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TEXTILE INSTITUTE OF
PAKISTAN
NAME: YASIR AMIN
SUBMIT TO: SIR IMRAN RAZA
DISCIPLINE: TS 1-A
ASSIGNMENT#1
DATE: 24th March’...
FIBERS
Fiber:
It is defined as one of the delicate, hair portions of the
tissues of a plant or animal or other substances ...
• Types of Textile Fiber:
• Generally two types of fiber.
• 1. Natural fiber.
• 2. Manmade fiber.
• Natural Fiber:
• Natur...
PROPERTIES OF FIBERS
A) Physical Properties
1. Length
2. Fineness
3. Crimp
4. Maturity
5. Lusture
6. Softness
7. Resilienc...
COTTON
PROPERTIES:
1. Upper Half Mean Length (in inches)
A. #1 Upland Virgin Staple 0.70 - 1.30
B. Gin Motes 0.50 - 0.80
C. Combe...
3. Elastic Recovery (by percent)
A. At 2 % Extension 74
%
B. At 5% Extension 45
%
4. Breaking Elongation (dry) 3-
9.5
5. T...
6. Moisture Regain at Standard Conditions 7%
7. Water Absorbing Capacity (USP method) >24
grams of water per gram of fiber...
12. Thermal Resistance
A. Long exposure to dry heat above 300
0
F will cause gradual decomposition
B. Temperatures greater...
USES:
• Apparel - Wide range of wearing apparel:
blouses, shirts, dresses, childrenswear, active
wear, separates, swimwear...
LINEN FIBER
PROPERTIES:
Tensile Strength: Linen is a strong fiber. It has a
tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den. The strength is
greater tha...
Moisture Regain (MR %): Standard moisture
regain is 10 to 12%.
Resiliency: Very poor.
Effect of Heat: Linen has an excelle...
Effect of Acids: Linen fiber is damaged by highly
densified acids but low dense acids does not
affect if it is wash instan...
Effect of Micro Organism: Linen fiber is attacked
by fungi and bacteria. Mildews will feed on linen
fabric, rotting and we...
USES:
Apparel:
dresses,
suits,
separates,
skirts,
jackets,
pants,
blouses,
shirts,
children's wear etc.
Home Fashion :
cur...
JUTE FIBER:
PROPERTIES:
• End use
• Jute is used for making yarn, twine, rope,
sacking, cloth, hessian cloth, carpet
backing cloth, carpet, mat, w...
SILK FIBER:
PROPERTIES:
Composition: The silk fibre is chiefly composed of 80% of fibroin, which is
protein in nature and 20% of seric...
Drapability: Silk has a liability and suppleness that, aided
by its elasticity and resilience, gives it excellent
drapabil...
Cleanliness and Washability: Silk fabric does not attract dirt
because of its smooth surface. The dirt, which gathers can ...
Effect of Heat: Silk is sensitive to heat and begins to decompose at 330° F
(165° C). The silk fabrics thus have to be iro...
USES:
Silk fiber is widely used to make different items.
In apparel industry Silk is used for making
Dresses, Blouses, Ski...
WOOL FIBER:
PROPERTIES:
USES:
Boots
Carpet
Blankets
Sweaters
Coats
Seat covers
VISCOSERAYONFIBER
PROPERTIES:
Moisture Absorption
It absorbs more moisture than cotton. Moisture Content of Coton is
6% at 70 deg F and 65% ...
Elongation at Break
Ordinary Viscose rayon has 15-30% elongation at break,
whule high tenacity rayon has only 9-17% elonga...
Action of Acids:
The resistance of regenerated cellulose rayon’s to acids is
generally less than that of cotton to the sam...
Action of Solvents
Textile solvents can be used on Viscose rayon without any
deteriorating effect. Viscose rayon dissolves...
USES:
• ayon typically has an elevated luster quality giving it a
brilliant gloss
• Mainly, Rayon fibres are used in appar...
ACRYLICFIBER:
PROPERTIES:
• Length
• The length of the acrylic fibre can be controlled. That means, it may be in filament or staple
form...
• Cross-sectional shape
• Normally round but cross-section of this fibre could be varied.
•
• Appearance
• It is about 30%...
• Effect of heat and sunlight
• This fiber has very good thermal stability. Safe ironing temperature
is at 1600C. At 230 –...
POLYESTER:
PROPERTIES:
• Tenacity: Polyester filaments and staple fibre are
strong due to their crystalline nature. The crystalline
n...
