Reading strategies

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  • Reading strategies

    1. 1. How to improve your effectiveness tounderstand and use written corporate communication
    2. 2. Objectives Define different types of reading strategiesPractice quick reading techniquesReview grammar basic functionsDefine Syntax language relationshipsIdentify proper word order in written languageUnderstanding Scripts OrganizationTranslate diverse typical technical terminologyDiscuss different types of interpretingPractice Technical Scripts translations
    3. 3. Attention Getter  1.75 Billion people use English at a useful levelShould business be English-only?
    4. 4. Topic Relevance at Work  Improving your reading and understanding capabilities will cut your AHT and CRP.Locating and using relevant information is crucial tosolve customers’ issues and keep customers satisfied.Learning how to read better will grant a more effective master of language.
    5. 5. Big Picture  four domains of Language proficiency includes expression: speaking, writing, listening and reading. As part of our daily activities, we’re faced to use different sorts of written works, e.g. scripts and guidelines, emails and messages. By improving our reading skills, we can have a better performance and develop more possibilities to our professional careers.
    6. 6. The Art of Reading Comprehension from Scanning, Skimming, Inferring and other Reading Techniques
    7. 7. How Do You read?1.  left to right in the Track through the sentence from correct sequence, potentially across multiple lines of text.2. Decode, or recognize by sight, each word in the sentence.3. Access the meaning of each word.4. Hold the words in sequence in memory.5. Process the words together to determine the meaning of the full sentence.6. Relate the meaning of the sentence to the rest of the story and to prior knowledge and experience.
    8. 8. Individual Activity: Questions  Why do you think active reading skills are important? What do you think are some of the advantages of developing active reading skills? How do you think active reading skills can help you in your current endeavors and profession?
    9. 9. Understanding Reading Scientific Reading Notions comprise:  We read from “behind the eyes”.  Eye limitation and Tunnel Vision.  Short and Long-term memory.  Meaning and Prediction in learning process
    10. 10. Good Reading Habits  A good reader reads in silence and looking for answers to his internal questions. Will try to catch the most meaning from the key words in the passage. Doesn’t try to memorize because it can destroy comprehension. A good reader reads to internalize the new information compared to the one he previously had.
    11. 11. Tips for Effective Reading  Make comprehension questions  Answer from repeating verbatim  Relate information from experience  Draw inferences Vocabulary Development  Productive words  Receptive words  Guess meaning from context
    12. 12. Tips for Effective Reading - cont. Find the main idea   Scanning the page  Examine titles, pictures, TOC, headings, subheadings, notes and introductory sentence Increase speed  Skimming the page  Move eyes across and down page in a steady, sweeping movement without reading word by word  Use eyes efficiently
    13. 13. Tornadoes in Kansas  Kansas is known for many things -wheat, sunflowers ... and tornadoes! What famous story set in Kansas features a tornado? The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, by L. Frank Baum, tells the story of Dorothy, who gets caught in a Kansas tornado and lands in the imaginary land of Oz. This story has been dramatized on stage and film. You might have seen the movie version, which stars Judy Garland as Dorothy. Tornadoes are storms with rapidly rotating winds that form a funnel cloud. Also known as "twisters," they extend downward from the huge clouds of a severe thunderstorm. The winds that rotate within a tornado usually reach a speed of almost 300 miles per hour! A tornado often sweeps through an area quickly, but it can cause considerable destruction. There have been a number of remarkable reports of tornadoes. In one instance, a schoolhouse was demolished while the 85 students originally inside it were carried more than 400 feet with none killed. There was also a case of five railway coaches, each weighing 70 tons, lifted from their tracks.
    14. 14. More Than Rapid Reading  Fluent readers are able to adapt their reading skills to meet the demands of the reading task before them, varying rates of speed and levels of comprehension to suit their purpose for reading. Some auxiliary techniques for rapid reading are Skimming and Scanning. To skim is to pass quickly over material - as quickly as you can - while getting a general, holistic view of the content. Skimming also differs in that lowered levels of comprehension are acceptable. Aim for 50% comprehension when skimming If you find yourself consistently scoring 70 to 80%, you are not skimming fast enough.
    15. 15. Skimming - Scanning  When you apply these techniques, you don’t read every word. Instead, you look over the reading passage quickly to find specific facts or ideas. Skim the ideas before reading. The ideas often appear in section headings. Once aware of main ideas you are prepared to recognize important details. Scan or preview the material you will be reading in order to focus on the topic. Read first sentence of each paragraph to get an overview of the points covered.
