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PRESENTER
SARFRAZ AHMAD MAYO
WRITING SKILLSWRITING SKILLS
CONTANTSCONTANTS
 ORGANIZATIONORGANIZATION

LENGTHLENGTH

ORGANIZING A MANUSCRIPT WITH HEADINGSORGANIZING A MANUSCRIPT WITH HEADINGS

LEVELS OF HEADINGLEVELS OF HEADING

SERIATIONSERIATION
 WRITING STYLEWRITING STYLE

CONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OF IDEASCONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OF IDEAS

SMOOTHNESS OF EXPRESSIONSMOOTHNESS OF EXPRESSION

TONETONE

ECONOMY OF EXPRESSIONECONOMY OF EXPRESSION

PRECISION AND CLARITYPRECISION AND CLARITY

LINGUISTIC DEVICESLINGUISTIC DEVICES
 STRATEGIES TO IMPROvE WRITING STYLESTRATEGIES TO IMPROvE WRITING STYLE
 REDucING BIAS IN LANGuAGEREDucING BIAS IN LANGuAGE
ORGANIZATIONORGANIZATION
LENGTHLENGTH
 ““Less is More”Less is More”
 Points should be clear and directPoints should be clear and direct
 Eliminate repetition across sectionsEliminate repetition across sections
 Shorten the Paper by stating points clearly and directly.Shorten the Paper by stating points clearly and directly.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.61
ORGANIZINGORGANIZING A MANUSCRIPTWITHHEADINGSA MANUSCRIPTWITHHEADINGS
 Sound organizational structure is the key to clear, precise, andSound organizational structure is the key to clear, precise, and
logical communicationlogical communication
 Use of headings to effectively organize ideas within a studyUse of headings to effectively organize ideas within a study
 Concise headings help the reader anticipate key points and trackConcise headings help the reader anticipate key points and track
the development of your argument.the development of your argument.
 Avoid having only one subsection heading and subsection within aAvoid having only one subsection heading and subsection within a
sectionsection
 Use at least two subsection headings within any given section, orUse at least two subsection headings within any given section, or
use none (e.g., in an outline, you could divide a section numbered Iuse none (e.g., in an outline, you could divide a section numbered I
into a minimum of A and B sections; just an A section could notinto a minimum of A and B sections; just an A section could not
stand alone)stand alone)
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.61
LEVEL OF HEADINGSLEVEL OF HEADINGS
 According to APA, the heading style consists of five possible formattingAccording to APA, the heading style consists of five possible formatting
arrangements;arrangements;
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.61
PATTERN OF ARTICLEPATTERN OF ARTICLE
1.Title Page1.Title Page –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered
2. Author Note2. Author Note –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered
3. Abstract3. Abstract –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered
4. Introduction4. Introduction –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered
5. Method5. Method –– Boldface, centeredBoldface, centered
6. Results6. Results –– Boldface, centeredBoldface, centered
7. Discussion7. Discussion –– Boldface, centeredBoldface, centered
8.References8.References –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered
9.Footnotes9.Footnotes __ No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered
10.Table(s)10.Table(s)
11.Figure(s)11.Figure(s)
12. Appendix12. Appendix –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered
EXAMPLEEXAMPLE
MethodMethod
Sample and Participant SelectionSample and Participant Selection
Assessment and MeasuresAssessment and Measures
Q-sort measures of inhibition and aggressiveness,Q-sort measures of inhibition and aggressiveness,
life History Calendar.life History Calendar.
ResultsResults
Outcome of Inhibited Children at 23 YearsOutcome of Inhibited Children at 23 Years
Personality and self-esteem.Personality and self-esteem.
Social network.Social network.
life history and 10.life history and 10.
Outcome of Aggressive Children at 23 YearsOutcome of Aggressive Children at 23 Years
DiscussionDiscussion
Inhibited Children:Inhibited Children: Delayed Social Transitions During Emerging AdulthoodDelayed Social Transitions During Emerging Adulthood
Inhibited Children:Inhibited Children: Weak Evidence for Internalizing DifficultiesWeak Evidence for Internalizing Difficulties
limitations of the Present Studylimitations of the Present Study
Conclusions and Future ProspectsConclusions and Future Prospects
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.61
SERIATIONSERIATION
 Seriation helps the reader to understand the organization of keySeriation helps the reader to understand the organization of key
points within section, paragraphs, and sentencespoints within section, paragraphs, and sentences
 Within a paragraph or sentence, identify elements in a series byWithin a paragraph or sentence, identify elements in a series by
