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Sodium hydroxide


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Sodium hydroxide

  1. 1. Sodium Hydroxide Chemical Formula: NaOH Synonyms: caustic soda, lye (sodium hydroxide solid) or sodium hydrate. Physical Properties Table 1.0: Physical Properties of Sodium Hydroxide. Property Information Molecular Weight 39.997g/mol Appearance (solid) White Crystalline Substance Transparent Only in liquid form Odour None Density 2.13g/cm³ Boiling Point 1390°C Melting Point 318°C Freezing Point 14°C Vapour Pressure (0.2 kPa, 20°C) 1.5mmHg Specific Gravity (20°C) 1.52g/ml Flammable No Chemical Properties Table 1.1: Chemical Properties of Sodium Hydroxide. Property Information Chemical Formula NaOH Acidity Very Low (13-14 pH) Basic Type Caustic Metallic Base Corrosive High Reactivity Medium Hygroscopic Yes Solubility (20°C) 1110g/L
  2. 2. Soluble (in) Water, acids, alcohol and other materials Neutralisation The hydroxide ion is a component of the sodium hydroxide, this anion makes this compound a very strong base which react with any acid which will neutralise each other, according to Bronsted- Lowry’s theory. In general, neutralisation reactions can be represented as follows in an ionic equation: OH−(aq) + H+(aq) → H2O(l) Sodium hydroxide reacting with an acid will generally result in a neutralisation process, which will produce water and a corresponding salt depending upon the acid reacted with. For instance, sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloride acid: NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) The Structure of Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Hydroxide is composed of a sodium ion (Na+) and a hydroxide ion (OH-). It is an ionically bonded compound, which comprises of a metal and non-metal. The Sodium metal loses an electron and forms Na+ ion and requires energy to make remove one electron since sodium metal is its most stable state. The hydroxide ion (non-metal) is from a water molecule and it requires a lot of energy to split into a hydrogen ion and a hydroxide ion since hydroxide ion is readily reactive.
  3. 3. Sodium Hydroxide: Since both ions have a 1:1 ratio of the same degree of charges, this will form a neutral compound. Although, the hydroxide ion is larger than the sodium ion making it more negative than positive. General Form of Sodium Hydroxide Molecule: Na – OH Bibliography ID=C1310732&Units=SI&Mask=1EFF&Type=JANAFL&Table=on#JANAFL
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