Job Analysis and Rewards


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Job Analysis and Rewards

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Job Analysis and Rewards
  2. 2. Outline  Changing Nature of Jobs  Job Requirements Job Analysis - Overview - Job Requirements Matrix - Job Descriptions and Job Specifications - Collecting Job Requirements Information  Competency – Based Job Analysis - Nature of Competencies - Collecting Competency Information  Job Rewards - Types of Rewards - Collecting Job Rewards Information  Job Analysis for Teams  Legal Issues - Job Related and Count Cases - Essential Job Functions
  4. 4. Changing Nature of Jobs Jobs are the building blocks of an organization.  The traditional way of designing a job is to identify and define its elements and tasks precisely and then incorporate them into a job description.  Challenges to traditional job a) jobs are constantly evolving b) need for flexibility c) need for new, general skills or competencies  Two important new skills or competencies a) teamwork b) engagement 
  5. 5. Terminology Commonly Used in Describing Jobs        Job family – a grouping of jobs, usually according to function. Job category – a grouping of jobs according to generic job title or occupation, within or across job families. Job – a grouping of positions that are similar in their tasks and task dimensions. Position – a grouping of tasks/dimensions that constitute the total work assignment of a single employees; there are as many positions as there are employees. Task dimension – a grouping of similar types of tasks, sometimes called “duty”, “area of responsibility” or “key results area”. Task – a grouping of elements to foam an identifiable work activity that is a logical and necessary step in the performance of a job. Element – the smallest unit into which work can be divided without analyzing separate motions, and mental
  7. 7. Overview    Job analysis is the process of studying jobs in order to gather, analyze, synthesize, and report information about job requirements. Job requirements job analysis seeks to identify and describe the specific tasks, KSAOs, and job context for a particular job. Competency-based attempts to identify and describe job requirements in the form of general KSAOs required across a range of jobs; task and work context requirements are of little concern.
  8. 8. Job Requirements Matrix The job requirements matrix shows the key components of job requirements job analysis. a) Tasks Statements b) Task Dimensions c) Importance of Tasks/Dimensions d) KSAOs e) KSAO Importance f) Job Context
  9. 9. Task Statements   The objective of task statements is to identify and record a set of tasks that includes all of the job’s major tasks and excludes non-relevant or trivial tasks. Task statement will show several things: a) What the employee does, using a specific action verb at the start of the task statement b) To whom or what the employee does what he or she does, stating the object of the verb c) What is produced, indicating the expected output of the verb d) What equipment, materials, tools, or produces, are used
  10. 10. Task Statements There are several other suggestions for effectively writing task statements. 1) Use specific action verbs that have only one meaning. 2) Focus on recording tasks, as opposed to specific elements that compose a task. 3) Do not include minor or trivial activities in task statements, focus only on major tasks and activities. 4) Take steps to ensure that the list of task statements is reliable. 5) Have at least the manager and a job incumbent serve as the analysts providing the reliability checks. 6) Recognize that the accuracy or validity of task statements cannot be evaluated against any external criterion, because there is no external
  11. 11. Task Dimensions Their criterion is optional and should occur only if they will be useful. 2) There are many different grouping procedures, ranging from straightforward judgmental ones to highly sophisticated statistical ones. 3) It is important that the grouping procedures yield a reliable set of task dimensions acceptable to managers, job incumbents, and other organizational members. 4) It is not possible to empirically validate task dimensions against some external criterion; for both task statements and dimensions, their validity is in the eyes of the definers and beholders. 1)
  12. 12. Importance of Tasks/Dimensions Rarely are all tasks/dimensions of a job thought to be of equal weight or importance. Before actual weighting can occur, two decisions must be made: 1) The specific attribute to be assessed in terms of importance must be decided. 2) A decision is required regarding whether the attribute will be measured in categorical terms or continuous terms.
  13. 13. KSAOs (knowledge, skill, ability, and other characteristics) Knowledge – is a body of information that can be applied directly to the performance of tasks.  Skill – an observable competence for working with or applying knowledge to perform a particular task or a closely related set of tasks.  Ability – an underlying, enduring trait of the person that is useful for performing a range of different tasks. - Four general categories of abilities 1) Cognitive 2) Psychomotor 3) Physical 4) Sensory  Other Characteristics 1) Legal Requirements 2) Availability Requirements 3) Character Requirements 
  14. 14. KSAO Importance KSAO importance requires two decisions: 1) What will be the specific attribute/s on which importance is judged? 2) Will the measurement of each attribute be categorical or continuous?
  15. 15. Job Context As shown in the job requirements matrix, tasks and KSAOs occur within a broader job context, a job requirements job analysis should include consideration of the job context and the factors that are important in defining it.  Job Context (Physical Work Conditions) a) Work Setting b) Work Attire c) Body Positioning d) Environmental Conditions e) Job Hazards 
  16. 16. Job Descriptions and Job Specifications  Job description should usually include the following: a) job family b) job title c) job summary d) task statements and dimensions e) importance indicators f) job context indicators g) date job analysis conducted  Job specification should usually include: a) job family b) job title c) job summary d) KSAOs e) importance indicators f) date conducted
  17. 17. Collecting Job Requirements Information Job analysis involves consideration of not only the types of information to be collected but also the methods, sources, and processes to be used for such collection. 1) Methods – job analysis methods represent procedures or techniques for collecting job information. a) Prior Information b) Observation c) Interviews d) Task Questionnaire e) Committee or Task Force f) Combined Methods
  18. 18. Collecting Job Requirements Information 2) Sources to be Used – choosing sources of information involves considering who will be used to provide the information sought. a) Job Analyst b) Job Incumbents c) Supervisors d) Subject Matter Experts e) Combined Sources
  19. 19. Collecting Job Requirements Information 3) Job Analysis Process – collecting job information through job analysis requires development and use of an overall process. a) Purpose b) Scope c) Internal Staff or Consultant d) Organization and Coordination e) Communication f) Work Flow and Time Frame g) Analysis, Synthesis, and Documentation h) Maintenance of the System i) Example of Job Analysis Process
  21. 21. Nature of Competencies A competency is an underlying characteristic of an individual that contributes to job or role performance and organizational success.  A competency model is a combination of the several competencies deemed necessary for a particular job or role.  Usage of competencies and competency models in staffing reflects a desire to: a) connote job requirements in ways that extend beyond the specific job itself b) describe and measure the organization’s workforce in more general competency terms c) design and implement staffing programs focused around competencies as a way of increasing staffing flexibility in job assignments. 