    16. 16. DIFFERENT READING SPEEDS  MODE OF READING RATE COMPREHENSIONSLOW: Study and critical reading - used when 200 to 300material is difficult or when high comprehension 80 - 90% wpmis required.AVERAGE: Pleasure and rapid reading - used for 250 to 500everyday reading of magazines, newspapers, 70% wpmindependent reading, and easier texts.ACCELERATED: Skimming and scanning - usedwhen the highest rate is desired. Comprehension 800+ wpm 50 - 60%is intentionally lower.
    17. 17. Syntactical Clues  can make you read Recognizing grammatical structures faster by anticipating patterns.  Definition  Classification  Comparison and contrast  Analysis  Cause and effect Anticipating the order in which the material will be presented helps you put the facts into perspective and to see how the parts fit into the whole.
    18. 18. Paragraph Organization -1 TYPE PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT SAMPLE TRANSITIONS Description is like listing; the characters is defined as / means / isDEFINITION that make up a description are a simple described as / is called / refers to listing of details. / term or concept Items are related by the comparisons similar, different / on the otherCOMPARISON (similarities) that are made or by the hand / but / however / biggerANDCONTRAST contrasts (differences) that are than, smaller than / in the same presented. way / parallels One item is showed as having produced for this reason / consequently / onCAUSE AND another element. An event (effect) is saidEFFECT that account / hence / because / to have happened because of some made situation or circumstance (cause). the first element; another key part; Classification & division, comparison &TOPICAL a third common principle ofORDER contrast, analogy, definition, examples & organization; Brent also objected illustrations. to Stellas breath
    19. 19. Paragraph Organization -2TYPE PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT  The information is given either from the least SAMPLE TRANSITIONS central, principal, chief, major, main, key, primary,ORDER OF important feature to the most important, or vice significant… ! finally, lastly,IMPORTANCE versa. This pattern is also known as finishing with, ending with, hierarchical or chain of command. least... problem, need, difficulty, The text presents a significant problem and dilemma, enigma, challenge,PROBLEM explains it in detail. Then, a possible solution isAND issue ! answer, propose, suggest,SOLUTION proposed. Sometimes, only the problem is indicate, solve, resolve, improve, presented because there is no solution. plan, respond to a need. The information explains the steps in a how to, in the process of, the particular procedure or process. The steps andPROCESS following steps / first, second, stages lead up to a final product or finished third… project.MIXED In the real world, many texts contain sections and passages that combine two orPATTERNS more patterns of organization. This is perfectly normal and acceptable.
    20. 20. Scanning to locate specific informationAlthough this ordering may have given the reader a distorted impression of the historical importance of X-rays, this impression will be corrected shortly as wedescribe the crucial role played by X-rays in the development of modern physics. X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Roentgen while studying the phenomena of gaseousdischarge.Using a cathode ray tube with a high voltage of several tens of kilovolts, he noticedthat salts of barium would fluoresce when brought near the tube, although nothingvisible was emitted by the tube. This effect persisted when the tube was wrappedwith a layer of black cardboard.Roentgen took the first steps in identifying the nature of X-rays by using a system ofslits to show that (1) they travel in straight lines, and that (2) they are uncharged, becausethey are not deflected by electric or magnetic fields. The discovery of X-rays arousedthe interest of all physicists, and many joined in the investigation of their properties.In 1899 Haga and Wind performed a single slit diffraction experiment with X-rayswhich showed that (3) X-rays are a wave motion phenomenon, and, from the size of thediffraction pattern, their wavelength could be estimated to be 10-8 cm. In 1906 Barklaproved that (4) the waves are transverse by showing that they can be polarized byscattering from many materials. There is, of course, no longer anything unknownabout the nature of X-rays.
    21. 21. Skimming Using First Lines of ParagraphsHere I want to try to give you an answer to the question: What personal qualities are desirable in a teacher?First, the teachers personality should be pleasantly live and attractive. This does notrule out people who are physically plain, or even ugly, because many such have greatpersonal charm. But it does rule out such types as the over-excitable, melancholy,frigid, sarcastic, cynical, frustrated, and over-bearing : I would say too, that itexcludes all of dull or purely negative personality.Secondly, it is not merely desirable but essential for a teacher to have a genuinecapacity for sympathy - in the literal meaning of that word; a capacity to tune in tothe minds and feelings of other people, especially, since most teachers are schoolteachers, to the minds and feelings of children.Thirdly, I hold it essential for a teacher to be both intellectually and morally honest.This does not mean being a plaster saint. It means that he will be aware of hisintellectual strengths and limitations.A teacher must remain mentally alert. He will not get into the profession if of lowintelligence, but it is all too easy, even for people of above-average intelligence, tostagnate intellectually.Finally, I think a teacher should have the kind of mind which always wants to go onlearning. Teaching is a job at which one will never be perfect; there is alwayssomething more to learn about it.
