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Functional fibres and textiles

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Functional fibres and textiles

  1. 1. FUNCTIONAL FIBRES AND TEXTILES Aliasgar Mandsaurwala 60011115028
  2. 2. Types of fibres…  Natural fibres  Man-made fibres  Inorganic fibres  Functional fibres  Nano fibres  Biocomponent fibres
  3. 3. High Performance Fiber & High Functional Fiber
  4. 4. Ceramic fibres…  Used as refractory fibers in uses over 1000°C.  Used for thermal insulation at high temperatures and to make special composites.  Very expensive fibers because only a small quantity is produced.
  5. 5. Melamine…  Fiberforming substance is a synthetic polymer composed of at least 50% by weight of a cross-linked melamine polymer.  Known for its inherent thermal resistance and outstanding heat blocking capability in direct flame applications.  It is used to designed for direct flame contact and elevated temperature exposures.
  6. 6. Super absorbent fibre…  Their outstanding properties in a wide range of medical products have been recognized. The product is marketed as “OASIS”.  Small diameter of the fibers, which is about 30 microns, gives a very high surface area for contact with the liquid.  Used in medical product.
  7. 7. Bicomponent fibre…  This fiber is a type of island in-the-sea.  This type of fiber should be ideal for filtration applications both in woven and nonwoven construction
  8. 8. Spectra Fiber 1000: - High-strength, Lightweight Polyethylene Fiber..  10 times stronger than steel, that is 40 percent greater than aramid fiber.  It is used in Police and military ballistic vests and helmets, armor for vehicles and aircraft, Marine lines.
  9. 9. Super Polyethylene Fiber  Very high tenacity, high modulus polyethylene fiber even higher than Kevlar  The method involves both spinning and drawing in which is a dilute solutions of high molecular weight is extruded into water to form a gel like soft fiber.  Which is then heated and drawn out about 30 times in original length.
  10. 10. Micro fibre…  Finer than any conventional fiber First used in functional sportswear.  Usually made of polyester, polyamide or acrylic – with liters in the range of 0.5 to 1.2 dtex (1dtex, meaning that one gram of fiber is 10,000 meters long).  Clothing is not sensitive retaining its positive qualities after washing our cleaning.
  11. 11. Perfumed Fibers…  Made up of fibers to which resin – made microcapsules of 5-10m in diameter containing perfume essence are bound when the microcapsules are pressed and broken, the perfume is released.  The Esprit de fibers can be used in scarves, T- shirts, handkerchiefs, hand knitting wools, stocking etc.
  12. 12. Bio-degradable fibers
  13. 13. Alginate fibres…  Used in the food industry, pharmaceuticals and textiles.  Alginate name come from “align”.  The unique properties of alginate and its derivatives have found applications where thickening, suspending, emulsifying, and stabilizing and gel formation is required.
  14. 14. Bacterial Cellulose  The bacterial strain produces a gel like material containing fine cellulose fiber, which is too thin.  It is used as an artificial blood vessel for microsurgery. Also used to make artificial leather, skin substitute and wound healing bandages.
  15. 15. Bacterial Polyester  Examples: Alcaligences species Bacterial polyesters poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs), with poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB).  Advantages include production from fully renewable resources rather fast and complete biodegradability, biocompatibility, and excellent strength and stiffness, which favor this material as a polymer of the future, bacillus species, photosynthetic bacteria and blue green algae.  Poly (hydroxybutyrate) fibers were considered to be mainly used for production of scaffolds, surgical sutures, repair the bone fracture and etc
  16. 16. Chitosan Fibers  Chitosan is a natural biopolymer that is derived from chitin.  Properties are useful for wound treatment and it also used as excellent material for healing wounds.
  17. 17. Spider Silk  Spider silk is up to 5 times stronger than steel of the same diameter.  Spider silk is so elastic that it doesn't break even if stretched 2-4 times its length. Spider silk is also waterproof, and doesn't break at temperatures as low as -40C.
  18. 18. Nanofibres
  19. 19. Electrospinning…  Product is a nonwoven fiber mat that is composed of tiny fibres with diameters between 50 nanometres and 10 microns.  Potential uses for electro-spun fibres are in filtration, wound dressings, tissue engineering, nanocomposites, drug delivery devices and sensors.
  20. 20. Carbon nanotube ‘nanofibres’…  Some of the possible applications for the new yarns include:  Structural composites that are strong, tough and able to reduce mechanical vibrations.  Protective clothing that provides antiballistic and static-discharge protection, as well as radio and microwave frequency absorption.  Supercapacitors, batteries and fuel cells in the form of yarn structures that are weaveable into textiles for storing or generating electrical energy.  Chemically or electrically powered artificial muscles for prosthetics and robots, morphing air vehicles and minimally invasive catheters with enhanced functionality for medical applications.  Electrical wiring and distributed sensors for electronic textiles.  Heat pipes that provide both structural reinforcement and heat dissipation.  High intensity source of field-emitted electrons for intense fluorescent lights and displays, as well as X-ray sources small enough to fit in a medical catheter.  Filaments for incandescent light sources with decreased susceptibility to mechanical damage because of yarn toughness and mechanical damping ability.
  21. 21. Nylon nanofibers…  Diameter of 60 microns. It is a bundle of more than 1.4 million fibres, each just dozens of nanometers in diameter.  Water seeps through the spaces between these fibers, which is what makes the material so absorbent.  Strong and supple and easy to process as regular nylon, but with two to three times the ability to absorb moisture.
  22. 22. Nanocomposite fibres…  polymer nanocomposites with as little as 2 vol% addition exhibit large increases in tensile strength (>40%), tensile modulus (>70%), flexural strength (>60%), flexural modulus (>125%) and heat distortion temperature (from 65° to 150°C) without any significant loss of impact resistance (≤10%).  They also lower water sensitivity, permeability to gases and thermal co- efficient of expansion values.  By contrast, conventional polymer composites show poor ductility and mouldability with degradation and inferior surface smoothness and are difficult to process as films or fibres.
  23. 23. THANK YOU
  • AlanShaji11

    Oct. 4, 2020
  • KaltasVirat

    Jul. 15, 2019

not much detail

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