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Textile instituteofPakistan
First Assignment
Submitted by: Raza Imam
Submitted to: sir imran raza.
Discipline: ts-01(a).
COTTON:
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or
protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the
genus Gossypium in the family ofMalvaceae.The fibre is
almost pure cellulose.
PropertiesOfCottonFiber
 Textile classification:
As it is obtained from a plant it is classified as a natural, cellulose, seed, mono-cellular, staple
fiber.
 The macro structure of cotton:
Under a microscope, a cotton fiber appears as a very fine, regular fiber. It ranges in length
½” to 2 ¾ “, depending upon the quality of the fiber. It is the finest in common use, ranges
11µm to 22µm.
 Fiber length:
The fiber length to breadth ratio of cotton ranges from about 6000:1 for the longest and
best types, to about 350:1 for the shortest coarsest cotton type. the greater the ratio, the
more readily can the cotton fibers be spun into yarn.
 color of cotton fibers:
The color of cotton fibers depends on its type, environment, soil and climatic
conditions under which it is grown. It’s vary white to yellow.
 The microscopic appearance of cotton:
Under the microscope, the cotton fiber looks like a twisted ribbon or a collapsed
and twisted tube.These twists or convolutions identify the cotton fiber under the
microscope.The seed end of the fiber is quite irregular, having been torn, during
ginning, from the epidermis or skin of the cotton seed.
 Tenacity:
The strength of cotton fibers is attributed to the good alignment of its long
polymers. And its polymer system is about 70% crystalline, the countless, regular,
hydrogen bond formations between adjacent polymers, and the spiraling fibrils in the
primary and secondary cell wall. It is one of the few fibers which gains strength when
wet. this occurs because of a temporary improvement in polymer alignment in the
amorphous regions of the polymer system, which leads to approximate 5% increase
in fiber tenacity.
 Elastic –plastic nature:
The cotton fiber is relatively inelastic because of its crystalline polymer system, and for
this reason cotton textiles wrinkle and crease readily. Bending and crushing of cotton
textile materials places considerable strain on fibers polymer system.These become
weak points in the polymer system, and hence weak areas in the cotton fiber
structure. Causes cotton textile materials to crease and wrinkle readily.
 Hygroscopic properties:
The cotton fiber is very absorbent, Owing to the countless polar –OH groups in its
polymers, these attract water molecules, which are also polar. Aqueous swelling of the
cotton fiber is due to a separation or forcing apart of polymers by the water molecules in
the amorphous regions only.The hygroscopic nature ordinary prevents cotton textile
materials from developing static electricity.
 Thermal properties:
Cotton fibers have the ability to conduct heat energy, minimizing any destructive heat
accumulation. Thus they can withstand hot ironing temperatures. Excessive application
of heat energy causes the cotton fiber to scorch, char and burn. This is an indication that
cotton is not thermoplastic.
 Effect of acids:
Cotton fibers are weakened and destroyed by acids . Acidic conditions hydrolyze the
cotton polymer at the glycoside oxygen atom, which links the two glucose units to form
the celloiose unit. Mineral or inorganic acids, being stronger that organic acids, will
hydrolyze the cotton polymer more rapidly.
 Effect of alkali:
Cotton fibers are resistant to alkalis and are relatively unaffected by normal laundering.
The resistance is attributed to the lack of attraction between the cotton polymers and
alkalis.
 Effect of bleaches:
The most common bleaches used on cotton textile materials are sodium
hypochlorite and sodium per borate. Sodium hypochlorite bleaches cotton textile
materials at prevailing room temperature. However, bleaching with sodium per
borate is more effective when the laundry solution exceeds 50°C in temperature.
These two bleaches are examples of oxidizing bleaches, which is mostly used for
cotton textile materials. Oxidizing bleaches are so called because they liberate
oxygen which does the actual bleaching.
 Absorbent:
Cotton fiber has high absorbency power and this is why this fiber can be died
properly and without any harassment.
 Cotton Fiber DrapesWell:
The drape-ability of cotton fiber is awesome.You can use the cotton fiber made
fabric in any kind of wear which needs more flexibility and drapes.
 Crimp:
Cotton fiber is more or less twisted on its longitudinal axis which cab not be seen
from out side is called convolution.The twist in the fiber does not to be continuous in
one direction i.e. if at first right direction, then left direction. This property of cotton
fiber helps in spinning.
 Soft Hand:
Cotton fiber is too much regular fiber and if properly ginned; this fiber can be the
best soft hand feeling fiber amongst the others.
Uses of Cotton Fiber:
 Cotton fiber is a versatile fiber which has wide variety of uses. But the Cotton fiber is
mostly used on the Apparel Industry to make the wearing cloth like Sweaters, Skirts,
Shirts, Swimwear, Kids wear, Blouses, Pants, Hosiery and to make other type of
dresses.
o Because of its high capacity to absorb, hold and dry moisture, cotton offers
maximum comfort under extreme heat and humidity.
o is a fiber that “breathes”. Consumer prefers cotton for its comfort, laudability,
absorbency, ease finishing and dyeing.
o It is a preferred fabric for children & for anyone who has a sensitive skin and is allergic
to other fibers, since it is non allergic.
o A wide range of fabric construction methods can be employed including weaving,
knitting as well as non woven techniques.