    22. 22. Lexical – Cultural –Technical  Develop strategies for intelligent guessing of meaning from context. Learn word association in situational contexts is most useful for lexical predictability. Becoming familiar with culturally bound content helps understanding Pre-knowledge of technical terms will make it easier for specific support purpose.
    23. 23. Extensive Reading Reading for pleasure helps you to be a better reader:  Reading outside the working or environment  Read alone with no guidance at your own level-pace  This is reading directly for meaning  Reinforces pleasure and usefulness  Helps to achieve rapid and efficient reading  “Learning to read by reading”.
    24. 24. Poor Reading Symptoms  Lots of hesitation and pause along with frequent retracing with the eyes. Constant lip movement vocalization: saying words aloud while attempting to read silently. Following with finger, paying attention to words rather than phrases. Poor concentration, wild guesses. Taking a long time, making little inference.
    25. 25. Grammar Review  Identify Syntax Relationships for Better Language Comprehension
    26. 26. Syntax: How Words are Organized  Every statement is a combination of words, and every statement says something to communicate information. The simplest possible kind of statement - for example, “Dogs bark” has two kinds of words in it. It has a what word, “dogs”, and a what happens word, “bark”. If a person only says “dog”, no statement is made, and no information is conveyed. A sound is made that calls to mind a common, four-footed animal, but nothing regarding it is learned. The internal grammar of phrases, clauses and sentences refers to the principles of structure and organization. In the syntax of English, the two most important structures are almost certainly sentences and clauses.
    27. 27. The Sentence  complete sense, Is a group of words that makes containing a main verb and begins with a capital letter. Sentences are used for diverse purposes:  To make statements  I took some money out of the bank.  To ask questions or make requests  Can I help you?  To give orders or instructions  Stop arguing!  To express exclamations  You’re driving too fast!
    28. 28. Clauses that contains a verb (and A clause is a group of words other components too). A clause may form part of a sentence or it may be a complete sentence in itself. Every sentence contains at least one main clause. A main clause may form part of a compound sentence or a complex sentence, but it also makes sense on its own. A subordinate clause depends on a main clause for its meaning. Together with a main clause, a subordinate clause forms part of a complex sentence.
    29. 29. Phrases  that forms a A phrase is a small group of words meaningful unit within a clause. There are many types:  A noun phrase is built around a single noun  A verb phrase is the verbal part of a clause  An adjective phrase is built around an adjective  An adverbial phrase is built round an adverb by adding words before and/or after it  In a prepositional phrase the preposition always comes at the beginning.
    30. 30. Parts of Speech  nouns. They tell what Nouns: The what words are called is being talked about. They are identifying words, or names. Nouns identify persons, places, or things. Verb: The what happens words are called verbs. They are the action words in a statement. Without them it is impossible to put sentences together. It is the verb that says something about the noun: dogs bark, birds fly. Adjective: An adjective is a modifier. Usually it modifies, or makes more exact, the meaning of a noun or pronoun. Adverb: An adverb is a modifier. Usually it modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
    31. 31. Word Order  two positions: Adjectives are usually placed in  After linking verbs, immediately before the noun (even when using more than one adjective.)  After using a linking verb, the adjective describes the subject. Adverbs are placed in three positions depending of type:  Connecting adverbs such as “however”, “consequently” are placed at the beginning of a sentence, followed by comma.  Adverbs of frequency: such as “often” and “never” are placed in the middle before the verb.  Adverbs of manner are placed at the end to illustrate how, where and when something is done: “carefully”, “downstairs”
    32. 32. Imperative Mood  Is the form of the verb that makes direct commands and requests. It is made using the base form of the verb (refers to 2nd person, but the subject is omitted):  “If this is coffee, please bring me some tea; but if this is tea, please bring me some coffee”.  "Shut up, Brain, or Ill stab you with a Q-tip!“  "Get up, stand up, Stand up for your rights. Get up, stand up, Dont give up the fight.“ This is the mood that is used in all technical scripts.  “Ask customer to reset the device”  Tell customer, “Wait until weather clears up”  It uses different types of sentence combinations
    33. 33. Reported and Direct Speech  In reported speech, the actual words are not usually quoted directly. Usually, they are summarized or paraphrased and there are no special punctuation issues to take into account. In direct speech, various punctuation conventions are used to separate the quoted words from the rest of the text: this allows a reader to follow what’s going on.
