History And Scope


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History And Scope

  1. 1. FORENSIC SCIENCE History & Scope
  2. 2. Forensic Science <ul><li>science occupies unique role in criminal justice system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on scientist’s ability to supply accurate and objective info that reflects the events that have occurred at a crime scene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>forensic science in broadest definition is application of science to law </li></ul>
  3. 3. FORENSIC SCIENCE <ul><li>is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system </li></ul>
  4. 4. History – Early Developments <ul><li>China – 3 rd century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Collection of Criminal Cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>outlined use of experimentation to defy claim of woman saying husband died in accidental fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first to recognize potential of fingerprints for identification </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Initial Scientific Developments <ul><li>between 1775 and 1806 many advances in detecting various poisons </li></ul><ul><li>Mathieu Orfila (1814) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>published first scientific treatise on detection of poisons and their effects on animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>established forensic toxicology as a legitimate scientific endeavor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orfila now recognized as “father of forensic toxicology” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Late 19 th Century Progress <ul><li>officials beginning to apply knowledge from many scientific disciplines to study of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Alphonse Bertillon (1879) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anthropometry – systematic procedure that involved taking a series of body measurements to establish identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(replaced by fingerprints in early 1900’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“father of criminal identification” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Late 19 th Century Progress <ul><li>Francis Henry Galton (1892) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first definitive study of fingerprints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developed methodology of classifying them for filing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>published Finger Prints containing statistical proof supporting uniqueness of fingerprints as personal identification </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Late 19 th Century Progress <ul><li>Hans Gross (1893) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>studied and developed principles of criminal investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal Investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detailed assistance investigators could expect from fields of microscopy, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, zoology, botany, anthropometry, and fingerprinting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Late 19 th Century Progress <ul><li>Sherlock Holmes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>although fictional, author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had considerable influence on popularizing scientific crime detection methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>first to apply serology, fingerprinting, firearms identification, and questioned document examination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long before these were valued and accepted by real life criminal investigators </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 20 th Century Breakthroughs <ul><li>Dr. Karl Lansteiner (1901) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discovered blood can be grouped into categories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. Leone Lattes (1915) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed simple procedure for determining blood group of a dried blood stain </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 20 th Century Breakthroughs <ul><li>Edmond Locard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>took Gross’ principles and demonstrated how they could be incorporated into a workable crime laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910 – persuaded Lyons police dept. to give him 2 attic rooms and 2 assistants to start a police laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eventually became founder and director of the Institute of Criminalistics at the University of Lyons </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 20 th Century Breakthroughs <ul><li>Edmond Locard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locard’s Exchange Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when two objects come into contact with each other, a cross transfer of materials occurs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>therefore, every criminal can be connected to the crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>however, we may not have the technology to see, collect or process all the materials that have transferred </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 20 th Century Breakthroughs <ul><li>Dr. Walter C. McCrone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>world’s preeminent microscopist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applied microscopy to analytical problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonel Calvin Goddard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refined techniques of firearms examination by using comparison microscope </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Modern Scientific Advances <ul><li>Sir Alec Jeffreys (1984) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed first DNA profiling test as a method of personal identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be used to prove either guilt or innocence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Modern Scientific Advances <ul><li>Computerized Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compare evidence at a scene to thousands of pieces of similar information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used for fingerprints (AFIS), markings on bullets and shell casings, and DNA </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Scope of Forensic Science <ul><li>Crime Laboratories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vary by country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usu. at least one dedicated facility offering forensic science services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in US- many local, regional and state labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FBI runs a national lab in Virginia </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Scope of Forensic Science <ul><ul><li>basic units of a “full service” lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical science - applies principles of chemistry, physics and geology to evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>biology – DNA, bloodstains, hair & fibers, botanical materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>firearms – examines firearms and ammunition, clothing and other objects for gun shot residue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>document examination – handwriting, typewriting, paper, ink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>photography – examines and records the physical evidence, preps exhibits for courtrooms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Scope of Forensic Science <ul><ul><li>additional services/units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxicology – examines body fluids and organs to determine presence or absence of drugs and poisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>latent fingerprint – visualizes the “invisible” prints not seen by the naked eye, records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>polygraph – lie detector, staffed more by criminal investigator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>voiceprint analysis – uses spectrograph to create visual display from speech, used for identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crime scene investigation – evidence collection unit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Scope of Forensic Science <ul><ul><li>specialized services/units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forensic psychiatry – examines relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forensic odontology – identify victims through dental evidence if body is left in unrecognizable state, bite mark analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forensic engineering – concerned with failure analysis, accident reconstruction, causes and origins of fires and explosions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forensic computer and digital analysis – identifying, collecting, preserving and examining info from digital devices </li></ul></ul></ul>