lowercase letters in parentheses.lowercase letters in parentheses.
The participant's three choices were (a) working with another participant,The participant's three choices were (a) working with another participant,
(b) working with a team, and (c) working alone.(b) working with a team, and (c) working alone.
 Within a sentence, use commas to separate three or more elementsWithin a sentence, use commas to separate three or more elements
that do not have internal commas; use semicolons to separate three orthat do not have internal commas; use semicolons to separate three or
more elements that have internal commas.more elements that have internal commas.
We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points;We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points;
(b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high(b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high
scorers, who scored more than 50 points.scorers, who scored more than 50 points.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.62
SERIATIONSERIATION Cont…….Cont…….
Alternatively, you may use bulleted lists within a sentence toAlternatively, you may use bulleted lists within a sentence to
separate three or more elements.separate three or more elements.
In accordance with this theory, these relations should be marked byIn accordance with this theory, these relations should be marked by
•• equity, social justice, and equal opportunity;equity, social justice, and equal opportunity;
•• sensitivity to individual differences and promotion of a goodness-of-fit betweensensitivity to individual differences and promotion of a goodness-of-fit between
individually different people and contexts;individually different people and contexts;
•• affirmative actions to correct ontogenetic or historical inequities in person-contextaffirmative actions to correct ontogenetic or historical inequities in person-context
fit;fit;
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.62
 if the article has four sections, some of which have subsections andif the article has four sections, some of which have subsections and
some of which don’t, use headings depending on the level ofsome of which don’t, use headings depending on the level of
subordination. Section headings receive level one format.subordination. Section headings receive level one format.
Subsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsectionsSubsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsections
receive level three format. For example:receive level three format. For example:
   Method (Level 1)Method (Level 1)
 Site of StudySite of Study (Level 2)(Level 2)
 Participant PopulationParticipant Population (Level 2)(Level 2)
 Teachers.Teachers. (Level 3)(Level 3)
 Students.Students. (Level 3)(Level 3)
 ResultsResults (Level 1)(Level 1)
 Spatial AbilitySpatial Ability (Level 2)(Level 2)
 Test one.Test one. (Level 3)(Level 3)
 Teachers with experience.Teachers with experience. (Level 4)(Level 4)
 Teachers in training.Teachers in training. (Level 4)(Level 4)
 Test two.Test two. (Level 3)(Level 3)
 Kinesthetic AbilityKinesthetic Ability (Level 2)(Level 2)
Writing styleWriting style
CONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OFIDEASCONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OFIDEAS
 Continuity in words, concepts, and thematic development from theContinuity in words, concepts, and thematic development from the
opening statement to the conclusionopening statement to the conclusion
 Punctuation marks contribute to continuity by showing relationshipsPunctuation marks contribute to continuity by showing relationships
between ideasbetween ideas
 Use the full range of punctuation aids available: Neither overuse norUse the full range of punctuation aids available: Neither overuse nor
underuse one type of punctuation.underuse one type of punctuation.
 Overuse may annoy the reader; underuse may confuse. Instead,Overuse may annoy the reader; underuse may confuse. Instead,
use punctuation to support meaning.use punctuation to support meaning.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
CONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OFIDEASCONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OFIDEAS
Cont.....Cont.....
 Use of transitional wordsUse of transitional words
 Transitional words maintain the flow of thought, especially when theTransitional words maintain the flow of thought, especially when the
material is complex or abstractmaterial is complex or abstract
 A pronoun that refers to a noun in the preceding sentence not onlyA pronoun that refers to a noun in the preceding sentence not only
serves as a transition but also avoids repetitionserves as a transition but also avoids repetition
 Other transition devices are;Other transition devices are;