    34. 34. Passive Voice  The passive voice is a grammatical construction (specifically, a "voice") in which the subject of a sentence or clause denotes the recipient of the action (the patient) rather than the performer (the agent). In the English language, the English passive voice is formed with an auxiliary verb (usually be or get) plus a participle (usually the past participle) of a transitive verb.
    35. 35. Final Section Activity  Refer to your workbook and complete the exercises for this part of the training. Raise your hands when done. Report your answers to the class.
    36. 36. Improving Script Reading Improving understanding of technical content scripts to accurately translate instructions to customers
    37. 37. Better Script Reading  Communication – refers to the CCRs verbal and written interactionswith both coworkers and customers.Job Knowledge -CCRs ability to use established processes, policiesand procedures in serving customers while staying current with allrelevant business info.Problem Solving -refers to the CCRs effective use of tools andresources to resolve customer issues.Accountability CCRS taking ownership of performance related issuesand compliance with company policies and procedures.
    38. 38. Better Script Reading  Service Talk Time  Customer Levels The time Transfer Experience Percent of a CCR Rate calls speaks to Surveys to Frequency see howanswered in customer in which a satisfiedx number of without Hold or CCR customers seconds. Wrap. transfers are. calls. AHT Hold Callback Q.A. Average Rate Resolves The time to Frequency problem amount complete in which and of time a a call customers efficiently customer including call back and is on Talk within 7 effectively hold. Time, Ho days. use call ld and mechanics. Wrap)
    39. 39. Answers for Every Agent!  We benefit from Agent Answer Center in many ways:  In-depth technical scripts  Decision Support Tools  Product and equipment information  How to by Function Tool  Visual cable diagrams  Much more!
    40. 40. Effective Script Use  effectively and ensure that Helps you to do your job more our customers are assisted by knowledgeable CCRs. Following all steps outlined is important and will ensure the right solution is provided to the customer. Will result in a higher percentage of our customers’ technical problems being solved over the phone and will decrease the number of UTRs and ERPs. Helps you educate customers as to what the problem and root cause might be. Scripts help ensure that you are doing everything in your power to fix issue over phone.
    41. 41. Script Organization Topic Title: describes the topic covered on the page General Information: describes the purpose of the data that follows. Critical Information: Displays relevant information of topic. Script Menu: Contains links to topic-specific related scripts. Sub-Topic Title: describes the specific topic covered on link Sub-topic definition: Outlines the script content.Quotes: Verbiage to repeat to customers.
    42. 42. Technical Terminology  EducationalAccess Card Programming Land-BasedAdvanced Compatible Phone Line EligibleProducts Customer Local Channels Email All Day Customer Locks and Purchase Entertainment Limits ServiceAgreement Equipment LNB Escalate Digital Picture Bar Code Digital Sound High Definition (HDTV) Bill Disconnect Inconvenience Discount Blackouts Installer Dish (Antenna
    43. 43. Technical Terminology Main Menu Partial Credit Partial month  Rating Limit Satellite charge Signal (prorate) ReceiverManufacturer Password Serial Reconditioned Reschedule number Pay Per ViewMirroring Website Phone Line Spending NSF Reimburse Reset Program Limits Model (non- Provider Wireless sufficient Refund Phone funds) Programming Residence Splitter Jack Guide Relocate Movers ProgramminConnection g Packages Retail store Sports Rental Plan Subscription PurchaseMulti-Sat History Requirements System Test Multi- Purchase Switch Limit
    44. 44. Translating How to Translate Written Passages from English to Spanish
    45. 45. The Four Step Process 
    46. 46. Build Confidence and Credibility  • As technical agents we use scripts to provide solutions.We can gain • Troubleshooting scripts are a tool tocustomers’ accurately assist our customerstrust by • We must provide clear and easy to follow instructions.using • We must use words that the customer willeffective understand.word • We should offer more explanation if achoices customer is technically challenged. • We must translate instructions and general information to common Spanish speakers.
    47. 47. Translating To Spanish  • A word-for-word translation can be used sometimes depending on the sentence structure. • El equipo está trabajando para terminar el informe would translate into English as The team Literal is working to finish the report.Translation • El equipo experimentado está trabajando para terminar el informe translates into English as The experienced team is working to finish the report ("experienced" and "team" are reversed).
    48. 48. Oblique Translation When the structuralor conceptualelements of the •Transpositionsource language •Modulationcannot be directlytranslated without •Adaptationaltering meaning orupsetting the •Reformulationgrammatical andstylistics elements of •Compensationthe target language.