o Cotton is used universally for a variety of apparel (both inner and outer wear)
JUTE IS A LONG, SOFT, SHINY PLANT FIBER THAT CAN BE SPUN INTO CORES,
STRONG THREADS. IT IS PRODUCED FROM PLANTS IN THE GENUS CORCHORUS,
WHICH SEE FOR BOTANICAL INFORMATION AND OTHER USES. JUTE IS ONE OF
THE CHEAPEST NATURAL FIBERS AND IS SECOND ONLY TO COTTON IN AMOUNT
PRODUCED AND VARIETY OF USES. JUTE FIBERS ARE COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF
THE PLANT MATERIALS CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN. IT FALLS INTO THE BAST
FIBER CATEGORY (FIBER COLLECTED FROM BAST OR SKIN OF THE PLANT)
ALONG WITH KENAF, INDUSTRIAL HEMP, RAMIE AND FLAX(LINEN) FIBER.
jute
 Physical Properties:
Ultimate length:
1.5 – 4 mm
Ultimate diameter:
0.015 – 0.020 mm
No. of ultimate in X-section:
6 – 10
Fibers length:
5 – 12 ft.
Color:
White, OffWhite,Yellow, Brown, Grey, Golden
Strength (Tenacity):
3 – 4 gm/den
Elongation:
1.7% at the break
Specific Gravity:
1.5
Moisture Regain(MR%):
13.75%
Resiliency:
Bad
Dimensional Stability:
Good
Abrasion Resistance:
Average
Effect of Light and Heat:
Average
Effect of Micro Organism:
Good(better than Cotton
ChemicalProperties:
 Effect of Acids:
 Easily damaged by hot diluteAcids and conc. cold Acid.

Effect of Alkalis:
 Fibers are damaged by strong alkali. Fibers losses weight when it heated with caustic soda.

Effect of Bleaches:
 Resistant to bleaching agents (Bleaching agent, H2O2, NaOcl, Naclo2, Na2O2, CH3COOH, KMnO4,
etc.)

Effect of Light:
 Color changes slightly in presence of sun light. It happens due to presence of lignin in fiber.

Effect of Mildew:
 Prevention ability is better than Cotton and Linen.

Dyeing ability:
 Easy to dyeing. Basic dye is used to color jute fiber.
 Uses:
 Core uses:
 Twine and rope, sackings, carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale), and the
construction fabric manufacturing industry. It can be used in curtains, chair
coverings, carpets, are rugs, Hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum.Other
uses include espadrilles, floor coverings, home textiles, high performance
textiles, geotextiles and composites.The jute is being replaced by synthetic
materials in many of these uses, jute is still valuable due to its biodegradable
nature. Synthetics are not suitable in some cases.
 Twine and Rope: A very popular use; jute fibers are used alone or
blended with other types of fibers to make twine and rope.
 Paper: Jute fibers can be turned into pulp and with increasing concern
over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the
importance of jute for this purpose may increase.
 Textile machineries: Such as textile fibers having cellulose
(vegetable fiber content) and lignin (wood fiber content). Just is applied in the
automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries to
manufacture non-woven, technical textile, and composites.
 Home textiles: Jute has many advantages in home textile,
either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable, color
and lightfast fiber. Its UV protection, sound and heat insulation, low
thermal condition and antistatic properties are advantageous. Jute
fibers are also carbon dioxide neutral, naturally decomposable and can
be used in high performance technical materials.
 Fabrics: Jute can be used for Hessian cloth, sacking, scrim, carpet
backing cloth (CBC), canvas and even blended to make silk. Hessian, lighter
than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and
home furnishings. Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibers, has its use in
the name.
 Geotextiles: Made jute more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a
lightly woven fabric made from natural fibers that is used for soil erosion
control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and
landscaping uses.
LINEN/FLAX
Linen is a cellulosic fibers derived from the stem of the flax plant or a fabric made from
these fibers. Linen fibers are much stronger and more lustrous that cotton; they yield cool,
absorbent fabrics that wrinkle easily. Fabrics with linen-like texture and coolness but with
good wrinkle resistance can be produced from manufactured fibers and blends
 PhysicalPropertiesof Linen:
Physical properties of linen fibers are given below:

Tensile Strength: Linen is a strong fiber. It has a tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den.The strength is greater than cotton fiber.
 Elongation at break: Linen does not stress easily. It has an elongation at break of 2.7 to 3.5 %.
 Color:The color of linen fiber is yellowish to grey.
 Length: 18 to 30 inch in length.
 Luster: It is brighter than cotton fiber and it is slightly silky.
 Elastic Recovery: Linen fiber has not enough elastic recovery properties like cotton fiber.
 Specific Gravity: Specific gravity of linen fiber is 1.50.
 Moisture Regain (MR %): Standard moisture regain is 10 to 12%
 .
 Resiliency: Very poor.
 Effect of Heat: Linen has an excellent resistance to degradation by heat. It is less affected than cotton fiber by the heat.
 Effect of Sun Light: Linen fiber is not affected by the sun light as others fiber. It has enough ability to protect sun light.

 Chemical Properties of Linen:
 Linen is a natural cellulosic fiber and it has some chemical properties.
Chemical properties of the linen fiber are given below:
Effect of Acids: Linen fiber is damaged by highly dandified acids but low
dense acids does not affect if it is wash instantly after application of acids.
 Effects of Alkalis: Linen has an excellent resistance to alkalis. It does not
affected by the strong alkalis.
 Effects of Bleaching Agents:Cool chlorine and hypo-chlorine bleaching
agent does not affect the linen fiber properties.
 Effect of Organic Solvent: Linen fiber has high resistance to normal cleaning
solvents.