Time links (then, next, after, while, since),Time links (then, next, after, while, since),

Cause-effect links (therefore, consequently, as a result),Cause-effect links (therefore, consequently, as a result),

Addition links (in addition, moreover, furthermore, similarly),Addition links (in addition, moreover, furthermore, similarly),

Contrast links (but, conversely, nevertheless, however, although)Contrast links (but, conversely, nevertheless, however, although)
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
SMOOTHNESS OFEXPRESSIONSMOOTHNESS OFEXPRESSION
 Try to avoid these devices and aim for clear and logical communication;Try to avoid these devices and aim for clear and logical communication;

Setting up ambiguity;Setting up ambiguity;

Inserting the unexpected;Inserting the unexpected;

Omitting the expected;Omitting the expected;

Suddenly shifting the topicSuddenly shifting the topic
Because these tense, confuse or disturb readers of scientific proseBecause these tense, confuse or disturb readers of scientific prose..
 A reading by a colleague may uncover such problems.A reading by a colleague may uncover such problems.
 You can usually catch omissions, irrelevancies, and abruptness by puttingYou can usually catch omissions, irrelevancies, and abruptness by putting
the manuscript aside and rereading it later.the manuscript aside and rereading it later.
 Reading the paper aloud can make flaws more apparent.Reading the paper aloud can make flaws more apparent.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
SMOOTHNESS OFEXPRESSIONSMOOTHNESS OFEXPRESSION
Cont……Cont……
 Abruptness may result from sudden, unnecessary shifts in verbAbruptness may result from sudden, unnecessary shifts in verb
tense within the same paragraph or in adjacent paragraphstense within the same paragraph or in adjacent paragraphs
 By using verb tenses consistently, you can help ensure smoothBy using verb tenses consistently, you can help ensure smooth
expression.expression.
 Past tense (e.g., "Smith showed") or present perfect tense (e.g.,Past tense (e.g., "Smith showed") or present perfect tense (e.g.,
"researchers have shown") is appropriate for the literature review"researchers have shown") is appropriate for the literature review
and the description of the procedure if the discussion is of pastand the description of the procedure if the discussion is of past
events.events.
 Use past tense (e.g., "anxiety decreased significantly") to describeUse past tense (e.g., "anxiety decreased significantly") to describe
the results.the results.
 Use the present tense (e.g., "the results of Experiment 2 indicate")Use the present tense (e.g., "the results of Experiment 2 indicate")
to discuss implications of the results and to present the conclusions.to discuss implications of the results and to present the conclusions.
 By reporting conclusions in the present tense, you allow readers toBy reporting conclusions in the present tense, you allow readers to
join you in deliberating the matter at hand.join you in deliberating the matter at hand.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
 Several nouns used one after another to modify a final noun, createSeveral nouns used one after another to modify a final noun, create
another form of abruptness(Noun String).another form of abruptness(Noun String).
 Skillful hyphenation can clarify the relationships between words, butSkillful hyphenation can clarify the relationships between words, but
often the best approach is to untangle the string.often the best approach is to untangle the string.
For example, consider the following string:For example, consider the following string:
““commonly used investigative expanded issue control question technique”commonly used investigative expanded issue control question technique”
Possible ways to untangle the string are as follows:Possible ways to untangle the string are as follows:
•• a control-question technique that is commonly used to expand issues ina control-question technique that is commonly used to expand issues in
investigationsinvestigations
•• an expanded-issue control-question technique that is commonly used inan expanded-issue control-question technique that is commonly used in
InvestigationsInvestigations
•• a common technique of using control questions to investigate expanded issuesa common technique of using control questions to investigate expanded issues
•• a common investigative technique of using expanded issues in control questionsa common investigative technique of using expanded issues in control questions
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
TONETONE
 Present the ideas and findings directly but aim for an interesting andPresent the ideas and findings directly but aim for an interesting and
compelling style and a tone that reflects your involvement with thecompelling style and a tone that reflects your involvement with the
problem.problem.
 One effective way to achieve the right tone is to imagine a specificOne effective way to achieve the right tone is to imagine a specific
reader you are intending to reach and to write in a way that willreader you are intending to reach and to write in a way that will
educate and persuade that individual.educate and persuade that individual.
ECONOMY OFEXPRESSIONECONOMY OFEXPRESSION
 Say only what needs to be said.Say only what needs to be said.
 Short words and short sentences are easier to comprehend than areShort words and short sentences are easier to comprehend than are
long oneslong ones
 A long technical term, however, may be more precise than severalA long technical term, however, may be more precise than several
short words, and technical terms are inseparable from scientificshort words, and technical terms are inseparable from scientific
reporting.reporting.
 The best way to eliminate wordiness is by editing your own writingThe best way to eliminate wordiness is by editing your own writing
across successive drafts and asking others to edit drafts of youracross successive drafts and asking others to edit drafts of your
paper.paper.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.67
PRECISION AND CLARITYPRECISION AND CLARITY
 Word choice.Word choice. Make certain that every word means exactly whatMake certain that every word means exactly what
you intend it to meanyou intend it to mean
 Precision in using language means choosing the right word for whatPrecision in using language means choosing the right word for what
you want to say. It requires choosing words that mean exactly whatyou want to say. It requires choosing words that mean exactly what
you intend them to mean. For example, in psychology, belief is notyou intend them to mean. For example, in psychology, belief is not
the same as attitude ; nor are sensations the same as feelings.the same as attitude ; nor are sensations the same as feelings.
A similar example is that like is often used when such as is meant:A similar example is that like is often used when such as is meant:

Correct:Correct:
Articles by psychologists such as Skinner and Watson ....Articles by psychologists such as Skinner and Watson ....

CorrectCorrect::
Like Watson. Skinner believed.Like Watson. Skinner believed.

