Europeans look towards alternative routes to Asia, build ocean worthy ships)
Period iv examreview
PERIOD IV 1450-1750 Age of ExplorationStart of Political Revolutions AP WORLD HISTORY REVIEW Smithtown High School West
Overall ThemesAbsolutism – centralized governmentGlobal TradeConsumerism (3 S’s)Rise of EuropeCoercive LaborReligious RivalryDecline of Nomads Brainstorm: Use the “global outlook” map. What is going on in the world in Period 4?
Ming Dynasty► 1368-1644► Ruled world’s most populous state► Restored ethnic Chinese rule after 400 years’ foreign domination http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/
Founder► Zhu Yuanzhang► Military commander in revolt against Mongols► Became Hongwu emperor► Removed chief minister position► Established a bureaucracy► Developed Imperial City and the Forbidden City► Killed rivals, ruled through terror (public beatings)► Chose imperial wives from humble families Censored writings http://www.paulnoll.com/China/Dynasty/history-Ming-emperors.html►
Peak of cultural grandeur & elegance► Confucianism revived Zhuxi (Neoconfucian)► Civil service exams reinstated, expanded► Return to scholar-gentry dominance Kaifeng
Culture► Principal strength in 1500s-1600s► Art & literature Novels► Silk► Porcelain http://www.jozan.net/Artikelbilleder/MTA2003/Textile17ct-Ming-noah1_gr.jpg
Foreign relations: Most dynamic dynasty► 1300s-1400s: active in conquering neighbors► Population growth based on new crops► Chinese goods like paper, porcelain, and silks were in demand throughout Asia and Europe. Europeans were allowed to come to Macao and Canton to do business.► Active traders in Indian Ocean (major ports were Hangzhou, Quangzhou, and Guangzhou). Traded for silver with Europe and Japan. Ming peasant with wheelbarrow
Compared to Europeans► Zheng He’s ships 400 feet long► Santa Maria 85 feet
Why did they stop?► Interesting but not practical Giraffes, zebras► Glamorous but expensive► Merchants opposed— China is rich already► Scholar gentry opposed ► waste of money ► threat to their power ► Confucian bias against merchants & trade
Fall of Ming► Poor leadership► Internal corruption► Peasant revolts► Manchu (Northern nomads) invaded Founded Qing dynasty http://www.regenttour.com/china/history/qing.htm
Qing Dynasty 1644-1912► Last dynasty Kangxi Emperor ►1654-1722
Japan► Governed since 1100s by shogunates Military governments► 1300-early 1400s Order breaking down Independent feudal states in conflict
Nobunaga (1534-1582)► One of first daimyos Innovative & fierce Extensive use of firearms► After his defeat, his generals gained control of Japan► Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) http://www.wicknet.org/history/togden/Chapters/Chapter%208%20and%209/Chapters%208%20and%209%20Pictures/hideyoshi.jpg
Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616)► 1stof 15 Tokugawa shoguns 1603 Capital at Edo (Tokyo) Brought all daimyos under his authority Civil wars ended http://samourais.free.fr/S_HistoireJapon.html
“The nightingale does not sing!”► Nobunaga “ We will kill it.”► Toyotomi Hideyoshi “ We will wait.”► Tokugawa Ieyasu “ We will teach it.” http://www.uccash.com/graphics.htm
Tokugawa years► Great Peace through dictatorship► Monopoly on gunpowder technology► Rigid class system http://www.hogaku.it/storia/azuchi_momoyama/map2.gif
Restricted Europeans’ access to Japan► 1500s: Portuguese, Spanish Dutch arrived► Traders & missionaries Francis Xavier► By 1614, up to 300,000 converts 10% of population ► http://www.frontpagemag.com/articles/Printable.asp?ID=3993 “Portuguese arrive in Japan” Thomas Kostecki http://www.kostecki.de/en/chegada.htm
Shoguns distrusted Christianity► Restrictions began 1580s Missionaries ordered to leave 1590s persecution began Banned 1614 Monument to Nagasaki martyrs http://cue.stanford.edu/journal/entry.cgi?index=382
1649 Japan closed to foreigners► By 1630s, Japanese ships forbidden to sail overseas► Only Nagasaki open to foreign merchants Dutch post on Deshima Island► Western books banned http://www.hendrick-hamel.henny-savenije.pe.kr/images/deshima.jpg
Shogunate’s accomplishments► Peace restored► Population grew► Roads, canals, internal economy grew► Tokugawas dynamic through mid-1700s Inflexibility Mid-1800s: Japan forced open by foreign powers (U.S. Commodore Perry) Tokugawa rule ended 1868
The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires Mughal and Ottoman Empires 1450-1750
Rise of Mughal India / Major LeadersBabur (r. 1526-1530)• Military general who led his people to victory• Writer, loved music and art• Did little to administer the empireAkbar (r. 1556-1605)• Great military commander• Expanded the dynasty to twice the size of what it was• Reformed government• Accepted Hinduism – •allowed intermarriage, no tax on non-Muslims, Hindus allowed high gov’t positions, allowed Hindu temples to be built• Created the Din-i-Ilahi
Major LeadersJahangir (r.1605-1627)• Patron of the arts• Not the best ruler• Jahangir indulged in courtly luxuries, such as opium• Strong political and artistic influence of his wife, queen Nur JahanShah Jahan (r.1628-1658)• Patron of the arts• Taj Mahal for his wife Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707) • Restored Jaziya, the tax on non-Muslims. • Razed temples, built mosques on their foundations. • Forbade building of new temples, banned music at court, abolished ceremonies
