Design Science Of Learning

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Design Science Of Learning

  1. 1. Towards an Interdisciplinary Design Science of Learning Mike Sharples Learning Sciences Research Institute University of Nottingham
  2. 2. Global issues <ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Energy shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Pandemics </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural tension </li></ul><ul><li>Education for a inter-connected world </li></ul>Demand global responses
  3. 3. Global Reponses World climate research programme http://wcrp.wmo.int/About_Aims.html <ul><li>The World Climate Research Programme...is uniquely positioned to draw on the totality of climate-related systems, facilities and intellectual capabilities of more than 185 countries . Integrating new observations, research facilities and scientific breakthroughs is essential to progress in the inherently global task of advancing understanding of the processes that determine our climate </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve its objectives, the WCRP adopts a multi-disciplinary approach , organizes large-scale observational and modelling projects and facilitates focus on aspects of climate too large and complex to be addressed by any one nation or single scientific discipline . </li></ul><ul><li>[It is] designed to improve scientific understanding and knowledge of processes that in turn result in better forecasts and hence benefits to users of climate research </li></ul>
  4. 4. A global research programme in education for an inter-connected world? <ul><li>Draws on the totality of systems , facilities and intellectual capabilities of many countries </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates new observations , research facilities and scientific breakthroughs </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a multi-disciplinary approach </li></ul><ul><li>Carries out large-scale observational and modelling projects </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on aspects too large and complex to be addressed by any one nation or single scientific discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Improves scientific understanding and knowledge of processes that result in benefits to users </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rich learning interactions in the traditional classroom Teacher led Simulation and role-play Collaborative New media Resource-based
  6. 6. What’s new: Not new learning, but new mediations, by personal and collaborative technologies, across contexts and cultures
  7. 7. New complexities of learning <ul><li>New interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between learners, education institutions, commercial providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning at a distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning between formal and informal settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-national learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massively social learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile and contextual learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-long and life-wide learning </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. New Science of Learning <ul><li>Computational learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer structural models from the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from probabilistic input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neural learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning supported by brain circuits that link perception and action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural plasticity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of effective teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contextual and temporal learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning within and across contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle of engagement and reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology-enabled learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning as a distributed socio-technical system </li></ul></ul>A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284.
  9. 9. New Science of Learning <ul><li>Computational learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer structural models from the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from probabilistic input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neural learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning supported by brain circuits that link perception and action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural plasticity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of effective teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contextual and temporal learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning within and across contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle of engagement and reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology-enabled learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning as a distributed socio-technical system </li></ul></ul>A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284. “ Insights from many different fields are converging to create a new science of learning that may transform educational practice” Meltzoff et al., p284
  10. 10. New Science of Learning <ul><li>Computational learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer structural models from the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from probabilistic input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neural learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning supported by brain circuits that link perception and action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioural development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural plasticity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of effective teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contextual and temporal learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning within and across contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle of engagement and reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology-enabled learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning as a distributed socio-technical system </li></ul></ul>A.N. Meltzoff, P. K. Kuhl, J. Movellan, & T. J. Sejnowski (200) Foundations for a New Science of Learning, Science 325 (5938), 284. “ A key component is the role of ‘the social’ in learning. What makes social interaction such a powerful catalyst for learning?” Meltzoff et al., p288
  11. 11. Interdisciplinary science of learning Changing behaviour Neuroscience Behavioural science Enhancing skills Cognitive development Storing information Cognitive sciences Gaining knowledge Cognitive sciences Epistemology Making sense of the world Social sciences Socio-cultural and activity theory Interpreting reality in a different way Phenomenology
  12. 12. Interdisciplinary design science of learning <ul><li>How do people learn as individuals, groups, organisations, societies? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we design and share effective systems for learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we evaluate the success of learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Across contexts, throughout a lifetime </li></ul>
  13. 13. Design-based research <ul><li>“ A systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis , design , development , and implementation , based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings , and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories ” </li></ul><ul><li>Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53 (4), 5-23. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Benefits of DBR <ul><li>Problem driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only understand, document, and interpret, but also change and improve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systematic exploration of a space of possible designs </li></ul><ul><li>Combines engineering and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>The designed context is subject to test and revision, and the successive iterations that result play a role similar to that of systematic variation in experiment </li></ul>