Incorrect:Incorrect:
Articles by psychologists like Skinner and Watson ....Articles by psychologists like Skinner and Watson ....
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.68
 Colloquial expressions.Colloquial expressions. Avoid colloquial expressions (e.g.,Avoid colloquial expressions (e.g.,
write up for report), which diffuse meaning. Approximations ofwrite up for report), which diffuse meaning. Approximations of
quantity (e.g., quite a large part, practically all, or very few) arequantity (e.g., quite a large part, practically all, or very few) are
interpreted differently by different readers or in different contexts.interpreted differently by different readers or in different contexts.
 Jargon.Jargon. Jargon is the continuous use of a technical vocabulary,Jargon is the continuous use of a technical vocabulary,
even in places where that vocabulary is not relevant. Jargon is alsoeven in places where that vocabulary is not relevant. Jargon is also
the substitution of a euphemistic phrase for a familiar term (e.g.,the substitution of a euphemistic phrase for a familiar term (e.g.,
monetarily felt scarcity for poverty), and you should scrupulouslymonetarily felt scarcity for poverty), and you should scrupulously
avoid using such jargon.avoid using such jargon.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.68
 Pronouns.Pronouns. Pronouns such as this, that, these, and those can bePronouns such as this, that, these, and those can be
troublesome when they refer to something or someone in a previoustroublesome when they refer to something or someone in a previous
sentence. Eliminate ambiguity by writing, for . example, this test,sentence. Eliminate ambiguity by writing, for . example, this test,
that trial, these participants, and those reports.that trial, these participants, and those reports.
 Third person.Third person. To avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronounTo avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronoun
rather than the third person when describing steps taken in yourrather than the third person when describing steps taken in your
experiment.experiment.

Correct:Correct:
We reviewed the literatureWe reviewed the literature..

Incorrect:Incorrect:
The authors reviewed the literature.The authors reviewed the literature.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.68
 AnthropomorphismAnthropomorphism. Do not attribute human characteristics to. Do not attribute human characteristics to
animals or to inanimate sources.animals or to inanimate sources.

Correct:Correct:
Pairs of rats (cage mates) were allowed to forage together.Pairs of rats (cage mates) were allowed to forage together.

Incorrect:Incorrect:
Rat couples (cage mates) were allowed to forage together.Rat couples (cage mates) were allowed to forage together.

Correct:Correct:
The staff for the community program was persuaded to allow five of theThe staff for the community program was persuaded to allow five of the
observers to become tutors.observers to become tutors.

Incorrect:Incorrect:
The community program was persuaded to allow five of the observers toThe community program was persuaded to allow five of the observers to
become tutorsbecome tutors..
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.69
 Editorial we.Editorial we. For clarity, restrict your use of we to refer only toFor clarity, restrict your use of we to refer only to
yourself and your coauthors (use I if you are the sole author of theyourself and your coauthors (use I if you are the sole author of the
paper). Broader uses of we may leave your readers wondering topaper). Broader uses of we may leave your readers wondering to
whom you are referring;whom you are referring;

Correct:Correct:
Researchers usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency andResearchers usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and
temporal structure of the elements.temporal structure of the elements.

Incorrect:Incorrect:
We usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and temporalWe usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and temporal
structure of the elements.structure of the elements.
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.69
REDUCING BIASIN LANGUAGEREDUCING BIASIN LANGUAGE
 Choose words that are accurate, clear, and free from bias.Choose words that are accurate, clear, and free from bias.
 When in doubt, be more specific rather than less, because it isWhen in doubt, be more specific rather than less, because it is
easier to aggregate published data than to disaggregate them usingeasier to aggregate published data than to disaggregate them using
man to refer to all human beings is simply not as accurate as theman to refer to all human beings is simply not as accurate as the
phrase women and men.phrase women and men.
 To describe age groups, give a specific age range ("ages 65-83To describe age groups, give a specific age range ("ages 65-83
years") instead of a broad category ("over 65 years"; see Schaie,years") instead of a broad category ("over 65 years"; see Schaie,
1993).1993).
Publishing Manual,2010,pp.71
 When describing racial and ethnic groups, be appropriately specificWhen describing racial and ethnic groups, be appropriately specific
and sensitive to issues of labeling.and sensitive to issues of labeling.
For example, instead of describing participants as Asian AmericanFor example, instead of describing participants as Asian American
or Hispanic American, it may be helpful to describe them by theiror Hispanic American, it may be helpful to describe them by their
nation or region of origin (e.g., Chinese Americans, Mexicannation or region of origin (e.g., Chinese Americans, Mexican
Americans).Americans).
THANKYOU!THANKYOU!
YOU ARE WELCOME TOYOU ARE WELCOME TO
ASK QUESTIONASK QUESTION
THEEND.THEEND.