    49. 49. Transposition  It is possible This is the English to replace a English process Hand knitted Grammatical often has the wordwhere parts (noun + structures verb near category in of speech participle) the the target are often becomeschange their beginning of language different in a sentence; without Spanish sequence Tejido a mano different Spanish can altering the when they (participle + languages. have it closer meaning of are adverbial to the end. the source translated. text. phrase).
    50. 50. Modulation Consists of using a phrase that is different in the source and target languages. “Te lo dejo”means literally I leave it to youbut translates better as You can The translator generates a change in have it. the point of view of the message without altering meaning.
    51. 51. Adaptation  Adaptation occurs when It is a shift in cultural It involves changing the something specific to one environment. Should cultural reference when alanguage culture is expressed “pincho” (a Spanish situation in the sourcein a totally different way that restaurant menu dish) be culture does not exist in the is familiar or appropriate to translated as “kebab” in target culture. another language culture. English?
    52. 52. Reformulation / Equivalence  The process is creative, but not always Here you have to easy. Would you have express something in a translated the movie completely different The Sound of Music into way, for example when Spanish as La novicia translating idioms or rebelde (The Rebellious advertising slogans. Novice in Latin America)?
    53. 53. Compensation In general terms compensation can be used when somethingcannot be translated, and the meaning that is lost is expressedsomewhere else in the translated text.One definition is: "making good in one part of the textsomething that could not be translated in another".One example is the problem of translating nuances offormality from languages that use forms such as Spanishinformal tú and formal usted into English which only hasyou, and expresses degrees of formality in different ways.
    54. 54. Spanglish Jargon SpanglishBanquetaCercas Español Acera Cerca  Spanglish Apachurre Aparcarse Español Presionar EstacionarseDiferiencia Diferencia Ahí nos vidrios Nos vemosDineros Dinero Chispada TorcidaEntons Entonces Escuincle NiñoHaiga Haya Estar de Pelos Estar bienMayugar Magullar Frisalo DetenloNadien Nadie Mimitas Imagen BorrosaNegocea Negocia Monos Imagen claraNomás Nada mas Mueble VehículoPantunflas Pantuflas Orale SiPior Peor Puchale PresionarPlatiado Plateado ¡Que oso! ¡Qué Vergüenza!Pon tu Supón que Rufo TechoPos Pues Simon SiRestorán Restaurante Traila TrailerSasque? Sabes que Troca Camion
    55. 55. Translation Practice  Carlos and Alexandra go shopping frequently. Alex tries on expensive dresses at the store, but Carlos does not get angry. Usually, she does not spend a lot of money, but she takes a long time shopping. Alex goes to the fitting room, she undresses, she tries on several dresses of famous designers, she looks at herself in the mirror, and she forgets about Carlos. He gets tired of waiting, sits on a sofa, and falls asleep. While Carlos sleeps, Alex goes to the shoe department and puts on several pairs of shoes. Then she goes to the perfume and makeup section, and she buys herself several beauty products. She knows Carlos does not get upset because she does not spend too much money. Later, Alex says good-bye to the saleslady, and she meets Carlos. He wakes up. He is surprised because Alex is carrying many packages, and he worries a bit. Alex says she does not spend too much money, and Carlos calms down. They go to the cafeteria, and they have an afternoon snack. As usual, it is late, and they decide it is not worth it to go to the mens department.
    56. 56. Summary Your primary role is to resolve customer service and technical issuesover the telephone.Having knowledge of language fundamentals and how to effectivelycommunicate with your callers by using the tools that you areprovided with will enable you to effectively meet your goals.Your ability to understand written and oral language, communicatingclearly and educating customers will help build customer satisfactionand loyalty.
    57. 57. Review of ObjectivesCan you…?  Define different types of reading strategies and Techniques? Define grammar basic functions? Define Syntax language relationships? Identify proper word order in written language? Understand Scripts Organization? Translate diverse typical technical terminology? Discuss different types of interpreting? Practice Technical Scripts translations?
    58. 58.  Harvard Business Review   http://hbr.org/ Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007  Teaching English as a Second Language to Adults, Methodology Nicholas Elson- TESL Talk Special Edition, Vol. 14, Nos. 1&2,1983. http://oxforddictionaries.com http://www.about.com/ http://aacliteracy.psu.edu/index.php/page/show/id/1 http://www.universalteacher.org.uk/lang/engstruct.htm#syn http://www.interproinc.com/articles.asp?id=0303 Translation and Language, St. Jerome, Manchester, 1997 http://www.palomar.edu/reading/r110hybrid/Module%205/mod5.1 skim.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/english

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