  22. 22. Nature of Competencies Despite the strong similarities between competencies and KSAOs, there are two notable differences: a) Competencies may be job spanning. b) Competencies can contribute not only to job performance but also to organizational success.  Organization Usage – organizations are beginning to experiment with the development of competencies and competency models and to use them as the underpinnings of several HR applications.  The three key strategic HR reasons for doing competency modeling are to: 1) to create awareness and understanding of the need for change in business 2) enhance the skill levels in the workforce 3) improve teamwork and coordination. 
  23. 23. Nature of Competencies Great Eight Competencies 1. Leading 2. Supporting 3. Presenting 4. Analyzing 5. Creating 6. Organizing 7. Adapting 8. Performing
  24. 24. Nature of Competencies Competency especially staffing, career development, performance management, and compensation.  Internal selection – applicants are assessed not only for job-specific competencies but also for general competencies.  External selection – competency based interviews with applicants are conducted to gauge general competencies as a key factor in selection decisions and then in job placement decisions for those hired.  Promotion decisions – competency based interviews are used in conjunction with supervisory assessments of promotability. 
  25. 25. Nature of Competencies Barriers to Success 1. lack of buy-in from top management, who may be unwillingly to apply the competency model to themselves or see its usefulness 2. the readiness of employees generally to accept the competency model and learn the new competency behaviors required by the model 3. conflicts as to whether there should be separate models for separate units of the organization and the relative emphases to be placed on general, job-spanning, and job-specific competencies 4. the time and resources needed to implement the competency model, train employees in its usage, and maintain and
  26. 26. Collecting Competency Information 1. 2. 3. It is crucial that the organization establish its mission and goals prior to determination of competency requirements. The general competencies should be truly important at all job levels. All general competencies should have specific behavioral definitions, not just labels.
  27. 27. JOB REWARDS
  28. 28. Types of Rewards 1. 2. Extrinsic rewards – are tangible factors external to the job itself that are explicitly designed and granted to employees by representatives of the organization. Intrinsic rewards – are the intangibles that are more internal to the job itself and experienced by the employee as an outgrowth of actually doing the job and being a member of the organization.
  29. 29. Collecting Job Rewards Information Within the Organization a) Interviews With Employees 1. A person with special expertise in the employee interview process should guide the total process. 2. The interviews should be structured and guided. 3. Employees from throughout the organization should be part of the sample. 4. It is strongly recommended that the interviews be treated as confidential, and that the responses of individuals be seen only by those recording and analyzing the data. 5. Interviewees responses should be recorded should be recorded rather than trusted to the memory of the interviewer.
  30. 30. JOB ANALYSIS FOR TEAMS    A work team is an interdependent collection of employees who share responsibility for achieving a specific goal. Teams are often formed around projects, such as to develop or launch a new product or manage an existing project or brand, or as part of a task force to address some critical issue or crisis. Other teams are designed to absorb management functions so that the teams themselves manage and supervise the work done.
  31. 31. LEGAL ISSUES
  32. 32. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Job Relatedness and Court Cases must be for the job Job analysis must be performed and for which the selection instrument is to be utilized. Analysis of the job should be in writing. Job analysts should describe in detail the procedure used. Job data should be collected from a variety of current sources by knowledgeable job analysts. Sample size should be large and representative of the jobs for which the selection instrument is used. Tasks, duties, and activities should be included in the analysis. The most important tasks should be represented in the selection device. Competency levels of job performance for entry-level jobs should be specified. Knowledge, skills, and abilities should be
  33. 33. Essential Job Functions What Are Essential Functions? 1. The term essential functions refers to the fundamental job duties of the employment position the individual with a disability hold or desires 2. A job function may be considered essential for any of several reasons, including but not limited to the following: a) A job function may be essential because the reason the position exists is to perform faster the function. b) The function may be essential because of the limited number of employees available among whom the performance of that job function can be distributed. c) The function may be highly specialized so that the incumbent in the position is hired for his or her expertise or ability to perform the particular
  34. 34. Evidence of Essential Functions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The employer’s judgment as to which functions are essential Written job descriptions, prepared before advertising or interviewing applicants for the job The amount of time spent on the job performing the function The consequences of not requiring the incumbent to perform the function The terms of a collective bargaining agreement The work experience of past incumbents in the job The current work experience of incumbents
  35. 35. Role of Job Analysis    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has provided substantial and detailed assistance to organizations to deal with this and many other issues under the ADA. Job analysis is not required by law as a means of establishing the essential functions of a job, it is strongly recommended. Job analysis should focus on tasks associated with the job.