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Writing Skills By Sarfraz Ahmad Mayo

  • 2. CONTANTSCONTANTS  ORGANIZATIONORGANIZATION  LENGTHLENGTH  ORGANIZING A MANUSCRIPT WITH HEADINGSORGANIZING A MANUSCRIPT WITH HEADINGS  LEVELS OF HEADINGLEVELS OF HEADING  SERIATIONSERIATION  WRITING STYLEWRITING STYLE  CONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OF IDEASCONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OF IDEAS  SMOOTHNESS OF EXPRESSIONSMOOTHNESS OF EXPRESSION  TONETONE  ECONOMY OF EXPRESSIONECONOMY OF EXPRESSION  PRECISION AND CLARITYPRECISION AND CLARITY  LINGUISTIC DEVICESLINGUISTIC DEVICES  STRATEGIES TO IMPROvE WRITING STYLESTRATEGIES TO IMPROvE WRITING STYLE  REDucING BIAS IN LANGuAGEREDucING BIAS IN LANGuAGE
  • 4. LENGTHLENGTH  ““Less is More”Less is More”  Points should be clear and directPoints should be clear and direct  Eliminate repetition across sectionsEliminate repetition across sections  Shorten the Paper by stating points clearly and directly.Shorten the Paper by stating points clearly and directly. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.61
  • 5. ORGANIZINGORGANIZING A MANUSCRIPTWITHHEADINGSA MANUSCRIPTWITHHEADINGS  Sound organizational structure is the key to clear, precise, andSound organizational structure is the key to clear, precise, and logical communicationlogical communication  Use of headings to effectively organize ideas within a studyUse of headings to effectively organize ideas within a study  Concise headings help the reader anticipate key points and trackConcise headings help the reader anticipate key points and track the development of your argument.the development of your argument.  Avoid having only one subsection heading and subsection within aAvoid having only one subsection heading and subsection within a sectionsection  Use at least two subsection headings within any given section, orUse at least two subsection headings within any given section, or use none (e.g., in an outline, you could divide a section numbered Iuse none (e.g., in an outline, you could divide a section numbered I into a minimum of A and B sections; just an A section could notinto a minimum of A and B sections; just an A section could not stand alone)stand alone) Publishing Manual,2010,pp.61
  • 6. LEVEL OF HEADINGSLEVEL OF HEADINGS  According to APA, the heading style consists of five possible formattingAccording to APA, the heading style consists of five possible formatting arrangements;arrangements; Publishing Manual,2010,pp.61
  • 7. PATTERN OF ARTICLEPATTERN OF ARTICLE 1.Title Page1.Title Page –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered 2. Author Note2. Author Note –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered 3. Abstract3. Abstract –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered 4. Introduction4. Introduction –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered 5. Method5. Method –– Boldface, centeredBoldface, centered 6. Results6. Results –– Boldface, centeredBoldface, centered 7. Discussion7. Discussion –– Boldface, centeredBoldface, centered 8.References8.References –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered 9.Footnotes9.Footnotes __ No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered 10.Table(s)10.Table(s) 11.Figure(s)11.Figure(s) 12. Appendix12. Appendix –– No boldface, centeredNo boldface, centered
  • 8. EXAMPLEEXAMPLE MethodMethod Sample and Participant SelectionSample and Participant Selection Assessment and MeasuresAssessment and Measures Q-sort measures of inhibition and aggressiveness,Q-sort measures of inhibition and aggressiveness, life History Calendar.life History Calendar. ResultsResults Outcome of Inhibited Children at 23 YearsOutcome of Inhibited Children at 23 Years Personality and self-esteem.Personality and self-esteem. Social network.Social network. life history and 10.life history and 10. Outcome of Aggressive Children at 23 YearsOutcome of Aggressive Children at 23 Years DiscussionDiscussion Inhibited Children:Inhibited Children: Delayed Social Transitions During Emerging AdulthoodDelayed Social Transitions During Emerging Adulthood Inhibited Children:Inhibited Children: Weak Evidence for Internalizing DifficultiesWeak Evidence for Internalizing Difficulties limitations of the Present Studylimitations of the Present Study Conclusions and Future ProspectsConclusions and Future Prospects Publishing Manual,2010,pp.61
  • 9. SERIATIONSERIATION  Seriation helps the reader to understand the organization of keySeriation helps the reader to understand the organization of key points within section, paragraphs, and sentencespoints within section, paragraphs, and sentences  Within a paragraph or sentence, identify elements in a series byWithin a paragraph or sentence, identify elements in a series by lowercase letters in parentheses.lowercase letters in parentheses. The participant's three choices were (a) working with another participant,The participant's three choices were (a) working with another participant, (b) working with a team, and (c) working alone.(b) working with a team, and (c) working alone.  Within a sentence, use commas to separate three or more elementsWithin a sentence, use commas to separate three or more elements that do not have internal commas; use semicolons to separate three orthat do not have internal commas; use semicolons to separate three or more elements that have internal commas.more elements that have internal commas. We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points;We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points; (b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high(b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high scorers, who scored more than 50 points.scorers, who scored more than 50 points. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.62
