CSI

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CSI

  1. 1. WASHINGTON COUNTY Lead Investigator: Kyleen Burgess Northampton County 4-H
  2. 2. Forensic Science <ul><ul><li>The application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. any application of science to law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes geology, chemistry, physics, biology, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Criminalistics – any of the services provided by a crime lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For all intents and purposes, the term is interchangeable with forensic science </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle <ul><li>Author of the Sherlock Holmes series </li></ul><ul><li>Popularized forensic investigation through his novels Used up-and-coming detective methods in his stories, including fingerprinting, serology, firearm identification, and questioned documents </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853) – father of toxicology – the science of dealing with poisons and their effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) – developed science of anthropometry – the taking of a series of body measurements for means of personal identification (later replaced by more reliable fingerprinting) </li></ul>Major contributors to the field
  6. 6. <ul><li>Francis Galton (1822-1911) – first thorough study of fingerprints and how to classify them; offered statistical proof of their uniqueness </li></ul><ul><li>Leone Lattes (1887-1954) – developed procedure for determining the ABO blood type of dried blood stains </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Calvin Goddard (1891-1955) – popularized the use of comparison microscopes for matching bullets with weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Albert S. Osborn (1858-1946) – authored Questioned Documents , a reference book for document examiners </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hans Gross <ul><li>Hans Gross (1847-1915) – wrote Criminal Investigation and Criminology , books detailing how the sciences are incorporated into crime scene investigation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Edmond Locard (1877-1966) <ul><ul><li>created the first crime lab in Lyons, France. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locard’s Exchange Principle – when a criminal comes in contact with an object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every criminal can be connected to his/her crime scene by something as small as dust particles carried to or from the scene </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>First to request that suspects’ clothing be examined in the lab </li></ul><ul><li>His success led to the establishment of police labs in Vienna, Berlin, Sweden, Finland, and Holland </li></ul>
  11. 11. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) <ul><li>Under director J. Edgar Hoover, national lab for forensic services established in 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>FBI lab is now the world’s largest, with 1 million examinations each year </li></ul>

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