Agnieszka (Aga) Palalas, Ed.D.                 apalalas@georgebrown.caMarch 2013                                    1
1.   DBR overview2.   MELLES case study3.   DBR implications, limitations and     recommendations4.   Conclusions5.   Disc...
   “Design experiments” > design-based research = design    research = DBR = EDR = researching innovative educational    ...
Informed Exploration   Enactment    Evaluation:     Evaluation:                                   Local Impact   Broader I...
(Van den Akker, 1999, p. 9)                              5
(Plomp, 2009, p. 19)                       6
   Practice  research   Drawing on engineering and technological research   Focusing on design, construction, impleme...
   Applied   Participatory   Collaborative   Utility oriented   Theory driven   Unifying theory and practice   Evol...
   Rich feedback   Responsive   Flexible   AgileBUT   Multileveled and multifaceted   Complex   Messy
   Co-developing theory and design in-situ    Testing in real-world learning situations involving     all actors/end use...
   Diverse expertise of practitioners and researchers   Collaboration and support   Network of colleagues    ◦ Flexible...
Context is king Evolution   of theory Evolution   of practice
   Build foundational understanding of m-learning    trends and needs   Gain insight into learner m-learning behaviours...
What are the characteristics of an effective, pedagogically-sound MELLES forstudents’ mobile devices, through which adult ...
15
 Inadequate     aural skills instruction - college ESP students Purpose: MELL educational intervention to enhance effect...
What are the characteristics of an effective,pedagogically-sound learning object MELLES forstudents’ mobile devices, throu...
•   Bannan, B. (2009)•   Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004)•   Brown, A. (1992)•   Dede, C. (2004)•   Herrington, J., McKenney...
19
Critical Elements of Effective Design:  Pedagogy      PEDAGOGIC PROCEDURE - How      CONTENT - What      CONTEXT - Whe...
    Ecological Constructivism    • Social Constructivism + Sociocultural Theory + Ecological      Linguistics    • “the r...
22
23
24
(Palalas & Hoven, 2013)The intervention “embod[ied] specific theoretical claims about teaching and learning,and reflect[ed...
   The scope of DBR    •   complexity of the system – breadth    •   coordination of research and design activities    • ...
   Rigorous data collection/analysis procedures     Regular communication     Findings documentation and reporting    ...
   Project context   Objectives   Audience   Location   Methods   Schedule   Outcomes
apalalas@georgebrown.cahttp://mobi-learning.com/Twitter: @agaizaLinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/apalalasPresentations...
   Bannan, B. (2009). The Integrative Learning Design Framework: An illustrated example from the domain of instructional ...
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DBR in the m-learning context (A. Palalas), March 2013

  1. 1. Agnieszka (Aga) Palalas, Ed.D. apalalas@georgebrown.caMarch 2013 1
  2. 2. 1. DBR overview2. MELLES case study3. DBR implications, limitations and recommendations4. Conclusions5. Discussion 2
  3. 3.  “Design experiments” > design-based research = design research = DBR = EDR = researching innovative educational designs in their naturalistic settings (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992) A systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories. (Wang & Hannafin, 1999, p. 7) 3
  4. 4. Informed Exploration Enactment Evaluation: Evaluation: Local Impact Broader Impact 4
  5. 5. (Van den Akker, 1999, p. 9) 5
  6. 6. (Plomp, 2009, p. 19) 6
  7. 7.  Practice  research Drawing on engineering and technological research Focusing on design, construction, implementation and adoption of learning solutions Process focused and iterative Interventionist: applied solutions to real educational problems Contextual: real people, context, and cultural background, in-situ investigation/evaluation “Action Research on steroids”
  8. 8.  Applied Participatory Collaborative Utility oriented Theory driven Unifying theory and practice Evolving Systemic
  9. 9.  Rich feedback Responsive Flexible AgileBUT Multileveled and multifaceted Complex Messy
  10. 10.  Co-developing theory and design in-situ  Testing in real-world learning situations involving all actors/end users  With people for people  End-users as partners (active co-creators)  Combination of motivation and efforts  Students as researchers  Diverse evaluation perspectives“We are moving away from a passive information age towards anactive participation age” (Farmer & Gruba, 2006, p. 149)
  11. 11.  Diverse expertise of practitioners and researchers Collaboration and support Network of colleagues ◦ Flexible dialogue from whenever ◦ Online platform and tools (e.g., Wiggio, Collaborate) Dynamic feedback from actors ◦ at milestones and agile
  12. 12. Context is king Evolution of theory Evolution of practice
  13. 13.  Build foundational understanding of m-learning trends and needs Gain insight into learner m-learning behaviours Generate inspiration and ideas for appropriate design Define what functionality is most critical Improve the usability of infrastructure Inform future design solutions Provide professional development Raise awareness and understanding of m-learning
  14. 14. What are the characteristics of an effective, pedagogically-sound MELLES forstudents’ mobile devices, through which adult ESP students in a community collegeenhance listening skills, while expanding their learning outside the classroom?  Evolution of theory • MELLES design principles • Ecological Constructivism  Evolution of practice • MELLES prototype • Model for replication  DBR application for educational context (Palalas, 2012) 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16.  Inadequate aural skills instruction - college ESP students Purpose: MELL educational intervention to enhance effectiveness and appeal of ESP ◦ augment in-class learning ◦ out-of-class language practice ◦ students’ own mobile devices ◦ replicable and reusable design principles 16