  • 10. SERIATIONSERIATION Cont…….Cont……. Alternatively, you may use bulleted lists within a sentence toAlternatively, you may use bulleted lists within a sentence to separate three or more elements.separate three or more elements. In accordance with this theory, these relations should be marked byIn accordance with this theory, these relations should be marked by •• equity, social justice, and equal opportunity;equity, social justice, and equal opportunity; •• sensitivity to individual differences and promotion of a goodness-of-fit betweensensitivity to individual differences and promotion of a goodness-of-fit between individually different people and contexts;individually different people and contexts; •• affirmative actions to correct ontogenetic or historical inequities in person-contextaffirmative actions to correct ontogenetic or historical inequities in person-context fit;fit; Publishing Manual,2010,pp.62
  • 11.  if the article has four sections, some of which have subsections andif the article has four sections, some of which have subsections and some of which don’t, use headings depending on the level ofsome of which don’t, use headings depending on the level of subordination. Section headings receive level one format.subordination. Section headings receive level one format. Subsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsectionsSubsections receive level two format. Subsections of subsections receive level three format. For example:receive level three format. For example:    Method (Level 1)Method (Level 1)  Site of StudySite of Study (Level 2)(Level 2)  Participant PopulationParticipant Population (Level 2)(Level 2)  Teachers.Teachers. (Level 3)(Level 3)  Students.Students. (Level 3)(Level 3)  ResultsResults (Level 1)(Level 1)  Spatial AbilitySpatial Ability (Level 2)(Level 2)  Test one.Test one. (Level 3)(Level 3)  Teachers with experience.Teachers with experience. (Level 4)(Level 4)  Teachers in training.Teachers in training. (Level 4)(Level 4)  Test two.Test two. (Level 3)(Level 3)  Kinesthetic AbilityKinesthetic Ability (Level 2)(Level 2)
  • 13. CONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OFIDEASCONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OFIDEAS  Continuity in words, concepts, and thematic development from theContinuity in words, concepts, and thematic development from the opening statement to the conclusionopening statement to the conclusion  Punctuation marks contribute to continuity by showing relationshipsPunctuation marks contribute to continuity by showing relationships between ideasbetween ideas  Use the full range of punctuation aids available: Neither overuse norUse the full range of punctuation aids available: Neither overuse nor underuse one type of punctuation.underuse one type of punctuation.  Overuse may annoy the reader; underuse may confuse. Instead,Overuse may annoy the reader; underuse may confuse. Instead, use punctuation to support meaning.use punctuation to support meaning. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
  • 14. CONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OFIDEASCONTINUITY IN PRESENTATION OFIDEAS Cont.....Cont.....  Use of transitional wordsUse of transitional words  Transitional words maintain the flow of thought, especially when theTransitional words maintain the flow of thought, especially when the material is complex or abstractmaterial is complex or abstract  A pronoun that refers to a noun in the preceding sentence not onlyA pronoun that refers to a noun in the preceding sentence not only serves as a transition but also avoids repetitionserves as a transition but also avoids repetition  Other transition devices are;Other transition devices are;  Time links (then, next, after, while, since),Time links (then, next, after, while, since),  Cause-effect links (therefore, consequently, as a result),Cause-effect links (therefore, consequently, as a result),  Addition links (in addition, moreover, furthermore, similarly),Addition links (in addition, moreover, furthermore, similarly),  Contrast links (but, conversely, nevertheless, however, although)Contrast links (but, conversely, nevertheless, however, although) Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
  • 15. SMOOTHNESS OFEXPRESSIONSMOOTHNESS OFEXPRESSION  Try to avoid these devices and aim for clear and logical communication;Try to avoid these devices and aim for clear and logical communication;  Setting up ambiguity;Setting up ambiguity;  Inserting the unexpected;Inserting the unexpected;  Omitting the expected;Omitting the expected;  Suddenly shifting the topicSuddenly shifting the topic Because these tense, confuse or disturb readers of scientific proseBecause these tense, confuse or disturb readers of scientific prose..  A reading by a colleague may uncover such problems.A reading by a colleague may uncover such problems.  You can usually catch omissions, irrelevancies, and abruptness by puttingYou can usually catch omissions, irrelevancies, and abruptness by putting the manuscript aside and rereading it later.the manuscript aside and rereading it later.  Reading the paper aloud can make flaws more apparent.Reading the paper aloud can make flaws more apparent. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
