Document Examination


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Document Examination

  1. 1. Document Examination Forgeries/Counterfeiting Handwriting Analysis Chromatography
  2. 2. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>typewriting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>much like firearms, typewriters of the same make and model are pretty much the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>daily wear and tear or parts of the machining process can cause “defects” or individual characteristics that translate to paper when the machine is used </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>photocopiers and laser printers (demo) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in photocopier, original is placed on glass and exposed using reflected light to a drum that is covered with photosensitve material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>image of original exists on drum as invisible positive photoelectric charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negatively charged toner is drizzled on drum where it sticks to the positive image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paper with a positive charge passes the drum causing the negatively charged toner to transfer to the paper which is then heat sealed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with laser printer - image of the original held in memory of computer is written to the photosensitive drum using a laser </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>photocopiers and laser printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paper yields clues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>marks from belts, pinchers, rollers and gears can be matched like toolmarks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>toner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can have unique chemical compositions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how toner is placed and fused on paper (ie. clumps, blobs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marks on optics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scratches or other marks on glass, lenses or mirrors will leave markings on the printed page that can be matched with the optic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>counterfeit security measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>easy to counterfeit! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all paper currency after 1993 has microline printing, nylon security threads and a plastic security strip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as of 2000, all paper currency was updated except the $1 bill </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>counterfeit security measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>official documents (i.e. passport) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>background is printed with intricate pattern of polygons with a color shift in the ink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>green stars – reflective specks sealed in the paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blue “USA” stamp overlaps photo and background paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>three red stars stamped over edge of photo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>whole page sealed with single sheet of adhesive plastic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>microline printing in lower right corner </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>forgery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>false making or altering of any writing with intent to defraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>four types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>traced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>freehand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lifted </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>forgery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traced can use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>overlays (like tracing paper) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transmitted light (as with a light board) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tracing indentations left in the page underneath the original </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tracing patterns of dots that outline the writing to be forged </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>forgery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involves the copying of writing from a genuine article, trying to imitate the handwriting of the original </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freehand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>written with no knowledge of the appearance of the original </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>just writing off the top of your head and passing it off as something else </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>forgery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lifted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tape is used to lift off a signature then place it on another document </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>detection of forgeries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>freehand easiest to detect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simulation easy to detect – style not as fluid, more hesitations than “comfortable” writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>traced and lifted are easy to detect but identity of forger cannot be determined </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>handwriting analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>examination of design, shape and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine authorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basic principle is that no two people will write the exact same thing in the exact same way </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Questioned Document Analysis <ul><li>handwriting analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>letter formations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>connectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>upstrokes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>retraces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>down strokes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spacing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>baseline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>curves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distortions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hesitations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flying stops </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>any object with handwriting or print whose source or authenticity is in doubt is referred to as a questioned document </li></ul><ul><li>examiners gather documents of known authorship or origin and compare them to individual characteristics of questioned writing </li></ul>
  14. 14. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>collecting an adequate number of known writings is critical for determining the outcome of a handwriting comparison </li></ul><ul><li>unconscious handwriting of 2 different individuals can never be identical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>writing style of an individual may be altered beyond recognition by influence of drugs or alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>general style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at first, children copy standard letter forms for handwriting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zaner-Bloser method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palmer method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many pupils have writing styles that are similar to one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>minor differences attributable to skill in copying </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>general style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as initial writing skills improve, writing becomes subconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innumerable habitual shapes and patterns emerge that distinguish it from all others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this is what document examiners look for </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Handwriting Comparisons
  18. 18. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>angularity – 5 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree 1 – Writing on the surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exaggeration of curves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>embraces all white surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>circular shaped letters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inflated loops </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inside letters spread out – broad words </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree 2 – Curvilinear Handwriting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predominance of curves over straight strokes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>softening of angles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>angularity – 5 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree 3 –Semi Curvilinear or Semi Rectilinear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no dominance in either curves or angularity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree 4 – Rectilinear or Linear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>predominance of straight strokes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>angular connections </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tight loops </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>round letters become oval shaped </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Degree 5 – On the Line or Very Linear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>suppression of curves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exaggeration of rectilinear stroke </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stick like appearance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inside letters are narrow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slant </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>speed </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>letter spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>word spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>zones </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relative dimensions of letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relative to general public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relative to each other </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extras </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lack of </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pen movement </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>writing skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grammar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>word choice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Handwriting Comparisons <ul><li>variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arrangement of writing on paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>margins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spacing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crowding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>insertions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alignment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Handwriting Analysis
  30. 30. Chromatography – Ink Analysis <ul><li>chromatography – family of techniques for separating mixtures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paper chromatography separate the dyes used in pens/markers relies on… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>composition of ink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solubility of dye in solvent (water, ethanol…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extent to which ink clings to paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>length of paper </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Chromatography – Ink Analysis <ul><li>procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spot of ink carried by solvent through capillary action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>components of dye (colors) separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mark solvent front and color fronts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measure from base line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calculate Rf value </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Chromatography – Ink Analysis <ul><li>Rf value – retention value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ratio of the distance the component traveled relative the distance the solvent traveled </li></ul></ul>