 Effect of Micro Organism: Linen fiber is attacked by fungi and bacteria.
Mildews will feed on linen fabric, rotting and weakling the materials. Mildews
and bacteria will flourish on linen under hot and humid condition.They can
be protected by impregnation with certain types of chemicals. Copper
Nepthenate is one of the chemical.
 Effects of Insects: Linen fiber does not attacked by moth-grubs or beetles.
 Dyes: It is not suitable to dye. But it can be dye by direct and vat dyes.
 Major End Uses Linen Fabric:
 Apparel:
 dresses,
 suits,
 separates,
 skirts,
 jackets,
 pants,
 blouses,
 shirts,
 children's wear etc.
 Home Fashion :
 curtains,
 draperies,
 upholstery,
 bedspreads,
 table linens,
 sheets,
 dish towels etc.
WOOL FIBER
Wool fiber is the natural hair grown on sheep and is composed of protein
substance called as keratin. Wool is composed of carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen and this is the only animal fiber, which contains sulfur in
addition. The wool fibers have crimps or curls, which create pockets and
give the wool a spongy feel and create insulation for the wearer.The
outside surface of the fiber consists of a series of serrated scales, which
overlap each other much like the scales of a fish. Wool is the only fiber
with such serration’s which make it possible for the fibers to cling together
and produce felt.
 Physical properties of wool
Tenacity:
Wool is a complicated weak fiber.The low tensile strength is because of
comparatively fewer hydrogen bonds.When it absorbs moisture, the water
molecules steadily force sufficient polymers apart to cause a significant number of
hydrogen bonds to break.The water molecules also hydrolyze several salt linkages
in the amorphous regions of the strand. Breakage and hydrolysis of these inter-
polymer forces of attraction are explicit as swelling of the fiber and result in loss of
strength of the wet woolen material.
Elasticityand resiliency:
This is elastic and resilient. Covalent bonds can stretch, but they are strong.The
disulphide bonds in the amorphous parts of the strand or fiber are able to stretch
when the strand is extended.When the strand is released the disulphide bonds pull
the protein molecules back into their original positions.
If there are too few disulphide linkages as when the strand has been weakened
by alkali or if the extension is great enough to break some of the covalent bonds,
then some polypeptide chains will slide past one another.This causes a permanent
extension of the wool.The natural crispness of the fiber also supports it to regain
its real shape.
 Hydroscopicnature:
 It has the very absorbent nature because of the polarity of the peptide group, the salt linkages and
the amorphous nature of the polymer system.The peptide groups and salt linkages easily attract
water molecules which enter the amorphous polymer system of the fiber. In comparatively dry
weather wool may develop static electricity.This is since these are hot enough.Water molecules in
the polymer system support to distribute any static electricity which might develop.
 Density:
 It has a comparatively low density and therefore fibers are light with regard to their visible weight.
 Conductivityof heat:
 It has a low conductivity of heat and therefore makes it ideal for cold weather.The resiliency of the
fiber is significant in the warmth properties of the fabric. Wool fibers do not pack well in yarns
because of the crimp and scales, and this makes wool fabric process and capable of inserting much
air. Air is one of the best insulators since it keeps body heat close to the body.The medulla of the
wool fiber comprises air spaces that increase the insulating power of the fiber.
 This strand can take up moisture in vapor form. Absorbency is a factor also in the warmth of
clothing. In winter, when people go from a dry indoor atmosphere into the damp outdoor air, the
heat developed by the fiber in absorbing moisture keeps to protect their bodies from the impact
of the cold atmosphere.
 Dimensionalstability:
 It has poor dimensional stability and therefore shrinks easily. Felting or shrinkage results since
under mechanical action, such as agitation, friction and pressure in the presence of heat and
moisture, it tends to move root wards, and the edges of the scales interlock prohibiting the fibre
from returning to its original position.This results in the fabric becoming thicker and smaller, that
is it shrinks or felts.
 -
Chemical properties of wool
Effectof acids:
Concentrated acids damage it since they hydrolyze the salt linkages and
hydrogen bonds. Dilute acids do not affect it.
Effectof alkali:
It easily dissolves in alkaline solutions.Alkalis hydrolyze the disulphide bonds;
hydrogen bonds and salt linkages of wool and cause the polymers to separate
from each other, which is looked as dissolution of the fibers. Hydrolysis of the
peptide bonds of wool polymers lead to polymer fragmentation and total
destruction of the strand. Prolonged exposure to alkalis causes hydrolysis of
the peptide bonds of wool polymers lead to polymer fragmentation and total
destruction of the fibre.
Effectof bleach:
Chlorine bleach is ordinary harmful to the wool. KMnO4, Na2O2 are utilized
for bleaching.
- See more at: http://textileapex.blogspot.com/2015/01/physical-chemical-
properties-wool-fibre.html#sthash.iNm3BwVA.dpuf
 Effectof sunlight and weather:
 Effect of sunlight’s ultra-violate radiation tends to yellow white or dull
colored fabrics.The ultra-violate cause the peptide and disulphide bonds to
sever.This leads to polymer degradation products on the surface of the
fiber. As a consequence the strand not only absorbs more light but scatters
the incident light to a greater extent.The prolonged exposure to sunlight
weakens the fibers very much.
 Color fastness:
 Like cotton wool is easy to dye. Acid dyes, chrome and mordant dyes are
utilized to dye this.The dye molecules are attracted into the amorphous
areas of wool.
