attentional filter are change and importance.” 2 “The brain is a change detector – novelty seeking opposed to constancy monitoring” 3 1 “Attention is limited in capacity – we process a fixed amount of information at any given time.” Daniel Levitin | The Organized Mind
  11. 11. 1 Constraints Coach=FacilitatoR
  12. 12. Technical ERRORs COACHING Programming Biomechanical & coordinative attributes associated with the effective execution of the skill – “the player’s good” Physical & psychological constraints limiting the effective execution of the skill – “The Player’s Bad” Verbal (explicit) & non-Verbal (Implicit) coaching strategies used to overcome technical errors and establish learning Ensuring practice conditions that support learning (e.g., variability), while building-up physical limitations TEC-P Model for skill development
  13. 13. Phase Requirements Variability Constraints Identify the distinct phases of the target movement skill to be improved Applying the technical/error model
  14. 14. Fleisig, G., Chu, Y., Weber, A., & Andrews, J. (2009).
  15. 15. Phase Requirements Variability Constraints Identify the distinct phases of the target movement skill to be improved Identify the spatial (e.g., joint angle) and temporal (e.g., trunk flexion & arm rotation) requirements for each phase Applying the technical/error model
  16. 16. Worthington et al. (2013)
  17. 17. Phase Requirements Variability Constraints Identify the distinct phases of the target movement skill to be improved Identify the spatial (e.g., joint angle) and temporal (e.g., trunk flexion & arm rotation) requirements for each phase Identify what requirements have high intra-individual variability versus low intra-individual variability Applying the technical/error model
  18. 18. Fleisig, G., Chu, Y., Weber, A., & Andrews, J. (2009).
  19. 19. Accuracy & adaptive variability are key components of elite performance in fast bowling and improve with skill level. only national elite bowlers showed requisite levels of adaptive variability to bowl a range of lengths to different pitch locations. Phillips et al. (2012)
  20. 20. Phase Requirements Variability Constraints Identify the distinct phases of the target movement skill to be improved Identify the spatial (e.g., joint angle) and temporal (e.g., trunk flexion & arm rotation) requirements for each phase Identify what requirements have high intra-individual variability versus low intra-individual variability Identify what physical & psychological constraints limit one’s ability to achieve the identified requirements Applying the technical/error model
  21. 21. Psychology Position Power Pattern Trait Anxiety: High vs Low Over-thinker: Yes vs No Coping: Avoidance vs Solution Stability: High vs Low Mobility: High vs Low Relative Strength: High vs Low Power (RFD): High vs Low Coordination: Effective vs Ineffective Player/Body Constraints| The 4Ps
  22. 22. Influencing Technique Constrain-Based Drills
  23. 23. Attractors Fluctuators Highly stable (Low Variability) body positions commonly associated with a given Phase of a movement skill The variable or adaptable motion required to achieve a desired body position– Varies based on player differences, preference and environment – Aka Adaptability Key Terms
  24. 24. Key Questions To ask before correcting To understand exactly what needs to be corrected, consider the following questions: 1. Where is the source of the problem (1o)? a. Consider Phase & Technical Requirement a. Early Phase Problem & Late Phase Symptom b. Or Isolated late phase problem 2. What type of problem are you dealing with? a. Technical position – not achieving Correct ROM b. Technical Pattern – Not achieving correct Timing
  25. 25. Influencing Attractors “Errors must become unstable for efficiency to emerge”
  26. 26. Constraint-Based Model Player Task/SkillEnvironment Perception Action Coordination Movement Adapted From: Davids, K., Button, C., and Bennett, S., 2008- Dynamics of Skill Acquisition- A Constraints-Led Approach
  27. 27. Constraint-Based Model Player Task/SkillEnvironment Movement Zone Adapted From: Frans Bosch
  28. 28. Distinct technical changes emerge when facing a bowler versus a bowling machine. This is a result of different informational constraints (Pinder et al. 2009) Distinct technical changes emerge when bowling with & without an umpire. This is a result of different informational constraints (Greenwood et al. 2016)
  29. 29. Space Time Rules equipment Manipulate the amount of space the movement can be performed in (e.g. use cones or dowel) Task, Environment & Player Constraints Sensory Cognitive Manipulate the amount of Time the movement can be performed in (e.g. External tone or rhythm) Manipulate the rules associated with the movement skill (e.g. shrink the strike zone) Manipulate the equipment associated with the movement skill (e.g. Bat weight or bungee) Manipulate the Sensory information available (i.e. Visual, Auditory and/or Tactile) Manipulate the attentional focus associated with the movement skill (i.e. External Cues)
  30. 30. Constraints, just like cues, encourage one pattern of movement over another without the explicit influence of the coach
  31. 31. Constraints push the fringe of coordination, especially when the change is more complex than can be described in words
  32. 32. 01 Create memorable and Interesting learning opportunities 02 Drills can be designed to constrain errors so a new pattern can emerge 03 Use constraint based drills to stabilize highly variable technique 04 For transfer, the constraint based drill must maintain the correct intention 05 Future research should integrate motor control & biomechanical analyses
  33. 33. Influencing Technique session variability “The Galvanizer”
  34. 34. Skill1Skill2Skill3 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 2 S 2 S 2 S 2 S 3 S 3 S 3 S 3 BLOCKED Serial Random
  35. 35. A progressive increase in contextual interference from blocked to random has been shown to be superior to blocked or random only. Porter et al., 2010
  36. 36. Learning is a result of the attention deployed during Training and the demands placed on memory retrieval. Interleaving drills ↑ demands placed on Attention & memory. Porter et al., 2010
  37. 37. single Skill Single Drill single Skill Multi Drill multi Skill Multi Drill Blocked: Single Pitch Practice Serial: Repeated Sequence of Pitches Random: Random pitch selection Interleaving multiple drills that focus on the same outcome skill (e.g. hitting) – soft toss, pitching machine, live pitcher Interleaving multiple drills that focus on different outcome skills (e.g. hitting to fielding) – serial or random order
  38. 38. Skill Retrieval Drives learning. To strengthen retrieval we must first forget. Skill spacing & variability creates Desirable difficulty.
  39. 39. spacing out short & frequent bursts of practice is key When trying to learn or improve upon a given motor skill.
  40. 40. 01 Create memorable and Interesting learning opportunities 02 Drills can be designed to constrain errors so a new pattern can emerge 05 The right level of session variability encourages deeper learning 03 Use constraint based drills to stabilize highly variable technique 04 For transfer, the constraint based drill must maintain the correct intention 06 Use session variability to improve the adaptability of A stable technique
  41. 41. @NickWinkelman Thank You

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