  • 16. SMOOTHNESS OFEXPRESSIONSMOOTHNESS OFEXPRESSION Cont……Cont……  Abruptness may result from sudden, unnecessary shifts in verbAbruptness may result from sudden, unnecessary shifts in verb tense within the same paragraph or in adjacent paragraphstense within the same paragraph or in adjacent paragraphs  By using verb tenses consistently, you can help ensure smoothBy using verb tenses consistently, you can help ensure smooth expression.expression.  Past tense (e.g., "Smith showed") or present perfect tense (e.g.,Past tense (e.g., "Smith showed") or present perfect tense (e.g., "researchers have shown") is appropriate for the literature review"researchers have shown") is appropriate for the literature review and the description of the procedure if the discussion is of pastand the description of the procedure if the discussion is of past events.events.  Use past tense (e.g., "anxiety decreased significantly") to describeUse past tense (e.g., "anxiety decreased significantly") to describe the results.the results.  Use the present tense (e.g., "the results of Experiment 2 indicate")Use the present tense (e.g., "the results of Experiment 2 indicate") to discuss implications of the results and to present the conclusions.to discuss implications of the results and to present the conclusions.  By reporting conclusions in the present tense, you allow readers toBy reporting conclusions in the present tense, you allow readers to join you in deliberating the matter at hand.join you in deliberating the matter at hand. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
  • 17.  Several nouns used one after another to modify a final noun, createSeveral nouns used one after another to modify a final noun, create another form of abruptness(Noun String).another form of abruptness(Noun String).  Skillful hyphenation can clarify the relationships between words, butSkillful hyphenation can clarify the relationships between words, but often the best approach is to untangle the string.often the best approach is to untangle the string. For example, consider the following string:For example, consider the following string: ““commonly used investigative expanded issue control question technique”commonly used investigative expanded issue control question technique” Possible ways to untangle the string are as follows:Possible ways to untangle the string are as follows: •• a control-question technique that is commonly used to expand issues ina control-question technique that is commonly used to expand issues in investigationsinvestigations •• an expanded-issue control-question technique that is commonly used inan expanded-issue control-question technique that is commonly used in InvestigationsInvestigations •• a common technique of using control questions to investigate expanded issuesa common technique of using control questions to investigate expanded issues •• a common investigative technique of using expanded issues in control questionsa common investigative technique of using expanded issues in control questions Publishing Manual,2010,pp.65
  • 18. TONETONE  Present the ideas and findings directly but aim for an interesting andPresent the ideas and findings directly but aim for an interesting and compelling style and a tone that reflects your involvement with thecompelling style and a tone that reflects your involvement with the problem.problem.  One effective way to achieve the right tone is to imagine a specificOne effective way to achieve the right tone is to imagine a specific reader you are intending to reach and to write in a way that willreader you are intending to reach and to write in a way that will educate and persuade that individual.educate and persuade that individual.
  • 19. ECONOMY OFEXPRESSIONECONOMY OFEXPRESSION  Say only what needs to be said.Say only what needs to be said.  Short words and short sentences are easier to comprehend than areShort words and short sentences are easier to comprehend than are long oneslong ones  A long technical term, however, may be more precise than severalA long technical term, however, may be more precise than several short words, and technical terms are inseparable from scientificshort words, and technical terms are inseparable from scientific reporting.reporting.  The best way to eliminate wordiness is by editing your own writingThe best way to eliminate wordiness is by editing your own writing across successive drafts and asking others to edit drafts of youracross successive drafts and asking others to edit drafts of your paper.paper. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.67
  • 20. PRECISION AND CLARITYPRECISION AND CLARITY  Word choice.Word choice. Make certain that every word means exactly whatMake certain that every word means exactly what you intend it to meanyou intend it to mean  Precision in using language means choosing the right word for whatPrecision in using language means choosing the right word for what you want to say. It requires choosing words that mean exactly whatyou want to say. It requires choosing words that mean exactly what you intend them to mean. For example, in psychology, belief is notyou intend them to mean. For example, in psychology, belief is not the same as attitude ; nor are sensations the same as feelings.the same as attitude ; nor are sensations the same as feelings. A similar example is that like is often used when such as is meant:A similar example is that like is often used when such as is meant:  Correct:Correct: Articles by psychologists such as Skinner and Watson ....Articles by psychologists such as Skinner and Watson ....  CorrectCorrect:: Like Watson. Skinner believed.Like Watson. Skinner believed.  Incorrect:Incorrect: Articles by psychologists like Skinner and Watson ....Articles by psychologists like Skinner and Watson .... Publishing Manual,2010,pp.68