Thermal properties: It is a poor heat conductor
and it has low resistance to heat. It melts on
heating. Polyester textile ...
• Effect of acids: These polymers are resistant to acids.
• Effetc of alkalis: Alkaline conditions as seen in laundering
h...
USES:
Polyester is used in the manufacturing of all
kinds of clothes and home furnishings like
bedspreads, sheets, pillows...
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Textile institute of pakistan 123

  1. 1. TEXTILE INSTITUTE OF PAKISTAN NAME: YASIR AMIN SUBMIT TO: SIR IMRAN RAZA DISCIPLINE: TS 1-A ASSIGNMENT#1 DATE: 24th March’2016
  2. 2. FIBERS Fiber: It is defined as one of the delicate, hair portions of the tissues of a plant or animal or other substances that are very small in diameter in relation to there length. A fiber is a material which is several hundred times as long as its thick. Textile Fiber: Textile fiber has some characteristics which differ between fiber to Textile fiber. Textile fiber can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, and twisting. The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient strength. Other important properties include elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, and luster.
  3. 3. • Types of Textile Fiber: • Generally two types of fiber. • 1. Natural fiber. • 2. Manmade fiber. • Natural Fiber: • Natural fibers include those produced by plants, animals, and geological processes. They are biodegradable over time. They can be classified according to their origin. • • A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) of: • (1) animal (i.e., silk fiber and wool fiber); • (2) mineral (i.e., asbestos fiber); or • (3) vegetable origin (i.e., cotton fiber, flax fiber, jute fiber, and ramie fiber). • Manmade Fiber: • Synthetic or man-made fibers generally come from synthetic materials such as petrochemicals. But some types of synthetic fibers are manufactured from natural cellulose; including rayon, modal, and the more recently developed Lyocell. A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) produced from fiber-forming substances which may be: • • (1) Polymers synthesized from chemical compounds, e.g., acrylic fiber, nylon fiber, polyester fiber, polyethylene fiber, polyurethane fiber, and polyvinyl fibers; • • (2) Minerals, e.g., glasses. The term manufactured usually refers to all chemically produced fibers to distinguish them from the truly natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk, flax, etc.e.g: Glass fiber,
  4. 4. PROPERTIES OF FIBERS A) Physical Properties 1. Length 2. Fineness 3. Crimp 4. Maturity 5. Lusture 6. Softness 7. Resiliency 8. Work of rupture 9. Density 10. Appearance 11. Flexibility 12. Toughness 13. Elorgation B)Mechanical Properties 1. Strength 2. Elasticity 3. Extensibility 4. Rigidity
  5. 5. COTTON
  6. 6. PROPERTIES: 1. Upper Half Mean Length (in inches) A. #1 Upland Virgin Staple 0.70 - 1.30 B. Gin Motes 0.50 - 0.80 C. Comber <0.50 D. First Cut linters 0.25- 0.50 2. Fiber Diameter A. Micronaire 2.0 - 7.0 B. Approximate Denier 0.7 - 2.5
  7. 7. 3. Elastic Recovery (by percent) A. At 2 % Extension 74 % B. At 5% Extension 45 % 4. Breaking Elongation (dry) 3- 9.5 5. Tensile Strength (g per tex/g per denier) A. Dry 27 - 44 / 3.0 - 4.9 B. Wet 28 - 57 / 3.3 - 6.4
  8. 8. 6. Moisture Regain at Standard Conditions 7% 7. Water Absorbing Capacity (USP method) >24 grams of water per gram of fiber 8. Density (g/cm3) 1.54 9. Degree of Polymerization9,000 - 15,000 10. Crystallinity by X-ray Diffraction (average) 73% 11. Color (Whiteness Index)90 - 100
  9. 9. 12. Thermal Resistance A. Long exposure to dry heat above 300 0 F will cause gradual decomposition B. Temperatures greater than 475 0 F cause rapid deterioration 13. Acid Resistance A. Disintegrated by hot dilute acids or cold concentrated acids B. Unaffected by cold weak acids 14. Alkali Resistance A. Swelling in NaOH above 15% concentration but no damage 15. Organic Solvent Resistance A. Resistant to most common industrial and household solvents
  10. 10. USES: • Apparel - Wide range of wearing apparel: blouses, shirts, dresses, childrenswear, active wear, separates, swimwear, suits, jackets, skirts, pants, sweaters, hosiery, neckwear. • Home Fashion - curtains, draperies, bedspreads, comforters, throws, sheets, towels, table cloths, table mats, napkins
  11. 11. LINEN FIBER
  12. 12. PROPERTIES: Tensile Strength: Linen is a strong fiber. It has a tenacity of 5.5 to 6.5 gm/den. The strength is greater than cotton fiber. Elongation at break: Linen does not stress easily. It has an elongation at break of 2.7 to 3.5 %. Color: The color of linen fiber is yellowish to grey. Length: 18 to 30 inch in length. Lusture: It is brighter than cotton fiber and it is slightly silky. Elastic Recovery: Linen fiber has not enough elastic recovery properties like cotton fiber
  13. 13. Moisture Regain (MR %): Standard moisture regain is 10 to 12%. Resiliency: Very poor. Effect of Heat: Linen has an excellent resistance to degradation by heat. It is less affected than cotton fiber by the heat. Effect of Sun Light: Linen fiber is not affected by the sun light as others fiber. It has enough ability to protect sun light.