 -
 Clothing:
wool has been used for blankets, horse rugs, saddle cloths,
carpeting.
 wool insulation:
Wool felt covers piano hammers, and it is used to absorb odors and
noise in heavy machinery and stereo speakers. Ancient Greeks lined
their helmets with felt, and Roman legionnaires used breastplates
made of wool felt.
 baby sleep products:
Merino wool has been used in baby sleep products such
as swaddle baby wrap blankets and infant sleeping bags.
 soil fertilize:
As an animal protein, it can be used as a soil fertilizer, being a slow-
release source of nitrogen.
 blend of wool:
a blend of wool and kevlar, the synthetic fiber widely used in body
armor, was lighter, cheaper and worked better in damp conditions
than kevlar alone. Kevlar.
 cloth diapers:
Wool has also been traditionally used to cover cloth diapers.
silk
 Silk is an animal protein fiber produced by certain insects to build their cocoons and webs.
Many different types of silk are produced by a huge variety of different types of insects
other than moth caterpillars.Yet none of these have been exploited for commercial
purposes, though there has been basic research into the structures of such silks. Silk is most
commonly produced by larvae, and thus largely limited to insects with complete
metamorphosis.
SILK FIBER
PROPERTIESOF SILKFIBER
 low density makes for light and comfortable clothing
 high resistance to deformation
 good insulation properties / warm in winter, cool in summer
 strongest natural fiber available
 shimmers and shines
 good affinity to dye
 leaving aside the rather demanding care, silk is one of the most
comfortable fiber fabrics in the world.
 Silk threads are very fine, soft and light in weight.
 They are very thin but strong having high elastic property.
 Strong bleaches containing sodium hypochlorite will deteriorate silk.
 Silk fiber can generally absorbs about 11% of its weight in moisture,
but the range varies from 10% to as much as 30%.
USES OF SILK FIBER
 Bulk of silk fibers produced is utilised in preparing silk clothes.
 It is used in the manufacture of fishing fibers, parachutes, cartridge bags.
 Silk's absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather.
 It is often used for clothing such as shirts, ties, blouses, formal dresses, high
fashion clothes, lining, lingerie, pajamas, robes, dress suits, sun dresses and
Eastern folk costumes..
 Silk is used in curtain because it is very good fall.
 Silk's attractive luster and drape makes it suitable for many furnishing
applications.
 Silk is also used in upholstry.
 silk has had many industrial and commercial uses, such as in parachutes,
bicycle tires, comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags.
ACETATEFIBER
 Hand: soft, smooth, dry, crisp, resilient
 Comfort: breathes, wicks, dries quickly, no static cling
 Drape: linings move with the body linings conform to the garment
 Color: deep brilliant shades with atmospheric dyeing meet colorfastness
requirements
 Luster: light reflection creates a signature appearance
 Performance: colorfast to perspiration staining, colorfast to dry cleaning, air and
vapor permeable
 Tenacity: weak fiber with breaking tenacity of 1.2 to 1.4 g/d; rapidly loses strength
when wet; must be dry cleaned
 Abrasion: poor resistance
 Heat retention: poor thermal retention; no allergenic potential (hypoallergenic)
 Dyeability: (two methods) cross-dying method where yarns of one fiber and those of
another fiber are woven into a fabric in a desired pattern; solution-dying method
provides excellent color fastness under the effects of sunlight, perspiration, air
contaminants and washing.
Properties:
USESOFACETATE
 It is used in cigarette filters.
 It is used in home furnishing, upholstry etc.
 It is used in wedding and party dresses.
 It is also used in blouses.
 It is used in ink reservoirs for fiber tip pens.
 It is also used in surgical products.
ACRYLIC
 Outstanding wick ability & quick drying to move moisture from body surface
 Flexible aesthetics for wool-like, cotton-like, or blended appearance
 Easily washed, retains shape
 Resistant to moths, oil, and chemicals
 Dye able to bright shades with excellent fastness
 Superior resistance to sunlight degradation.
 Easy to wash and good dimensional stability.
 Resistance to damage by moths and chemical substances.
 Excellent color-fastness and dye ability in brilliant colors.
 Lightweight, soft, and warm, with a wool-like touch.
USESOFACRYLIC
 Apparel: Sweaters, socks, fleece wear, circular knit apparel, sportswear and
children's wear
 Home Furnishings: Blankets, area rugs, upholstery, pile; luggage, awnings,
outdoor furniture
 Other Uses: Craft yarns, sail cover cloth, wipe cloths
 Industrial Uses:Asbestos replacement; concrete and stucco reinforcement

POLYSTER
 Polyester fiber don’t have a good elasticity.
 Polyester fiber has a high degree resiliency.
 Polyester has a better conductor of heat.
 Polyester one of the least absorbent fiber.
 Polyester fiber has a strong strength.
 Fabrics of polyester may be safely bleached because polyster has good
resistance to deformation by household bleaches.
 Polyester can be dyed with appropriate disperse and azoic.
 Polyester has excellent to good resistance to mineral and organic acids.
USESOFPOLYSTER
 Polyester is often used in outerwear because of its high tenacity and
durability.
 Its hydrophobic property makes it ideal for garments and jackets that are to
be used in wet or damp environments--coating the fabric with a water-
resistant finish intensifies this effect.
 Many jackets and quilted garments are made of polyester.
 Polyester can be molded into almost any shape, certain insulating properties
can be built-in to the fiber.
 The warm air stays inside and helps warm the body in cool weather.
 Polyester is often used in pants, shirts, suits, and bed sheets either by itself
or as a blend.
