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Yuan dynasty

Yuan dynasty 1279 China

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Yuan dynasty

  1. 1. The Yuan Dynasty and Kublai Khan 1279-1368 Turgazieva Tolgonai
  2. 2. Mongol invasion Genghis khan and his sons set the foundation for Yuan Dynasty by defeating the Western Xia and Central Asia and Hexi Corridor Western Xia also known as Tangut Empire,was an empire which existed from 1038 to 1227 AD
  3. 3. Capital city- Khanbalik (Dadu), was on the site of modern Beijing
  4. 4. Kublai Khan ● Country of Origin / Nationality: Mongol ● Lifetime: 1215 - 1294 ● Family connections : He was the Grandson of the Genghis Khan ● Was elected Khan on May 5, 1260. ● The fifth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire (1260-1294) and the founder of the Yuan Dynasty in China. ● Was a skilled horseman since 12 ● His father died when he was 17 ● Started taking part in ruling at his 30’s ● Died: Kublai Khan died in 1294
  5. 5. Monetary policy ● 1273, Kublai issued paper banknotes - chao (鈔) ● big innovation in banking/monetary system ● advantages: better court control, lighter than coins ● the first dynasty in the world to use paper currency
  6. 6. Political System and Society ● Practiced Han policy first, later - “Imperial Exam” policy ● Confucianism-official thought of dynasty ● Foreigners became the rulers and administrators. ● The four classes: first- the Mongols, ● Semu- their allies and non-Chinese people from Inner- Asia, ● Han- was made up of the people of Northern China ● Nah- came the people of Southern China ● Mixed marriages were forbidden, promotion - impossible Mongols Semu Han Nah
  7. 7. Economy of Yuan Dynasty Focused on the development of: ● Agriculture- in the period of Kublai Khan reign gradually recovered ● Water conservancy construction- 2 new canals were constructed ● Animal husbandry ● Handicrafts -textile industry Rice terraces, Guangxi Province. The Dragon's Backbone Terraces were built from the Yuan Dynasty
  8. 8. Religion of the Yuan Empire Shamanism ● Believed in unseen world of gods, spirits ● Shamans were allowed to take part in the discussion of crucial issues, such as electing leaders and affairs of war and peace. * later integrated to Islam and Buddhism Totemism ● Its practice had a great psychological influence upon the Mongolian people. ● There were two principal totems - 'wolf totem' and 'deer totem' worshiped by the Mongolians. ● wolf -grandfather , deer - grandmother.
  9. 9. Culture and Science ● shadow puppet plays-entertainment in the evenings, using lamp and sheets ● astronomy- Sitiantai observatory ● novels-Water Margin and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong- has about 770 000 words
  10. 10. Invasions of Japan ● In 1274, he sent about 800 or 900 ships. Storm destroyed most of them ● In 1280, he ordered the hasty assembly of a very large force. The second fleet is said to have carried 100,000 men. Faced the wall, killed by storm
  11. 11. Reasons for decline: ● heavy taxation ● ethic contradiction ● corruption of court officials ● army became corrupted ● natural disasters- live in poverty
  12. 12. Natural Disasters ● 1330s onwards, natural disasters such as epidemics, droughts and floods brought suffering and death to the peasants. ● 1331- the bubonic plague pandemic- "Black Death" in Europe, began to sweep the empire. Millions of people died ● 1344 -the Yellow River shifted course.A massive flood that impoverished an populous region at the center of the empire. ● From 1340- 1380 time of drought ● 1351 - rebellion started called the Red Turban Rebellion.
  13. 13. Zhu Yuanzhang Defeated the Empire ● 1356 and 1367- Zhu Yuanzhang began a series of campaigns seeking to defeat the dynasty. ● Restoring Han Chinese to power, got support ● 1368 Zhu's army reached Beijing (Dadu). The Yuan Emperor fled to the north, lost control of the rest of the empire. ● Mongolia became the final home of the Yuan Dynasty clans. ● Mongolians kept trying to recapture the empire, but they failed. ● They eventually allied with the Manchus, and Mongolians became officials in the Qing Dynasty.
  14. 14. Importance of Yuan Dynasty ● unification of whole country - one centralized power system ● migration to center, enriching economic and social life ● natural sciences and technology- astronomy ● technical developments ● promoting Chinese civilization
  15. 15. Thank you
  16. 16. references: htm