  14. 14. Effect of Acids: Linen fiber is damaged by highly densified acids but low dense acids does not affect if it is wash instantly after application of acids. Effects of Alkalis: Linen has an excellent resistance to alkalis. It does not affected by the strong alkalis. Effects of Bleaching Agents: Cool chlorine and hypo-chlorine bleaching agent does not affect the linen fiber properties. Effect of Organic Solvent: Linen fiber has high resistance to normal cleaning solvents.
  15. 15. Effect of Micro Organism: Linen fiber is attacked by fungi and bacteria. Mildews will feed on linen fabric, rotting and weakling the materials. Mildews and bacteria will flourish on linen under hot and humid condition. They can be protected by impregnation with certain types of chemicals. Copper Nepthenate is one of the chemical. Effects of Insects: Linen fiber does not attacked by moth-grubs or beetles. Dyes: It is not suitable to dye. But it can be dye by direct and vat dyes.
  16. 16. USES: Apparel: dresses, suits, separates, skirts, jackets, pants, blouses, shirts, children's wear etc. Home Fashion : curtains, draperies, upholstery, bedspreads, table linens, sheets, dish towels etc.
  17. 17. JUTE FIBER:
  18. 18. PROPERTIES:
  19. 19. • End use • Jute is used for making yarn, twine, rope, sacking, cloth, hessian cloth, carpet backing cloth, carpet, mat, wall cloth, shopping bag, and as packing materials.
  20. 20. SILK FIBER:
  21. 21. PROPERTIES: Composition: The silk fibre is chiefly composed of 80% of fibroin, which is protein in nature and 20% of sericin, which is otherwise called as silk gum. Strength: Silk as a fibre, has good tensile strength, which allows it to withstand great pulling pressure. Silk is the strongest natural fibre and has moderate abrasion resistance. The strength of the thrown yarns is mainly due to the continuous length of the fibre. Spun silk yarn though strong is weaker than thrown silk filament yarns. Elasticity: Silk fibre is an elastic fibre and may be stretched from 1/7 to 1/5 of its original length before breaking. It tends to return to its original size but gradually loses little of its elasticity. This would mean that the fabric would be less sagging and less binding resulting in the wearers comfort. Resilience: Silk fabrics retain their shape and have moderate resistance to wrinkling. Fabrics that are made from short – staple spun silk have less resilience.
  22. 22. Drapability: Silk has a liability and suppleness that, aided by its elasticity and resilience, gives it excellent drapability. Heat Conductivity: Silk is a protein fibre and is a non- conductor of heat similar to that of wool. This makes silk suitable for winter apparel. Absorbency: Silk fabrics being protein in nature have good absorbency. The absorptive capacity of the silk fabric makes comfortable apparel even for warmer atmosphere. Fabrics made from silk are comfortable in the summer and warm in the winter. Silk fibre can generally absorb about 11 percent of its weight in moisture, but the range varies from 10 percent to as much as 30 percent. This property is also a major factor in silk’s ability to be printed and dyed easily.
  23. 23. Cleanliness and Washability: Silk fabric does not attract dirt because of its smooth surface. The dirt, which gathers can be easily removed by washing or dry cleaning. It is often recommended for the silk garments to be dry-cleaned. Silk fabrics should always be washed with a mild soap and strong agitation in washing machine should be avoided. Silk water – spot easily, but subsequent washing or dry cleaning will restore the appearance of the fabric. Reaction to Bleaches: Silk, like wool, is deteriorated with chlorine bleaches like sodium hypochlorite. However, mild bleach of hydrogen peroxide or sodium per borate may be used for silk. Shrinkage: Silk fabrics are subjected only to normal shrinkage which can be restored by ironing. Crepe effect fabrics shrink considerably in washing, but careful ironing with a moderately hot iron will restore the fabric to its original size.