  15. 15. Problems of DBR <ul><li>Can be lengthy </li></ul><ul><li>How to systematically explore a space of possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to ‘hillclimbing’ exploration that misses ‘other peaks’ </li></ul>
  16. 16. Systematic exploration of a design space L. Meshkat, M. Feather, S. Prusha, Decision & Risk Based Design Structures: Decision Support Needs for Conceptual, Concurrent Design
  17. 17. Elements of an interdisciplinary design science of learning <ul><li>Design oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim is to improve learning, not just to describe it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic exploration of a space of possible designs for learning interventions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory informed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on well-founded theories of learning and teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scalable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From single classroom, to cross-national learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with improvement of everyday learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate mix of design and evaluation methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates neural, cognitive, social and cultural aspects of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared representations of learning processes, design patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human-centred </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users as informants, while recognising limitations of user-centred design and need for design expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iterative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle of design, intervention and evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifecycle evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics an integral part of the design process </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Socio-cognitive Engineering A scalable method for design-based learning research General requirements Theory of Use Design Concept Contextual Studies Task model Design space System specification Implementation Deployment Evaluation Sharples, M., Jeffery, N., du Boulay, J.B.H., Teather, D., Teather, B., and du Boulay, G.H. (2002) Socio-cognitive engineering: a methodology for the design of human-centred technology. European Journal of Operational Research 136, 2, pp. 310-323.
  19. 19. Socio-cognitive Engineering Example of use in the MOBIlearn project (www.mobilearn.org) General requirements Theory of Use Design Concept Contextual Studies Task model Design space System specification Implementation Deployment Evaluation Theory of learning for the mobile world OMAF design framework for mobile learning Lifecycle evaluation Studies of informal learning practices General requirements for a mobile learning platform M-learning task model MOBIlearn system Deployed in Uffizi Gallery, Nottingham Castle Museum
  20. 20. Lifecycle evaluation <ul><li>Micro level: Usability issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technology usability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual and group activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meso level: Educational Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning experience as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom-museum-home continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical incidents: learning breakthroughs and breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macro level: Organizational Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effect on the educational practice for school museum visits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emergence of new practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take-up and sustainability </li></ul></ul>Vavoula, G. & Sharples, M. (2009) Meeting the Challenges in Evaluating Mobile Learning: a 3-level Evaluation Framework. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning , 1,2, 54-75.
  21. 21. Evaluation At each level <ul><li>Step 1 – what was supposed to happen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pre-interviews with stakeholders (teachers, students, museum educators), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>documents provided to support the visits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2 – what actually happened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observer logs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>post-focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis of video diaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3 – differences between 1 & 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflective interviews with stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical incident analysis </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Three levels, in three stages, throughout the project Macro evaluation Meso evaluation Micro evaluation Specify requirements Design Implement Deploy Project development process Technology robust enough for evaluation of learning Service deployed long enough to assess impact
  23. 23. Example of global learning design project Social-constructivist theories of learning Theory and practice of 1:1 learning in classrooms Scenarios of successful classroom practice G1:1 global research network www.g1to1.org NCU Taiwan SRI, United States Group Scribbles software SRI International United States, Taiwan, Singapore, UK, Spain SceDer for orchestrating 1:1 classroom learning LSRI, United Kingdom SceDer for orchestrating 1:1 classroom learning Classroom evaluations Djanogly City Academy, UK Sharing of research findings CSCL workshop, Greece
  24. 24. Group Scribbles <ul><li>Developed by SRI International Centre for Technology in Learning </li></ul><ul><li>System to support 1:1 classroom learning </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Post-its metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Design and evaluation in US, Taiwan, Singapore, UK, Spain </li></ul>Group scribbles in Singapore Group scribbles in the USA
  25. 25. SceDer Jitti Niramitranon, University of Nottingham PhD research <ul><li>Design-based research to extend Group Scribbles for teacher authoring and classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>Based on scenarios of classroom interactions from SRI and NCU, Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher support for orchestration of individual, group and whole class learning </li></ul>
  26. 26. SceDer authoring tool
  27. 27. SceDer/GS classroom tool
  28. 28. Classroom evaluation at Djanogly Academy, Nottingham
  29. 30. “ No longer can one community attempt to design TEL tools; communication and sharing of expertise amongst them is of paramount concern” Yishay Mor & Niall Winters (2007) Design Approaches to Technology-Enhanced Learning, Interactive Learning Environments , 15, 1, 2007, 61-75
  30. 31. World learning design research programme? <ul><li>The World Learning Design Research Programme...is uniquely positioned to draw on the totality of learning design systems, facilities and intellectual capabilities of more than ??? countries . Integrating new observations, research facilities and scientific breakthroughs is essential to progress in the inherently global task of advancing understanding of the processes of learning and the design of effective learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve its objectives, the WLDRP adopts a multi-disciplinary approach , organizes large-scale observational, modelling and design projects and facilitates focus on aspects of learning too large and complex to be addressed by any one nation or single scientific discipline . </li></ul><ul><li>[It is] designed to improve scientific understanding and knowledge of learning processes and design of educational interventions that in turn result in more effective education and hence benefits to society </li></ul>Why not?

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