Towards a shared understanding ofemerging technologies: experiences in a collaborative research project in South          ...
Authors    Daniela Gachago1, Eunice    Ivala1, Judy Backhouse2,      JP Bosman3, Vivienne    Bozalek4, Dick Ng’ambi5,     ...
What are we hatching? Intro Background More about Emerging Technologies in HE How we did the research (Methodology) W...
Introduction to the paper                                 open         Real-lifeEmerging technologieson the rise          ...
Background to the researchResearch = Qualitative          empowered          freedomoutcomes (Henschke)                   ...
More about emerging technologies       International      Uncertainty       interest           & confusionNew Media Conso...
New Media Consortium           (www.nmc.org)“likely to have a large impact onteaching, learning, or creativeexpression wit...
Siemens & TittenbergerET = Social softwareNot neutralMultiple affordances
Veletsianos “tools, concepts, innovations, and advancements  utilized in diverse educational settings to serve  varied ed...
“we feel that the emerging understandings of this team will providevaluable insights into the meaning of this concept in t...
How we did the research Interpretative qualitative approach March 2012 – n=16 (out of 18) Written reflections coded (co...
What did we find?Team members’ individual definitions of emerging technologiesClosely echoed Veletsianos’ 5 characterist...
[1] Emerging within a context“the type of technology would NOT need to have beendeveloped currently /recently but would ha...
[2] ETs are evolving (state of dev)“[they are] on the rise, upcoming andgaining in momentum” … “changing quickly”
[3] Undergo Hype cycles“new technologies that have not movedbeyond the first two stages (adoption by“innovators” and “earl...
[4] Not fully understood/ researched“I believe that emerging technologies arehappening in spaces that are not alwaysaccess...
[5] Potential is seldom fulfilled“Emerging technologies have the potentialto be transformatory and lead toqualitative educ...
New [6] Special practitioners & fun“Only a small proportion of lecturers in HEare that innovative or interested in usingte...
New [7] Empowering - Agency“do not reside in the institutionaldomain, but are owned by lecturers andstudents alike”.“The w...
Conclusions Interrogated emerging understandings of emerging  technologies (ongoing process) Collective understanding of...
Conclusions II“the use of emerging technologies seemsto allow a more flexible, autonomous,creative and personalised use of...
Future researchStudents’ engagement with technologies and how it impacts on their learning.
Thank you!Thank you to the NRF for funding this projectas well as all the team members for theircontributions.See project ...
Bibliography•   Archer, M. (1995). Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach.    Cambridge: Cambridge University P...
Bibliography•   Herrington, J., Herrington, A., Mantei, J., Olney, I., & Ferry, B. (2009). Using    mobile technologies to...
Bibliography•   Melville, D., Allan, C., Crampton, J., Fothergill, J., Godfrey, A., Harloe, M., Lydon, J.    , et al. (200...
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Towards a shared understanding of emerging technologies: experiences in a collaborative research project in South Africa

  1. 1. Towards a shared understanding ofemerging technologies: experiences in a collaborative research project in South Africa
  2. 2. Authors Daniela Gachago1, Eunice Ivala1, Judy Backhouse2, JP Bosman3, Vivienne Bozalek4, Dick Ng’ambi5, Kathy Watters41 Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town 2 University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 3 Stellenbosch University, Cape Town South Africa 4 University of the Western Cape, Bellville 5 University of Cape Town Presented at emerge 2012 9-20 July 2012
  3. 3. What are we hatching? Intro Background More about Emerging Technologies in HE How we did the research (Methodology) What did we find? (Discussion) Conclusion
  4. 4. Introduction to the paper open Real-lifeEmerging technologieson the rise collaboration transform Large research project interactions paradigmsDefinition!!! team individual
  5. 5. Background to the researchResearch = Qualitative empowered freedomoutcomes (Henschke) < distance partners 262 22 HEIs Survey (Aug/Sep ’11) similarities differences 18 8 SA HEIsResearch team OCW
  6. 6. More about emerging technologies International Uncertainty interest & confusionNew Media ConsortiumSiemens & TittenbergerVeletsianos
  7. 7. New Media Consortium (www.nmc.org)“likely to have a large impact onteaching, learning, or creativeexpression within higher education”
  8. 8. Siemens & TittenbergerET = Social softwareNot neutralMultiple affordances
  9. 9. Veletsianos “tools, concepts, innovations, and advancements utilized in diverse educational settings to serve varied education-related purposes” 5 characteristics Context specific and not necessarily new
  10. 10. “we feel that the emerging understandings of this team will providevaluable insights into the meaning of this concept in the specific SouthAfrican context, with its historical intra-institutional disparities”
  11. 11. How we did the research Interpretative qualitative approach March 2012 – n=16 (out of 18) Written reflections coded (constant comparative analysis) Wider team discussion (validity) Nuances differed from Veletsianos Ethical clearance
  12. 12. What did we find?Team members’ individual definitions of emerging technologiesClosely echoed Veletsianos’ 5 characteristicsDepth of engagement varied
  13. 13. [1] Emerging within a context“the type of technology would NOT need to have beendeveloped currently /recently but would have beenused for the first time in a context”“very different contexts in developing countries (ascompared to Europe, Asia, Australasia and the USA forexample) as well as the differentiation in the contextsof the various South African Higher EducationInstitutions”“So what is emerging in Paris may be some years offemerging in Parys.”