Mughal Military Power► Massive armies, cavalry, artillery, no navy► Firearms purchased from Europeans, limited local production► Troops poorly trained – conscripted from poor
Form of Government• Emperor had absolute power• Vazirs – royal officials• Patrons of the arts• Wives of emperors gained power• Anyone could gain high office
Religious Beliefs / Policy• Belief in God – Islamic• Muslim and Hindu subjects• Akbar and the Din-i-Ilahi faith• Aurangzeb – Did not tolerate Hindus
Major Achievements •Enormous army • Cotton textiles • Polo • Artwork – influence from Europe • Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Akbar’s Tomb • Literature: Baburnama (literally: "Book of Babur“)
• Emperors neglect people• Bureaucracy was corrupt• Army backwards in technology and tactics• High taxes on people• Lack of tolerance for Hinduism• Tried to conquer all of India• Peasant uprisings• European intervention
Ottoman Rise► Void left by Mongols taken up by Ottomans► Osman led group of Turks in the Anatolian Peninsula► Cavalry, Janissaries dominate along with a strong naval fleet► Conquer Constantinople, make it their capital► Considered the “terror of Europe”
Ottoman Military Might► Adopted firearms readily – easily defeated Muslim rivals, Hungary► Initially they had superior technology► 15th Century - Build navy to ward off Europeans, gain control of Mediterranean (Significance?)
Major Leaders Mehmet IIMehmet II: 1444-1481- Called “The Conqueror”• 1453 – 80,000 soldiers laid siege to Constantinople and conquered the Byzantine Empire.• Renamed city Istanbul and made it the capital.• The Topkapi Palace “Iron Gate” “What a city we have given to plunder and destruction.” Turks vs Europeans
Major Leaders Suleyman the MagnificentSuleyman: (1520-1566) – The Greatest Sultan• Expanded Empire into Romania, Hungary, and parts of Austria.• Turkish Naval Fleet rules the eastern Mediterranean• Patron of the arts, built bridges, public baths, schools and mosques. Major Achievement The Suleimaniye Mosque
The Ottoman Centralized Bureaucracy Process of succession was not distinct – Led by Sultan – Absolute power SULTAN could cause conflict Chief minister, or GrandVizier adviser, to the SultanProvincial Governors (Beys) Viziers Heads of And Military elite - Individual The Janissaries Religious MilletsLocal Administrators Muslims Jews & Military Christians Landowners / Tax Collectors Who do you think Positions were based had the real power? on merit, not birth.
Religious Beliefs and Policies• Ottomans were Sunni Muslims• Sultans claimed the title of Caliph – guided and maintained Islamic Law• Religious advisors – Ulema – set up schools • Tolerant of Non-Muslims • Non-Muslims had to pay a tax, Jiyza, but could freely practice religion • Janissaries protected religious minority Conversations between Christians and Muslims
Social Structure/Role of• Four main Occupational Women Classes: peasants, artisans, merchants, pastoral peoples.• Merchants were most privileged, exempt from taxes and gov’t regulations. • Women treated better than other Islamic states (Turkish traditions) • Could own and inherit property • Were not forced to marry and could seek a divorce • Some gained political power as officials and governors
Major Achievements Islamic • Restored city of Calligraphy Constantinople (Istanbul) • Turned Hagia Sophia into a Mosque Prayer rugs and textilesBazaars,hospitals, Scholars in astronomy andceramics, medicine. (Galata silk Observatory, 1557)
Decline of Ottoman Empire • The Siege of Vienna – Suleyman’s forces were turned back in 1529 • The Battle of Lepanto, 1571 • Major naval battle between Spanish and Ottomans • Spanish victory gavehope to Christian empires that Turks could be stopped.
Decline of Ottoman Empire • Sultans lose power to Vizier’s and Janissaries • Vague process of succession • Internal government corruption • Economy suffered • Empire became • Silk Road Tradetoo large to control monopoly ended – • Loss of loyalty – European water no more land to routes conquer and give • Inflation due influx away of silver • Lack of military • Did not industrialize technology – craft guilds
Motivation Iberian Northern EuropeanGold – Wealth and prestige for Gold – Wealth for individual the crown and trading companyGlory – Glory for their nation, Calvinists – wealth was a sign Individual Glory and of God’s good grace. fame Glory – Individual fame andGod – Great Missionary Spirit fortune to justify actions and God – Search for religious gain new followers freedom (Puritans wereNeed for new forms of revenue persecuted) Take over trade from Competition developed with Muslims and Italians who Iberian nations dominated Mediterranean
How did it all start?1. Crusades led to increased trade between Europe and the Middle East.2. The Ottoman Empire controlled the trade routes to the east. The Europeans were forced to seek alternative trade routes to Asia. How will the Europeans get around the Ottomans?