  24. 24. Effect of Heat: Silk is sensitive to heat and begins to decompose at 330° F (165° C). The silk fabrics thus have to be ironed when damp. Effect of Light: Silk fabric weakens on exposure to sun light. Raw silks are more resistant to light than degummed silk. Resistance to Mildew: Silks will not mildew unless left for sometime in a damp state or under the extreme conditions of tropical dampness. Resistance to Insects: Silk may be attacked by the larvae or clothe moths or carpet beetles. Reaction to Alkalis: Silk is not as sensitive as wool to alkalis, but it can be damaged if the concentration and the temperature are high. A mild soap or detergent in lukewarm water is thus advisable. Reaction to Acids: Concentrated mineral acids will dissolve silk faster than wool. Organic acids do not harm silk. Affinity for Dyes: Silk has good absorbency and thus has good affinity for dyes. Dyed silk is colourfast under most conditions, but its resistance to light is unsatisfactory. Resistance to Perspiration: Perspiration and sunlight weakens and yellows silk fabrics. The silk itself deteriorates and the colour is affected causing staining. Garments worn next to the skin should be washed or other wise cleaned after each wearing.
  25. 25. USES: Silk fiber is widely used to make different items. In apparel industry Silk is used for making Dresses, Blouses, Skirts, Jackets, Pants, Scarves and ties.
  26. 26. WOOL FIBER:
  27. 27. PROPERTIES:
  28. 28. USES: Boots Carpet Blankets Sweaters Coats Seat covers
  29. 29. VISCOSERAYONFIBER
  30. 30. PROPERTIES: Moisture Absorption It absorbs more moisture than cotton. Moisture Content of Coton is 6% at 70 deg F and 65% RH, and for Viscose Rayon it is 13% under the same conditions. Tensile Strength The Tensile Strength of the fibre is less when the fibre is wet than when dry. It is 1.5-2.4 gpd in the dry state and 0.7-1.2 gpd in the wet state. For high tenacity variety the values are 3-4.6 gpd and 1.9 to 3.0 gpd. Elasticity The elasticity of Viscose Rayon is less than 2-3%. This is very important in handling viscose yarns during weaving, stentering etc when sudden tensions are applied.
  31. 31. Elongation at Break Ordinary Viscose rayon has 15-30% elongation at break, whule high tenacity rayon has only 9-17% elongation at break. Density The density of Viscose rayon is 1.53 g/cc. Rayon filaments are available in three densities: 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 Action of Heat and Light At 300 deg F or more, VR loses its strength and begins to decompose at 350-400 deg F. Prolonged exposure to sunlight also weakens the fibre due to moisture and ultraviolet light of the sunlight.
  32. 32. Action of Acids: The resistance of regenerated cellulose rayon’s to acids is generally less than that of cotton to the same concentrations of the same acids. Therefore , acid treatments must not be too drastic with respect to concentration ,temperature and time .Organic acids can be safely used in 1 to 2 percent concentration without injury to the fiber. Inorganic acids such as hydrochloric & nitric can be used in surprisingly strong concentrations provided the temperatures are not too high and the treatment is brief. Oxalic acid for removal of iron stains is not recommended except at temperatures lower than 150°F.At high temperatures and concentrations all acid will destroy or carbonize regenerated rayon’s. No harmful action will result if applied at .5 to 3 percent solution at room temperature.
  33. 33. Action of Solvents Textile solvents can be used on Viscose rayon without any deteriorating effect. Viscose rayon dissolves in cuprammonium hydroxide solution. Effect of Iron Contact with iron in the form of ferrous hydroxide weakens viscose rayon yarns. Therefore staining, marking or touching of rayon to iron or iron surface should be avoided. Action of Microorganisms Microorganisms ( moulds, mildew, fungus, bacteria) affect the colour, strength, dyeing properties and lustre of rayon. Clean and dry viscose rayon is rarely attacked by moulds and mildew.