  14. 14. [2] ETs are evolving (state of dev)“[they are] on the rise, upcoming andgaining in momentum” … “changing quickly”
  15. 15. [3] Undergo Hype cycles“new technologies that have not movedbeyond the first two stages (adoption by“innovators” and “early adopters) ofEverett Rogers’ (1962) Diffusion ofInnovations”“Sometimes it never will make it as far asParys, maybe because Parys hasn’t heardof it, or doesn’t see the need for it, or bythat time it has been superseded bysomething else.”
  16. 16. [4] Not fully understood/ researched“I believe that emerging technologies arehappening in spaces that are not alwaysaccessible to formal education andeducators...I believe that a lot ishappening without us knowing orrealising”.
  17. 17. [5] Potential is seldom fulfilled“Emerging technologies have the potentialto be transformatory and lead toqualitative educational outcomes but this isnot necessary the case – forexample, Second Life [a virtual world] canbe used to expose students to drill andpractice type of learning that happens inany event in face-to-face traditionalpractice”
  18. 18. New [6] Special practitioners & fun“Only a small proportion of lecturers in HEare that innovative or interested in usingtechnology that they have the time,energy or inclination to investigate cuttingedge technology”“People need a lot of enthusiasm and timeto keep up...emerging technologies arefun, so this time is spent effortlessly”
  19. 19. New [7] Empowering - Agency“do not reside in the institutionaldomain, but are owned by lecturers andstudents alike”.“The way that people use technologyhelps to shape it”
  20. 20. Conclusions Interrogated emerging understandings of emerging technologies (ongoing process) Collective understanding of the concept evolved Heavily influenced by Veletsianos’ definition Nuanced layers of understanding Potential to transform teaching and learning practices Two additional characteristics (risk-takers & agency) Why and how a lecturer appropriates technology impacts on the emerging nature of technologies – it is people who make technologies emerging!!!!
  21. 21. Conclusions II“the use of emerging technologies seemsto allow a more flexible, autonomous,creative and personalised use of thesetechnologies, which may lead to anincreased sense of ownership andlecturer’s and student engagement.”
  22. 22. Future researchStudents’ engagement with technologies and how it impacts on their learning.
  23. 23. Thank you!Thank you to the NRF for funding this projectas well as all the team members for theircontributions.See project website on:http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/The full data can be found at:http://www.emergingicts.blogspot.com/p/survey-data.html
  24. 24. Bibliography• Archer, M. (1995). Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.• Bozalek, V., Ng’ambi, D., & Gachago, D. (2012). Emerging technologies in South African Higher Education Institutions: Institutional enablers and challenges. South African Journal for Higher Education (SAJHE).• Chigona, A., & Dagada, R. (2011). Adoption and use of E-learning at Tertiary Level in South Africa: A Qualitative Analysis. Global Learn Conference (pp. 93- 101). Melbourne, Australia.• Committee of Inquiry into the Changing Learner Experience (CLEX). (2009). Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/heweb20rptv1.pdf• Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.• Hammersley, M. (1981). Self-directed Learning: Its Use and Importance in Nurse Education. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.• Henschke, J. A. (2010). Bringing Together Personal Learning, Higher Education Institutions Elements, and Global Support for a Re-Orientation towards a Focus on Lifelong Learning and Education. In V. Wang (Ed.), Encyclopedia for Using Technology in Adult and Career Education. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
  25. 25. Bibliography• Herrington, J., Herrington, A., Mantei, J., Olney, I., & Ferry, B. (2009). Using mobile technologies to develop new ways of teaching and learning. In J. Herrington, A. Herrington, J. Mantei, I. Olney, & B. Ferry (Eds.), New technologies, new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education (Vol. 9). Faculty of Education, University of Wollongong. Retrieved from ro.uow.edu.au/newtech• Ivala, E. (2011). Implementing eLearning at a University of Technology in South Africa: A Qualitative Study. The Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on e-Learning. Okanagan, Canada: University of British Columbia Okanagan. Retrieved from http://academic-conferences.org/pdfs/ICEL_2011-abstract- booklet.pdf• Johnson, L. (2012). NMC Horizon Project Preview 2012 Higher Education Edition. Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org/publications/horizon- report-2012-higher-ed-edition• Johnson, L., & Adams, S. (2011). Technology Outlook UK Tertiary Education 2011- 2016: An NMC Horizon Report Regional Analysis. Technology. Austin, Texas.• Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., & Haywood, K. (2011). The Horizon Report. Austin, Texas. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/HR2011.pdf• Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  26. 26. Bibliography• Melville, D., Allan, C., Crampton, J., Fothergill, J., Godfrey, A., Harloe, M., Lydon, J. , et al. (2009). Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/heweb20rptv1.pdf• Ng’ambi, D., Gachago, D., Ivala, E., Bozalek, V., & Watters, K. (2012). Emerging Technologies in South African Higher Education Institutions: towards a teaching and learning practice framework. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on e-Learning. Hong Kong, China.• Riley, J. (1990). Getting the Most Out of Your Data. Bristol: Technical and Educational Services.• Siemens, G., & Tittenberger, P. (2009). Handbook of Emerging Technologies for Learning - Emerging Technologies for Learning. Retrieved from http://ltc.umanitoba.ca/wikis/etl/index.php/Handbook_of_Emerging_Technologies _for_Learning• Snowball, J., & Mostert, M. (2010). Introducing a Learning Management System in a large first year class: Impact on lecturers and students. South African Journal for Higher Education (SAJHE), 24(5), 818-831.• Veletsianos, G. (2010). Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. Theory and Practice. Edmonton: AU Press. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/books/120177/ebook/99Z_Veletsianos_2010- Emerging_Technologies_in_Distance_Education.pdf

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