Everything on…the Mongolian Interlude By Sebastian Kobler 5T Chinese History
Background to the MongolianInterlude Before we can understand the Mongolian Interlude properly, we must first learn a bit about the Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty ruled China from 960 to 1279 AD. The Song Dynasty eventually fell to the Mongols, led by Kublai Khan, in 1279. After the Mongols took over, we call this period of time the Mongolian Interlude.
Yuan Dynasty Kublai Khan ruled the Yuan Dynasty of China. He soon realised that he needed to focus on China, rather than Mongolia, so China became his main base. The map shows the area he ruled as the Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty.
Life Under the Mongols Ethnic Chinese people (called Han) were discriminated against by the Mongols. Mongols were forbidden from associating with the Han. Furthermore, the Han were forbidden to learn Mongolian. Also, intermarriage was forbidden. Finally, Mongolian rituals and celebrations were retained over the Han celebrations and rituals.
Life under the Mongols Despite this, Kublai was still fascinated by the culture of the Han. He adopted much of their culture into his court. This is a picture of him. He was born on the 23rd of September 1215 in Mongolia.
This pyramid shows the social hierarchy of China under the Yuan Dynasty. Mongols Central Asian Nomadic and Muslim Allies North Chinese Han Chinese and Minority People of the South
Rights of Women Mongolian women could own their own property, had control in their household, could move around as they wished and some even went to war and hunted. The wife of Kublai Khan promoted Buddhism, respected Han culture and ensured that the Song imperial family were looked after by giving them funds and a palace.
Mongolian Influence on ChineseAdvancement The Mongols gave the Han to more advanced instruments to use for astronomy. They translated 36 volumes on Muslim medicine into Chinese. The Mongolians also improved the accuracy of maps of China.
Marco Polo Marco Polo was the most famous Christian traveller to come to the Mongol Court. He was born in Venice on 15 September 1254. He travelled many times to the Mongolian Empire in the 13th Century.
For 17 years, he worked as one of KublaiKhan’s administrators.He wrote accounts of Kublai Khan’s courtand his empire.European interest of Asia increased to to hiswriting and how he described the place hevisited.He helped inspire people like ChristopherColumbus to try and find ways of getting toAsia by ship.
Opinions of the Mongols On one hand, the Han scholars viewed the Mongols as barbarians and were hostile towards them. On the other hand, Han merchants benefited from Mongolian rule because the Mongols improved transport and expanded the use and supply of paper money.
Fall of the Yuan Dynasty The discrimination of Han Chinese by the Mongols stirred resentment and rebellion. However, the flooding of the Yellow River also contributed to the fall of the Yuan Dynasty. A number of Han Chinese groups revolted and eventually, the Yuan Dynasty came crumbling down, to be replaced by the Ming Dynasty.