 Polyester also has industrial uses as well, such as carpets, filters, synthetic
artery replacements, ropes, and films.

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Textile Assignment Raza

  • 1. Textile instituteofPakistan First Assignment Submitted by: Raza Imam Submitted to: sir imran raza. Discipline: ts-01(a).
  • 2. COTTON: Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family ofMalvaceae.The fibre is almost pure cellulose.
  • 3. PropertiesOfCottonFiber  Textile classification: As it is obtained from a plant it is classified as a natural, cellulose, seed, mono-cellular, staple fiber.  The macro structure of cotton: Under a microscope, a cotton fiber appears as a very fine, regular fiber. It ranges in length ½” to 2 ¾ “, depending upon the quality of the fiber. It is the finest in common use, ranges 11µm to 22µm.  Fiber length: The fiber length to breadth ratio of cotton ranges from about 6000:1 for the longest and best types, to about 350:1 for the shortest coarsest cotton type. the greater the ratio, the more readily can the cotton fibers be spun into yarn.  color of cotton fibers: The color of cotton fibers depends on its type, environment, soil and climatic conditions under which it is grown. It’s vary white to yellow.
  • 4.  The microscopic appearance of cotton: Under the microscope, the cotton fiber looks like a twisted ribbon or a collapsed and twisted tube.These twists or convolutions identify the cotton fiber under the microscope.The seed end of the fiber is quite irregular, having been torn, during ginning, from the epidermis or skin of the cotton seed.  Tenacity: The strength of cotton fibers is attributed to the good alignment of its long polymers. And its polymer system is about 70% crystalline, the countless, regular, hydrogen bond formations between adjacent polymers, and the spiraling fibrils in the primary and secondary cell wall. It is one of the few fibers which gains strength when wet. this occurs because of a temporary improvement in polymer alignment in the amorphous regions of the polymer system, which leads to approximate 5% increase in fiber tenacity.  Elastic –plastic nature: The cotton fiber is relatively inelastic because of its crystalline polymer system, and for this reason cotton textiles wrinkle and crease readily. Bending and crushing of cotton textile materials places considerable strain on fibers polymer system.These become weak points in the polymer system, and hence weak areas in the cotton fiber structure. Causes cotton textile materials to crease and wrinkle readily.
  • 5.  Hygroscopic properties: The cotton fiber is very absorbent, Owing to the countless polar –OH groups in its polymers, these attract water molecules, which are also polar. Aqueous swelling of the cotton fiber is due to a separation or forcing apart of polymers by the water molecules in the amorphous regions only.The hygroscopic nature ordinary prevents cotton textile materials from developing static electricity.  Thermal properties: Cotton fibers have the ability to conduct heat energy, minimizing any destructive heat accumulation. Thus they can withstand hot ironing temperatures. Excessive application of heat energy causes the cotton fiber to scorch, char and burn. This is an indication that cotton is not thermoplastic.  Effect of acids: Cotton fibers are weakened and destroyed by acids . Acidic conditions hydrolyze the cotton polymer at the glycoside oxygen atom, which links the two glucose units to form the celloiose unit. Mineral or inorganic acids, being stronger that organic acids, will hydrolyze the cotton polymer more rapidly.  Effect of alkali: Cotton fibers are resistant to alkalis and are relatively unaffected by normal laundering. The resistance is attributed to the lack of attraction between the cotton polymers and alkalis.
  • 6.  Effect of bleaches: The most common bleaches used on cotton textile materials are sodium hypochlorite and sodium per borate. Sodium hypochlorite bleaches cotton textile materials at prevailing room temperature. However, bleaching with sodium per borate is more effective when the laundry solution exceeds 50°C in temperature. These two bleaches are examples of oxidizing bleaches, which is mostly used for cotton textile materials. Oxidizing bleaches are so called because they liberate oxygen which does the actual bleaching.  Absorbent: Cotton fiber has high absorbency power and this is why this fiber can be died properly and without any harassment.  Cotton Fiber DrapesWell: The drape-ability of cotton fiber is awesome.You can use the cotton fiber made fabric in any kind of wear which needs more flexibility and drapes.
  • 7.  Crimp: Cotton fiber is more or less twisted on its longitudinal axis which cab not be seen from out side is called convolution.The twist in the fiber does not to be continuous in one direction i.e. if at first right direction, then left direction. This property of cotton fiber helps in spinning.  Soft Hand: Cotton fiber is too much regular fiber and if properly ginned; this fiber can be the best soft hand feeling fiber amongst the others.
  • 8. Uses of Cotton Fiber:  Cotton fiber is a versatile fiber which has wide variety of uses. But the Cotton fiber is mostly used on the Apparel Industry to make the wearing cloth like Sweaters, Skirts, Shirts, Swimwear, Kids wear, Blouses, Pants, Hosiery and to make other type of dresses. o Because of its high capacity to absorb, hold and dry moisture, cotton offers maximum comfort under extreme heat and humidity. o is a fiber that “breathes”. Consumer prefers cotton for its comfort, laudability, absorbency, ease finishing and dyeing.
