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Lecture mongolconquests


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Lecture mongolconquests

  1. 1. Mongol Conquests and Empire 1200s - 1300s Mongol Conquests and Empire 1200s - 1300s
  2. 2. From nomads to world conquerors
  3. 3. The Mongols created the largest landbased empire in human history.
  4. 4. Mongols and other Central Asian Nomads characteristics • Social Classes – based on abilities • Women had greater status than in most settled regions. • Leaders were “elected” by the free men of the clan, tribe, or confederation. (Kuriltai-Meeting of all Mongol Chieftains)
  5. 5. Quote of the Day “The greatest happiness is to scatter your enemy, to see his cities reduced to ashes, to see those who love him shrouded in tears, and to carry off his wives and daughters.” Temujin (a.k.a. Chinggis Khan) (a.k.a. Genghis Khan)
  6. 6. According to many perspectives in different times, the Mongols: • were destroyers of civilizations • were ruthless uncivilized barbarians • were evil forces against Christians, Buddhists, Confucians, or Muslims
  7. 7. Generally speaking, the Mongols: • • • • Had few technological breakthroughs Spread no new religions Wrote few books and plays Brought no new crops or agricultural methods • Left few artifacts and buildings • Didn’t hold on to an empire very long
  8. 8. Conquests • Under the leadership of Chinggis Khan, the combination of Mongol discipline, technology, strategy, and ruthlessness helped the Mongols take control of Central Asia, then Northern China. • By Chinggis Khan’s death in 1220s, Mongol armies had moved west into the Islamic lands and Central Europe.
  9. 9. THE MONGOL EMPIREs • Each KHANATE or kingdom then worked to add territory and tributary states to the empire which continued under later Mongol leaders. • Mongol control eventually spread into Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, and all of China. • The ruling class who survived often continued to control aspects of their territory under the “supervision” of Mongol rulers.
  10. 10. Conquests • After Chinggis Khan’s death, the Mongol Empire was divided in four parts controlled by 3 sons and a grandson. • • • • Khanate of the Golden Horde Ilkanate Djagatai (Chagtai) Khanate of the Great Khan (and Yuan dynasty)
  11. 11. IMPACT of the MONGOLS • Death & Destruction! – • Especially in Islamic Persia in Baghdad But then . . . THE MONGOL PEACE A period of “peace” and stability in many areas of Eurasia led to economic and social development (for about 100 years).
  12. 12. Trade & Infrastructure Mongol rulers . . . • protected travel and trade routes in the Empire • People moved to new places for Mongol government and military posts • ordered construction of roads & BRIDGES, and extended the Grand Canal in China • set up post offices/trading posts • Skilled workers and artisans disbursed throughout the Empire
  13. 13. SILK ROADs REVIVED! Mongol rule allowed an “exchange of food, tools, goods, and ideas [that] was unprecedented.” • Chinese goods and ideas flowed westward(painting, printing, gunpowder, compass, high temp furnaces, & medical techniques)! • East and West were more connected • Plants and crops circulated • Touched nearly all parts of the known world. • Europeans gained more than most!
  14. 14. Those dirty Mongols! • Spread the use of gunpowder in military uses • Destroyed the Song dynasty, the Abbasid Dynasty, the agriculture of some of the Middle East • Spread the Bubonic Plague or Black Death beginning in the 1330s and lasting for several decades(labor shortage in Europe)! (and Mongol culture didn’t have an impact on the culture of settled civilizations)
  15. 15. MARCO . . . POLO Venetian merchant who traveled and lived in Mongol territory for 20 years including almost 17 years working for Kublai Khan – the Mongol ruler of China.
  16. 16. MARCO . . . POLO writes about the Central Asia Nomads • Write a SOAP analysis in your notebook for Marco Polo. – Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose – WHAT CAUSED Marco Polo to have the point of view he had on the Mongols? • Analyze similarities between the Mongols and other civilizations and write them in your notebook. For example: Both the Mongols and Arabs were nomadic. • Write the most unusual characteristics of the Mongols as reported by Marco Polo.
  17. 17. MARCO . . . POLO writes about the Central Asia Nomads • Marco Polo wrote this account many years after his trip so his recollections may not be completely accurate after years. • The details that Marco Polo uses in his description show that his point of view is based on a long period of living with and interacting with the Mongols. • Marco Polo’s purpose in telling his story was simply to record the events he remembered for other European elites. This probably caused him be as accurate as possible. He may, however, have focused on things that he thought might impress Europeans who read the journal.