Neuro Motor Dev Sja Splash


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Neuro Motor Dev Sja Splash

  1. 1. NeuroMotor Development QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. deleted
  2. 2. Edward Jonathans Brief Bio - Background  SJSU Grad  Kinesiology  Stanford PCA Trainer - 2002 Software Industry Exec - Digital Imaging Systems 2003 Clinical Research Study The effects of computerized timing training on Parkinson’s Disease
  3. 3. NeuroMotor Development How we learn…  Adaptations for survival Neuro-Anatomy Timing Stuctures Brain Structures Affects of Dis-Regulation Timing Training applications and clinical outcomes
  4. 4. The Ancient Brain Movement provides our earliest paths towards learning… Our daily activities all involve timing: Listening - Daily Routines - Play - Movement - Dance - Reading - Writing - Math - Sports - Attention QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. deleted
  5. 5. The Evolving Brain Our daily activities all involve timing and rhythm: “Music invokes by some of the same neural regions that language does, but far more than language, music taps into the primitive brain structures involved with motivation, reward and emotion. Computational systems in the brain synchronize neural oscillators with the pulse music and begin to predict when the next strong beat will occur. As the music unfolds the brain constantly updates its estimates for when new beats will occur and takes satisfaction in matching the mental beat with a real-in-the-world one”. “Music speeds up and slows down just as the real world does and our cerebellum finds pleasure in adjusting itself to stay synchronized”. Dan Levitin - "This is Your Brain on Music”
  6. 6. The Evolved Brain - ur Brain on Google?  Discontinue cursive handwriting instruction?  *avg. male HS student speaks <100 words p/day but send >200 text p/day [ = 1400 words]  Speech to text as a preferred communcation input method?  Self Navigation w/ out GPS  Cognitive Journals vs. Twitter/fBook?
  7. 7. Neuro-Anatomy “The millisecond timing system, which is involved in a number of classes of human behavior (e.g., speech, music, motor control) and that primarily involves the brain structures of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - Buhusi & Meck, 2005; Lewis & Miall, 2006
  8. 8. Rhythm and Timing affect the development and quality of motor movements  Brain Plasticity  Hemispheric Interaction  Inhibitory/Excitatory  Inter-hemispheric coupling facilitation of Motor (bi-lateral coordination) planning  Sensory feedback  Attention “auditory rhythm may offer an essential component of enhanced sensorimotor control to make hemiparetic arm training more effective.” Thaut et al. (2002)
  9. 9. The Dis-Regulated Brain Symptoms of Neuro-Motor delays:  Language Fluency  Auditory Processing delays  Visual tracking / processing speeds  Difficulty with muti-step problem solving  Timing and Sleep disregulation  Sensory integration  Erratic Socio-Emotional behaviors - poor impulse control/physically aggressive  Clumsy/Poor Balance - Low muscle tone spasticity: verbal-motoric ticks
  10. 10. Functional Neuro-Plasticity By facilitating cortical organization through repetition and the development of new and established neural pathways an Interval Timing Training program has the potential to bridge the brain-body gap and facilitate permanent functional change. “Attention, learning and problem solving depend in part on the ability to plan and sequence actions and ideas. The Interactive Metronome helps individuals systematically exercise and often improve basic motor planning and sequencing capacities” - Stanley L. Greenspan, MD
  11. 11. Neuro Motor Assessment Tool Incorporating IM assessments into existing assessment repertoire the clinician can measure timing and pinpoint performance breakdown areas with greater ease.  Cognition  Neural pathways  Motor control and planning  Sensory processing such as proprioception
  12. 12. Practical Motor Learning 1. Feedback and challenge facilitates the development of new neural pathways 2. Repetition and learning are essential components of neuroplasticity  “These results indicate that representational map plasticity is driven by skill acquisition, learning, or practice of a newly acquired action, but not by simple repetitive motor activity” (Butler and Wolf, ’07; Plautz, et al ’00;24 Classen, et al ’9825)
  13. 13. Practical Motor Learning Rhythmic auditory stimuli have an effect on coordination and dynamic balance  “After walking with RAS, there appears to be a carryover effect that supports the possibility of motor plasticity in the networks controlling motor rhythmicity…. Using RAS demonstrates good potential to improve mobility and reduce fall risk.” Hausdorff et al,. 2007
  14. 14. Practical Motor Learning “Feedback increases the rate of improvement, enhances performance on tasks that are over learned, and participants report tasks seem less fatiguing and more interesting when feedback is provided” Gilmore, 2001 IM training provides both Intrinsic and Extrinsic (KR / KP) feedback loops needed for motor learning…
  15. 15. Trigger Access By placing triggers in specific locations or interacting with different information, the clinician can manipulate the learned responses.  Trigger placement can isolate certain weak muscle groups.  Even with limited movement patients can be engaged.  Triggers interacting with visual information on cards or boards facilitate associations and cognitive skills such as naming, memory and processing speed.  Multiple trigger access challenges motor planning and sequencing.  Trigger placement can elicit visual motor integration and visual field considerations.
  16. 16. Types of Triggers  The advent of new triggers and the IM Gait Mate increase the versatility and application of IM treatment.  IM Gate Mate is used for cadence, balance and walking.  Smaller triggers are used for fine motor development and coordination.  Triggers with resistance provide a strength component.. (trigger inside a sponge).  The size and shape of the triggers can facilitate different functional positions such as a pen trigger.  Wireless triggers offer the opportunity for motor controlled stop type movements and patterns.  Functional triggers that facilitate practicing specific skills such as wheelchair mobility, typing and gripping.
  17. 17. Body Positioning Movement activities modified for success or to challenge their abilities  Affect on alertness and maintaining body positions (Side lying, prone, over the ball, sitting, kneeling, standing, balance boards, cushioning and postural adjustments  Attentional challenges by adding environmental distractions  Increasing challenge without changing IM settings [e.g., sport specific movements in vBall, etc…]  Facilitate the integration of body awareness and proximal motor control and stability
  18. 18. Cognition and Memory Cognition and memory can be specifically targeted with IM training  By focusing on the unaffected side of the student, we can affect cognitive skills needed for following direction, problem solving skills, sensory processing, attention and memory needed for functional carry over.  Activities and games that challenge these systems in addition to performing the IM activities facilitate multi-tasking ability and the integration of core functional skills such as math, recognition, speech, memory and visual processing such as reading.
  19. 19. Software Settings By manipulating settings such as tempo, visual or auditory cues and difficulty, we can manipulate the success or challenge for the student  Slowing down the tempo for slow mental processing speed provides time for motor planning and self efficacy  Auditory cues facilitate auditory processing , speech and language development  Visual only cues facilitate visual processing ability, visual field deficits and visual attention  Auto difficulty pushes timing efficiencies
  20. 20. NeuroMotor Improvements “Any motor skill has to be LEARNED and thus challenges the brain as neural circuits linking the cerebellum, basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex get humming movements get more precise. With multiple repetitions you are also creating thicker mylenation around nerve fibers, which improves the quality and the speed of the signals and in turn, the circuit efficiency” - John J. Ratey, MD Harvard Medical School from his book “Spark - Supercharge your Mental Circuits”