  • 9. o It is a preferred fabric for children & for anyone who has a sensitive skin and is allergic to other fibers, since it is non allergic. o A wide range of fabric construction methods can be employed including weaving, knitting as well as non woven techniques. o Cotton is used universally for a variety of apparel (both inner and outer wear)
  • 10. JUTE IS A LONG, SOFT, SHINY PLANT FIBER THAT CAN BE SPUN INTO CORES, STRONG THREADS. IT IS PRODUCED FROM PLANTS IN THE GENUS CORCHORUS, WHICH SEE FOR BOTANICAL INFORMATION AND OTHER USES. JUTE IS ONE OF THE CHEAPEST NATURAL FIBERS AND IS SECOND ONLY TO COTTON IN AMOUNT PRODUCED AND VARIETY OF USES. JUTE FIBERS ARE COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF THE PLANT MATERIALS CELLULOSE AND LIGNIN. IT FALLS INTO THE BAST FIBER CATEGORY (FIBER COLLECTED FROM BAST OR SKIN OF THE PLANT) ALONG WITH KENAF, INDUSTRIAL HEMP, RAMIE AND FLAX(LINEN) FIBER. jute
  • 11.  Physical Properties: Ultimate length: 1.5 – 4 mm Ultimate diameter: 0.015 – 0.020 mm No. of ultimate in X-section: 6 – 10 Fibers length: 5 – 12 ft. Color: White, OffWhite,Yellow, Brown, Grey, Golden Strength (Tenacity): 3 – 4 gm/den Elongation: 1.7% at the break Specific Gravity: 1.5
  • 12. Moisture Regain(MR%): 13.75% Resiliency: Bad Dimensional Stability: Good Abrasion Resistance: Average Effect of Light and Heat: Average Effect of Micro Organism: Good(better than Cotton
  • 13. ChemicalProperties:  Effect of Acids:  Easily damaged by hot diluteAcids and conc. cold Acid.  Effect of Alkalis:  Fibers are damaged by strong alkali. Fibers losses weight when it heated with caustic soda.  Effect of Bleaches:  Resistant to bleaching agents (Bleaching agent, H2O2, NaOcl, Naclo2, Na2O2, CH3COOH, KMnO4, etc.)  Effect of Light:  Color changes slightly in presence of sun light. It happens due to presence of lignin in fiber.  Effect of Mildew:  Prevention ability is better than Cotton and Linen.  Dyeing ability:  Easy to dyeing. Basic dye is used to color jute fiber.
  • 14.  Uses:  Core uses:  Twine and rope, sackings, carpets, wrapping fabrics (cotton bale), and the construction fabric manufacturing industry. It can be used in curtains, chair coverings, carpets, are rugs, Hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum.Other uses include espadrilles, floor coverings, home textiles, high performance textiles, geotextiles and composites.The jute is being replaced by synthetic materials in many of these uses, jute is still valuable due to its biodegradable nature. Synthetics are not suitable in some cases.  Twine and Rope: A very popular use; jute fibers are used alone or blended with other types of fibers to make twine and rope.  Paper: Jute fibers can be turned into pulp and with increasing concern over forest destruction for the wood pulp used to make most paper, the importance of jute for this purpose may increase.  Textile machineries: Such as textile fibers having cellulose (vegetable fiber content) and lignin (wood fiber content). Just is applied in the automobile, pulp and paper, and the furniture and bedding industries to manufacture non-woven, technical textile, and composites.
  • 15.  Home textiles: Jute has many advantages in home textile, either replacing cotton or blending with it. It is a strong, durable, color and lightfast fiber. Its UV protection, sound and heat insulation, low thermal condition and antistatic properties are advantageous. Jute fibers are also carbon dioxide neutral, naturally decomposable and can be used in high performance technical materials.  Fabrics: Jute can be used for Hessian cloth, sacking, scrim, carpet backing cloth (CBC), canvas and even blended to make silk. Hessian, lighter than sacking, is used for bags, wrappers, wall-coverings, upholstery, and home furnishings. Sacking, a fabric made of heavy jute fibers, has its use in the name.  Geotextiles: Made jute more popular in the agricultural sector. It is a lightly woven fabric made from natural fibers that is used for soil erosion control, seed protection, weed control, and many other agricultural and landscaping uses.
  • 16. LINEN/FLAX Linen is a cellulosic fibers derived from the stem of the flax plant or a fabric made from these fibers. Linen fibers are much stronger and more lustrous that cotton; they yield cool, absorbent fabrics that wrinkle easily. Fabrics with linen-like texture and coolness but with good wrinkle resistance can be produced from manufactured fibers and blends
  • 17.  PhysicalPropertiesof Linen: Physical properties of linen fibers are given below:  Tensile Strength: Linen is a strong fiber. It has a tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den.The strength is greater than cotton fiber.  Elongation at break: Linen does not stress easily. It has an elongation at break of 2.7 to 3.5 %.  Color:The color of linen fiber is yellowish to grey.  Length: 18 to 30 inch in length.  Luster: It is brighter than cotton fiber and it is slightly silky.  Elastic Recovery: Linen fiber has not enough elastic recovery properties like cotton fiber.  Specific Gravity: Specific gravity of linen fiber is 1.50.  Moisture Regain (MR %): Standard moisture regain is 10 to 12%  .  Resiliency: Very poor.  Effect of Heat: Linen has an excellent resistance to degradation by heat. It is less affected than cotton fiber by the heat.  Effect of Sun Light: Linen fiber is not affected by the sun light as others fiber. It has enough ability to protect sun light. 