  • 21.  Colloquial expressions.Colloquial expressions. Avoid colloquial expressions (e.g.,Avoid colloquial expressions (e.g., write up for report), which diffuse meaning. Approximations ofwrite up for report), which diffuse meaning. Approximations of quantity (e.g., quite a large part, practically all, or very few) arequantity (e.g., quite a large part, practically all, or very few) are interpreted differently by different readers or in different contexts.interpreted differently by different readers or in different contexts.  Jargon.Jargon. Jargon is the continuous use of a technical vocabulary,Jargon is the continuous use of a technical vocabulary, even in places where that vocabulary is not relevant. Jargon is alsoeven in places where that vocabulary is not relevant. Jargon is also the substitution of a euphemistic phrase for a familiar term (e.g.,the substitution of a euphemistic phrase for a familiar term (e.g., monetarily felt scarcity for poverty), and you should scrupulouslymonetarily felt scarcity for poverty), and you should scrupulously avoid using such jargon.avoid using such jargon. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.68
  • 22.  Pronouns.Pronouns. Pronouns such as this, that, these, and those can bePronouns such as this, that, these, and those can be troublesome when they refer to something or someone in a previoustroublesome when they refer to something or someone in a previous sentence. Eliminate ambiguity by writing, for . example, this test,sentence. Eliminate ambiguity by writing, for . example, this test, that trial, these participants, and those reports.that trial, these participants, and those reports.  Third person.Third person. To avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronounTo avoid ambiguity, use a personal pronoun rather than the third person when describing steps taken in yourrather than the third person when describing steps taken in your experiment.experiment.  Correct:Correct: We reviewed the literatureWe reviewed the literature..  Incorrect:Incorrect: The authors reviewed the literature.The authors reviewed the literature. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.68
  • 23.  AnthropomorphismAnthropomorphism. Do not attribute human characteristics to. Do not attribute human characteristics to animals or to inanimate sources.animals or to inanimate sources.  Correct:Correct: Pairs of rats (cage mates) were allowed to forage together.Pairs of rats (cage mates) were allowed to forage together.  Incorrect:Incorrect: Rat couples (cage mates) were allowed to forage together.Rat couples (cage mates) were allowed to forage together.  Correct:Correct: The staff for the community program was persuaded to allow five of theThe staff for the community program was persuaded to allow five of the observers to become tutors.observers to become tutors.  Incorrect:Incorrect: The community program was persuaded to allow five of the observers toThe community program was persuaded to allow five of the observers to become tutorsbecome tutors.. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.69
  • 24.  Editorial we.Editorial we. For clarity, restrict your use of we to refer only toFor clarity, restrict your use of we to refer only to yourself and your coauthors (use I if you are the sole author of theyourself and your coauthors (use I if you are the sole author of the paper). Broader uses of we may leave your readers wondering topaper). Broader uses of we may leave your readers wondering to whom you are referring;whom you are referring;  Correct:Correct: Researchers usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency andResearchers usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and temporal structure of the elements.temporal structure of the elements.  Incorrect:Incorrect: We usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and temporalWe usually classify birdsong on the basis of frequency and temporal structure of the elements.structure of the elements. Publishing Manual,2010,pp.69
  • 25. REDUCING BIASIN LANGUAGEREDUCING BIASIN LANGUAGE  Choose words that are accurate, clear, and free from bias.Choose words that are accurate, clear, and free from bias.  When in doubt, be more specific rather than less, because it isWhen in doubt, be more specific rather than less, because it is easier to aggregate published data than to disaggregate them usingeasier to aggregate published data than to disaggregate them using man to refer to all human beings is simply not as accurate as theman to refer to all human beings is simply not as accurate as the phrase women and men.phrase women and men.  To describe age groups, give a specific age range ("ages 65-83To describe age groups, give a specific age range ("ages 65-83 years") instead of a broad category ("over 65 years"; see Schaie,years") instead of a broad category ("over 65 years"; see Schaie, 1993).1993). Publishing Manual,2010,pp.71
  • 26.  When describing racial and ethnic groups, be appropriately specificWhen describing racial and ethnic groups, be appropriately specific and sensitive to issues of labeling.and sensitive to issues of labeling. For example, instead of describing participants as Asian AmericanFor example, instead of describing participants as Asian American or Hispanic American, it may be helpful to describe them by theiror Hispanic American, it may be helpful to describe them by their nation or region of origin (e.g., Chinese Americans, Mexicannation or region of origin (e.g., Chinese Americans, Mexican Americans).Americans).
  • 27. THANKYOU!THANKYOU! YOU ARE WELCOME TOYOU ARE WELCOME TO ASK QUESTIONASK QUESTION THEEND.THEEND.