Middle colonies


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The Middle Colonies of the 13 Colonies
Designed for 8th grade classes

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Middle colonies

  1. 1. Middle Colonies<br />New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware<br />
  2. 2. Basic Differences from New England<br />The Middle Colonies offered more diversity than the New England Colonies:<br />They came from many places in addition to England, such as Germany, Ireland, Scotland, and The Netherlands<br />They were not as confined to one religion as New England Puritans and a few other Protestant religions. There were Quakers, Jews, Catholics, Presbyterians, and others allowed in the Middle Colonies.<br />
  3. 3. Basic Differences from New England<br />Economically, most of the products that came out of New England were related to the sea and the forest. Shipbuilding and fishing are examples.<br />
  4. 4. Basic Differences from New England<br />The middle colonies had better soil and a little longer growing season. They grew cash crops that could be easily sold for food. They grew grains (wheat, rye, oats) so much they were called “Breadbasket colonies.”<br />
  5. 5. Basic Differences from New England<br />They had iron ore as a natural resource and skilled artisans to make several products such as nails, flints, guns, tools, and furniture hardware. Artisans also made clocks, watches, and glassware.<br />
  6. 6. Basic Differences from New England<br />Whereas NE’s population was concentrated in towns and villages, the Middle Colonies had small farms. <br />Families were self-sufficient. Nearly everything they needed could be produced on the farm.<br />They were more spread out and had fewer town meetings, but more legislative assemblies.<br />
  7. 7. New York<br />King Charles II wanted to have the Atlantic Coast shored up for England. New Amsterdam (today NYC) was already a busy trading center for furs and items produced in the other colonies, but it was under control of the Dutch, and named New Netherland.<br />
  8. 8. The Dutch Governor, Peter Stuyvesant, was extremely unpopular. Even though he kept peace, order, and prosperity in a city that had quadrupled in population, the townspeople took no pity on their peg-legged veteran leader.<br />
  9. 9. Leaders are not usually all bad or all good- Stuyvesant is a good example of this:<br />He allowed an elected council, but did not want the advice of the people.<br />He demanded that all should worship on Sunday, but did not allow Lutherans to congregate.<br />He wanted to regulate the sale of alcohol, because he believed there was too much drunkenness.<br />He wanted farm animals out of the streets.<br />He insisted that Indians be treated fairly.<br />He increased taxes on imports.<br />
  10. 10. The English Takeover of New Netherland<br />When King Charles II sent warships to the harbor, Stuyvesant wanted to fight them off, but he had neither the ammunition nor the support of his people.<br />The English came in New Netherland Colony and renamed it New York. New Amsterdam became New York City.<br />
  11. 11. New Jersey<br />New York had become too large to govern. King Charles broke off New Jersey and turned it over to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret.<br />NJ turned out to be good farmland, but as a proprietary colony, it was not succeeding. It was made a royal colony, under direct control of the king, but the people still had voting rights and individual freedoms.<br />King Charles II<br />
  12. 12. Pennsylvania<br />William Penn left his Anglican roots to become a Quaker in England. This might have meant his death or imprisonment, but King Charles owed his father money (well over $1 million in today’s money). When William’s father died, Charles allowed Penn some land for him to set up a colony. Penn set up Pennsylvania with a goal of religious freedom, equality, and peaceful, Christian living.<br />
  13. 13. In an unusual move, he insisted on buying land from natives, rather than taking it. He won their respect.<br />His views on religious tolerance drew people from all over Western Europe, including the “Pennsylvania Dutch.” (German-speaking)<br />He seemed at odds with his views on equality, as slavery was allowed in PA. <br />
  14. 14. Some of the Views of Penn and Quakers (Society of Friends)<br />All are equal-gender, ethnicity, etc.<br />Conscientious objectors to war<br />Each person has an inherit Light and inner worth.<br />Not ritualistic<br />Do not take<br /> formal oaths<br />
  15. 15. Other Ideas of Penn<br />City of Philadelphia- means brotherly love-the City Hall w/ his statue is world’s 2nd tallest stone masonry bldg.<br />Creation of a representative government for the colony<br />Separation of powers in government is a concept we still use<br />
  16. 16. Officially, the Quaker Oatmeal man isn’t William Penn, just a man in Quaker garb who symbolizes good, honest value. <br />
  17. 17. Delaware<br />Delaware was formed from the lower eastern counties of Pennsylvania. Delegates to the representative assembly found the travel too difficult, and were allowed to break away.<br />Named for the local Delaware Indians and a Virginia governor named Lord de la Warr.<br />Had been under control of Swedes and Dutch before it came under control of English.<br />