  17. 17. What are the characteristics of an effective,pedagogically-sound learning object MELLES forstudents’ mobile devices, through which adult ESPstudents in a community college enhance listening skills,while expanding their learning outside the classroom? 17
  18. 18. • Bannan, B. (2009)• Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004)• Brown, A. (1992)• Dede, C. (2004)• Herrington, J., McKenney, S., Reeves, T., & Oliver, R. (2007)• Kelly, A. (2009)• Plomp, T. (2009)• Reeves, T. (2006)• Van den Akker et al (2006)• Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005) 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. Critical Elements of Effective Design:  Pedagogy  PEDAGOGIC PROCEDURE - How  CONTENT - What  CONTEXT - When and Where  ACTORS - Who  Technology  FUNCTIONALITY - How  TECH SOLUTION – What  TECH CONTEXT - When and Where 20
  21. 21.  Ecological Constructivism • Social Constructivism + Sociocultural Theory + Ecological Linguistics • “the recent metaphor of ecology attempts to capture the interconnectedness of psychological, social, and environmental process in SLA” (Lam & Kramsch, 2003, p.144) • Affordance: “ … a particular property of the environment that is relevant – for good or ill – to an active, perceiving organism in that environment” (van Lier, 2000, p. 252) 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. (Palalas & Hoven, 2013)The intervention “embod[ied] specific theoretical claims about teaching and learning,and reflect[ed] a commitment to understanding the relationships among theory,designed artifacts, and practice. […] research on specific interventions can contributeto theories of learning and teaching.” (Design-Based Research Collective, 2003, p.6)
  26. 26.  The scope of DBR • complexity of the system – breadth • coordination of research and design activities • no objective measure of learning • amount of data • consensus-reaching and interaction among actors • intensity The role of the researcher • multifaceted • conflicting roles • threats to validity Transferability of findings 26
  27. 27.  Rigorous data collection/analysis procedures  Regular communication  Findings documentation and reporting  Sound conceptual framework  Clear deadlines and deliverables  “Flexible” (academic schedules)  Solid project management  Collaborative DBR research team“If a researcher is intimately involved in the conceptualization, design, development,implementation, and researching of a pedagogical approach, then ensuring thatresearchers can make credible and trustworthy assertions is a challenge” (Barab & Squire, 2004, p.10)
  28. 28.  Project context Objectives Audience Location Methods Schedule Outcomes
  29. 29. apalalas@georgebrown.cahttp://mobi-learning.com/Twitter: @agaizaLinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/apalalasPresentations: http://www.slideshare.net/agaizaPublications: http://georgebrown.academia.edu/apalalas 29
  30. 30.  Bannan, B. (2009). The Integrative Learning Design Framework: An illustrated example from the domain of instructional technology. In T. Plomp & N. Nieveen (Eds.), An introduction to educational design research (pp. 53-73). SLO: Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development. Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004). Design-Based Research: Putting a stake in the ground. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 1-14. doi:10.1207/s15327809jls1301_1 Brown, A. L. (1992). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(2), 141–178. Collins, A. (1992). Towards a design science of education. In E. Scanlon and T. O’Shea (Eds.), New directions in educational technology (pp. 15–22). Berlin: Springer. Dede, C. (2004). If Design-Based Research is the answer, what is the question? The Journal of the Instructional Sciences, 13 (1). Design-Based Research Collective. (2003). Design-Based Research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8. Retrieved from http://www.designbasedresearch.org/reppubs/DBRC2003.pdf Farmer, R., & Gruba, P. (2006). Towards model-driven end-user development in CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 19(2 & 3), 149-191. Palalas, A. (2012). Design guidelines for a Mobile-Enabled Language Learning system supporting the development of ESP listening skills (Doctoral dissertation, Athabasca University). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10791/17 Palalas, A., & Hoven, D. (2013). Implications of using DBR to investigate the iterative design of a mobile-enabled language learning system. CALICO Plomp, T. (2009). Educational design research: An introduction. In T. Plomp & N. Nieveen (Eds.), An introduction to educational design research (pp. 9-36). SLO: Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development. Reeves, T. (2006). Design research from a technology perspective. In J. van den Akker, K. Gravemeijer, S. McKenney & N. Nieveen (Eds.), Educational design research: The design, development and evaluation of programs, processes and products (pp. 52-66). New York: Routledge. Van den Akker, J. (1999). Principles and Methods of Development Research. In J. van den Akker, R.M. Branch, K. Gustafson, N. Nieveen, & T. Plomp (Eds.), Design approaches and tools in education and training (pp. 1-14). Boston: Kluwer Academic. Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5-23. 30

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