  • 18.  Chemical Properties of Linen:  Linen is a natural cellulosic fiber and it has some chemical properties. Chemical properties of the linen fiber are given below: Effect of Acids: Linen fiber is damaged by highly dandified acids but low dense acids does not affect if it is wash instantly after application of acids.  Effects of Alkalis: Linen has an excellent resistance to alkalis. It does not affected by the strong alkalis.  Effects of Bleaching Agents:Cool chlorine and hypo-chlorine bleaching agent does not affect the linen fiber properties.  Effect of Organic Solvent: Linen fiber has high resistance to normal cleaning solvents.  Effect of Micro Organism: Linen fiber is attacked by fungi and bacteria. Mildews will feed on linen fabric, rotting and weakling the materials. Mildews and bacteria will flourish on linen under hot and humid condition.They can be protected by impregnation with certain types of chemicals. Copper Nepthenate is one of the chemical.  Effects of Insects: Linen fiber does not attacked by moth-grubs or beetles.  Dyes: It is not suitable to dye. But it can be dye by direct and vat dyes.
  • 19.  Major End Uses Linen Fabric:  Apparel:  dresses,  suits,  separates,  skirts,  jackets,  pants,  blouses,  shirts,  children's wear etc.  Home Fashion :  curtains,  draperies,  upholstery,  bedspreads,  table linens,  sheets,  dish towels etc.
  • 20. WOOL FIBER Wool fiber is the natural hair grown on sheep and is composed of protein substance called as keratin. Wool is composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and this is the only animal fiber, which contains sulfur in addition. The wool fibers have crimps or curls, which create pockets and give the wool a spongy feel and create insulation for the wearer.The outside surface of the fiber consists of a series of serrated scales, which overlap each other much like the scales of a fish. Wool is the only fiber with such serration’s which make it possible for the fibers to cling together and produce felt.
  • 21.  Physical properties of wool Tenacity: Wool is a complicated weak fiber.The low tensile strength is because of comparatively fewer hydrogen bonds.When it absorbs moisture, the water molecules steadily force sufficient polymers apart to cause a significant number of hydrogen bonds to break.The water molecules also hydrolyze several salt linkages in the amorphous regions of the strand. Breakage and hydrolysis of these inter- polymer forces of attraction are explicit as swelling of the fiber and result in loss of strength of the wet woolen material. Elasticityand resiliency: This is elastic and resilient. Covalent bonds can stretch, but they are strong.The disulphide bonds in the amorphous parts of the strand or fiber are able to stretch when the strand is extended.When the strand is released the disulphide bonds pull the protein molecules back into their original positions. If there are too few disulphide linkages as when the strand has been weakened by alkali or if the extension is great enough to break some of the covalent bonds, then some polypeptide chains will slide past one another.This causes a permanent extension of the wool.The natural crispness of the fiber also supports it to regain its real shape.
  • 22.  Hydroscopicnature:  It has the very absorbent nature because of the polarity of the peptide group, the salt linkages and the amorphous nature of the polymer system.The peptide groups and salt linkages easily attract water molecules which enter the amorphous polymer system of the fiber. In comparatively dry weather wool may develop static electricity.This is since these are hot enough.Water molecules in the polymer system support to distribute any static electricity which might develop.  Density:  It has a comparatively low density and therefore fibers are light with regard to their visible weight.  Conductivityof heat:  It has a low conductivity of heat and therefore makes it ideal for cold weather.The resiliency of the fiber is significant in the warmth properties of the fabric. Wool fibers do not pack well in yarns because of the crimp and scales, and this makes wool fabric process and capable of inserting much air. Air is one of the best insulators since it keeps body heat close to the body.The medulla of the wool fiber comprises air spaces that increase the insulating power of the fiber.  This strand can take up moisture in vapor form. Absorbency is a factor also in the warmth of clothing. In winter, when people go from a dry indoor atmosphere into the damp outdoor air, the heat developed by the fiber in absorbing moisture keeps to protect their bodies from the impact of the cold atmosphere.  Dimensionalstability:  It has poor dimensional stability and therefore shrinks easily. Felting or shrinkage results since under mechanical action, such as agitation, friction and pressure in the presence of heat and moisture, it tends to move root wards, and the edges of the scales interlock prohibiting the fibre from returning to its original position.This results in the fabric becoming thicker and smaller, that is it shrinks or felts.  -
  • 23. Chemical properties of wool Effectof acids: Concentrated acids damage it since they hydrolyze the salt linkages and hydrogen bonds. Dilute acids do not affect it. Effectof alkali: It easily dissolves in alkaline solutions.Alkalis hydrolyze the disulphide bonds; hydrogen bonds and salt linkages of wool and cause the polymers to separate from each other, which is looked as dissolution of the fibers. Hydrolysis of the peptide bonds of wool polymers lead to polymer fragmentation and total destruction of the strand. Prolonged exposure to alkalis causes hydrolysis of the peptide bonds of wool polymers lead to polymer fragmentation and total destruction of the fibre. Effectof bleach: Chlorine bleach is ordinary harmful to the wool. KMnO4, Na2O2 are utilized for bleaching. - See more at: http://textileapex.blogspot.com/2015/01/physical-chemical- properties-wool-fibre.html#sthash.iNm3BwVA.dpuf
  • 24.  Effectof sunlight and weather:  Effect of sunlight’s ultra-violate radiation tends to yellow white or dull colored fabrics.The ultra-violate cause the peptide and disulphide bonds to sever.This leads to polymer degradation products on the surface of the fiber. As a consequence the strand not only absorbs more light but scatters the incident light to a greater extent.The prolonged exposure to sunlight weakens the fibers very much.  Color fastness:  Like cotton wool is easy to dye. Acid dyes, chrome and mordant dyes are utilized to dye this.The dye molecules are attracted into the amorphous areas of wool.  -
  • 25.  Clothing: wool has been used for blankets, horse rugs, saddle cloths, carpeting.  wool insulation: Wool felt covers piano hammers, and it is used to absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo speakers. Ancient Greeks lined their helmets with felt, and Roman legionnaires used breastplates made of wool felt.  baby sleep products: Merino wool has been used in baby sleep products such as swaddle baby wrap blankets and infant sleeping bags.  soil fertilize: As an animal protein, it can be used as a soil fertilizer, being a slow- release source of nitrogen.