Location Iberian Portugal- Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa- Vasco Da Gama established an all water route to India- Seized port cities, or trading enclaves, like Goa, Malacca, Mombasa, and Canton- Brazil was founded by Pedro Cabral in 1500 In the early 1400s, the Portuguese led- Had a monopoly on trade in the Indian Ocean until the Dutch arrived in the the way 1600s.
Location Iberian The success of Portuguese explorations led Spain to begin its own voyages.- Columbus discovered the Americas for Spain. Sent conquistadors to Central and South America- Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean- Magellan was the first to circumnavigate the globe, Spain settled Philippines- Cortes conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico- Pizarro conquered the Inca empire along the Andes Mountains in Peru.
The Spaniards attack the Aztecs The Spaniardscapture the Inca King
Location Northern European Dutch and British- Northern areas of the Americas – settlements and search for a “north-west passage.”- Caribbean Islands – Sugar islands- British controlled Port villages in India – Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta 1707 map of Japan- Dutch – Trade routes and colonies in S.E. that depicts Asia: Indonesia, Strait of Malacca, Japan, and China (Only European nation allowed William Adams’ to trade with Japan) visit with- British later replace Dutch (New York, Tokugawa Ieyasu in South Africa, India, Malacca) 1600
Oversight Institution Iberian Northern EuropeanThe Crown – Monarch and Trading companies received Church received 20% of charters from King profits! Mercantilism. East and West India CompaniesRelied of King and Pope to develop – Privately funded make decisions. Resulted in ventures with goal of slow, ineffective process of making a profit. rule Mercantilism existed, butTreaty of Tordesillas in 1494: development of capitalism Pope made decision to split began. New World possessions into Decisions can be made much spheres of interest between faster by the settlers: Spain and Portugal. Mayflower Compact
Impact of Exploration Positive Effects:• New trade: led to weakening of the feudal system, rise in Middle Class, and population growth in Europe.• Animals: horses, cattle, chicken, sheep were brought to New World• Global Trade: Truly Global Trade! Emerged resulting in cultural diffusion Colonies developed and settled by Europeans searching for freedom and opportunity The World in 1400 1600
Negative Effects:• Massive Destruction: Millions of natives died due to disease brought by Europeans, or by colonization.• Mercantilism: economic policy that created a favorable balance of trade for the parent country.• Colonies: served as a source for raw materials, and as an exclusive market for the parent country.
Atlantic Slave Trade: Africans faced a diaspora, or forcedmovement of its people, as slavery became the dominantlabor force in the Americas. The Triangle Trade
Africa► Forced migration of over 15 million people► African kingdoms reorient their economies to do business with Europeans (guns for slaves)► Benin, Asante, Kongo► Centralized► East Africa Swahili trading cities Trade with Ottomans – ivory, gold, silver, people
Americas 1450-1750► Conquest – arrival of Spanish in western hemisphere► Population impacts: disease, racial intermingling (Castas system) Peninsulare, Creole, Mestizo, Mulatto, African, Native American and Zambos► Columbian exchange► Colonial societies► Encomienda System
Empires: Russia ► Mongol occupation stalled Russian unification and development ► Increasing absolutist rule and territorial expansion by 16th Century – Ivan the Terrible ► Multicultural Empire ► Boyars, Cossacks, serfs ► Role of Russian Orthodox Church ► Peter the Great accelerated westernization process
Land Based Sea Based► Self-defense extremely important ► Few strategic concerns► Ottoman, Russian, Mughal, Ming ► Spain, Portugal, England► Relatively Large ► Relatively Small► Expensive Focused on agriculture and not ► Self-sufficient industry ► Settled in profitable areas► Many were located in arid & uninhabitable area ► Involved in forced labor Increasingly brutal► Involved in forced labor► Power was centralized ► Power “divided” amongst► Between 1500 and 1800 had the lands largest administrative and ► Benefited from private economic systems because they investors or joint-stock were more of a threat to each companies other
Cultural and Intellectual Development► Scientific Revolution► Enlightenment► Patronage of the Arts
ComparisonsBe able to compare the following:► Imperial systems: European monarchy vs. a land-based Asian empire► Coercive labor systems► Empire building in Asia, Africa and Europe► Russia’s interaction with the west compared to others
Do You Know Your Stuff? Using the regions below, explain how each exemplifies the ‘Big Picture’ themes of the time period.Ming China - Tokugawa Japan - Ottoman Empire - Mughal Empire - Western Europe - Africa - Americas - Russia Absolutism Global Trade Consumerism (3 S’s) Rise of Europe Coercive Labor Religious Rivalry Decline of Nomads