  34. 34. USES: • ayon typically has an elevated luster quality giving it a brilliant gloss • Mainly, Rayon fibres are used in apparel industry such as Aloha shirts, blouses, dresses, Jackets, Lingerie, scarves, suits, ties, hats and socks…, • Some rayon fibres are for filling in Zippo lighters, furnishings including bedspreads, bedsheets, blankets, window covers, upholstery and slipcovers.., • For industrial purposes such as medical surgery products, non-woven items, tire cord and some other uses like diapers, towels, feminine hygiene products..,
  35. 35. ACRYLICFIBER:
  36. 36. PROPERTIES: • Length • The length of the acrylic fibre can be controlled. That means, it may be in filament or staple form. • Fineness • Fineness of this fibre is also controllable. The filament yarns are made 75 to 200 denier ranges while staple fibres are made 2 and 3 denier cut into 1.5”, 2”, 3” and 4” length. • Strength and Extension • It is fairly strong fibre. Its tenacity is 5 gm per denier in dry state and 4.8 gm per denier in wet state. Extension at break is 15%. Good recovery from deformation. • Elasticity • It has an elastic recovery of 85% after 4% extension when the load is extremely released. • - See more at: http://textileapex.blogspot.com/2015/03/properties-of-acrylic- fibre.html#sthash.KpQfZWf9.dpuf
  37. 37. • Cross-sectional shape • Normally round but cross-section of this fibre could be varied. • • Appearance • It is about 30% bulkier than wool. Regarding insulating warmth, it has about 20% greater insulating power than wool. • • Effects of chemical • Acid: It has good resistance to mineral acid. • Alkali: The resistance to weak alkali is fairly good but hot strong alkali damages this fibre. • Solvent: It has excellent resistance to common solvents, oils, greases, and natural salts. • Water: moisture regain of this fibre varies from 1.5% to 3%. Easy to wash and quick drying. • - See more at: http://textileapex.blogspot.com/2015/03/properties-of- acrylic-fibre.html#sthash.KpQfZWf9.dpuf
  38. 38. • Effect of heat and sunlight • This fiber has very good thermal stability. Safe ironing temperature is at 1600C. At 230 – 2350C acrylic sticks with the iron i.e. melting occurs. High temperature may sometime causes yellowing of this fibre. • • Effect of Biological agents • This fibre is unaffected by mildew, moulds, larves and insects. • • End use • 100% acrylic is used mainly in sweater, jersey, knit outer wear fabric and blankets. It is used as a blend component with cotton, viscose, wool etc. It has good warmth and recovery property. It is also used for making carpet due to good resiliency property. • - See more at: http://textileapex.blogspot.com/2015/03/properties- of-acrylic-fibre.html#sthash.KpQfZWf9.dpuf
  39. 39. POLYESTER:
  40. 40. PROPERTIES: • Tenacity: Polyester filaments and staple fibre are strong due to their crystalline nature. The crystalline nature permits for the formation of highly effective Vander wall’s forces as well as since hydrogen bonds which provided the fibre its good tenacity. The tenacity remains unchanged when wet since the fibre resists the entry of water molecules to a significant extent. • Elastic plastic nature: The very crystallinity of the fibre prevents wrinkling and creasing. Repeated stretching and straining causes, distortion of the polymer system as the Vander wall’s forces cannot withstand much stretching.
  41. 41. Thermal properties: It is a poor heat conductor and it has low resistance to heat. It melts on heating. Polyester textile materials can be permanently heat-set. It is a thermoplastic fibre meaning that it is capable of being shaped or turned when heated. Thermoplastic fibres heated under strictly controlled temperatures soften and can then be made to similar to a flat, creased or pleated configuration. When cooled thermoplastic fibres retain the new configuration.
  42. 42. • Effect of acids: These polymers are resistant to acids. • Effetc of alkalis: Alkaline conditions as seen in laundering hydrolyse the ester groups in polyester polymers. The crystalline nature prohibits hydrolysis to a greater extent and it is the surface of filament which gets hydrolysed. Continued laundering results in hydrolysis and materials get fewer as the surface film of the fibre gets lost. • Effect of bleaches: It does nor requie bleaching. It retains its whiteness and requires only chlorine bleaches to be used when essential. • Sunlight: It withstands the sun’s ultra-violate radiations and is resistant to acidic pollutants in atmosphere. • Color Fastness: It is not easy for dye molecule to penetrate the fibre when dyed, it retains its color after regular wash. • Micro-Organisms: It is resistant to bacteria and other mcro- organisms.
  43. 43. USES: Polyester is used in the manufacturing of all kinds of clothes and home furnishings like bedspreads, sheets, pillows, furniture, carpets and even curtains. The disco clothing of the 70s with all its jazz and flash was made of polyester.
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