  • 26.  blend of wool: a blend of wool and kevlar, the synthetic fiber widely used in body armor, was lighter, cheaper and worked better in damp conditions than kevlar alone. Kevlar.  cloth diapers: Wool has also been traditionally used to cover cloth diapers.
  • 27. silk  Silk is an animal protein fiber produced by certain insects to build their cocoons and webs. Many different types of silk are produced by a huge variety of different types of insects other than moth caterpillars.Yet none of these have been exploited for commercial purposes, though there has been basic research into the structures of such silks. Silk is most commonly produced by larvae, and thus largely limited to insects with complete metamorphosis.
  • 28. SILK FIBER PROPERTIESOF SILKFIBER  low density makes for light and comfortable clothing  high resistance to deformation  good insulation properties / warm in winter, cool in summer  strongest natural fiber available  shimmers and shines  good affinity to dye  leaving aside the rather demanding care, silk is one of the most comfortable fiber fabrics in the world.  Silk threads are very fine, soft and light in weight.  They are very thin but strong having high elastic property.  Strong bleaches containing sodium hypochlorite will deteriorate silk.  Silk fiber can generally absorbs about 11% of its weight in moisture, but the range varies from 10% to as much as 30%.
  • 29. USES OF SILK FIBER  Bulk of silk fibers produced is utilised in preparing silk clothes.  It is used in the manufacture of fishing fibers, parachutes, cartridge bags.  Silk's absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather.  It is often used for clothing such as shirts, ties, blouses, formal dresses, high fashion clothes, lining, lingerie, pajamas, robes, dress suits, sun dresses and Eastern folk costumes..  Silk is used in curtain because it is very good fall.  Silk's attractive luster and drape makes it suitable for many furnishing applications.  Silk is also used in upholstry.  silk has had many industrial and commercial uses, such as in parachutes, bicycle tires, comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags.
  • 30. ACETATEFIBER  Hand: soft, smooth, dry, crisp, resilient  Comfort: breathes, wicks, dries quickly, no static cling  Drape: linings move with the body linings conform to the garment  Color: deep brilliant shades with atmospheric dyeing meet colorfastness requirements  Luster: light reflection creates a signature appearance  Performance: colorfast to perspiration staining, colorfast to dry cleaning, air and vapor permeable  Tenacity: weak fiber with breaking tenacity of 1.2 to 1.4 g/d; rapidly loses strength when wet; must be dry cleaned  Abrasion: poor resistance  Heat retention: poor thermal retention; no allergenic potential (hypoallergenic)  Dyeability: (two methods) cross-dying method where yarns of one fiber and those of another fiber are woven into a fabric in a desired pattern; solution-dying method provides excellent color fastness under the effects of sunlight, perspiration, air contaminants and washing. Properties:
  • 31. USESOFACETATE  It is used in cigarette filters.  It is used in home furnishing, upholstry etc.  It is used in wedding and party dresses.  It is also used in blouses.  It is used in ink reservoirs for fiber tip pens.  It is also used in surgical products.
  • 32. ACRYLIC  Outstanding wick ability & quick drying to move moisture from body surface  Flexible aesthetics for wool-like, cotton-like, or blended appearance  Easily washed, retains shape  Resistant to moths, oil, and chemicals  Dye able to bright shades with excellent fastness  Superior resistance to sunlight degradation.  Easy to wash and good dimensional stability.  Resistance to damage by moths and chemical substances.  Excellent color-fastness and dye ability in brilliant colors.  Lightweight, soft, and warm, with a wool-like touch.
  • 33. USESOFACRYLIC  Apparel: Sweaters, socks, fleece wear, circular knit apparel, sportswear and children's wear  Home Furnishings: Blankets, area rugs, upholstery, pile; luggage, awnings, outdoor furniture  Other Uses: Craft yarns, sail cover cloth, wipe cloths  Industrial Uses:Asbestos replacement; concrete and stucco reinforcement 
  • 34. POLYSTER  Polyester fiber don’t have a good elasticity.  Polyester fiber has a high degree resiliency.  Polyester has a better conductor of heat.  Polyester one of the least absorbent fiber.  Polyester fiber has a strong strength.  Fabrics of polyester may be safely bleached because polyster has good resistance to deformation by household bleaches.  Polyester can be dyed with appropriate disperse and azoic.  Polyester has excellent to good resistance to mineral and organic acids.
  • 35. USESOFPOLYSTER  Polyester is often used in outerwear because of its high tenacity and durability.  Its hydrophobic property makes it ideal for garments and jackets that are to be used in wet or damp environments--coating the fabric with a water- resistant finish intensifies this effect.  Many jackets and quilted garments are made of polyester.  Polyester can be molded into almost any shape, certain insulating properties can be built-in to the fiber.  The warm air stays inside and helps warm the body in cool weather.  Polyester is often used in pants, shirts, suits, and bed sheets either by itself or as a blend.  Polyester also has industrial uses as well, such as carpets, filters, synthetic artery replacements, ropes, and films.