Community DevelopmentWilliam Allan Kritsonis, PhDAccording to the professor, the most important areas to study for theComprehensive Exam in the area of Community Development are thoseincluded in the study guides that the class received in preparation for theclass tests. In addition, the following questions and areas are emphasized aspotential questions. Additional questions are added from the study guideafter the special emphasis areas.Potential Questions with Special Emphasis1. Compare and contrast gemeinschaft and gesellschaft communities, notingthe types of social relations in each.2. Considering Fellins description of concentration and segregation, howhas concentration and segregation affected public school funding, fiscalmanagement and maintenance of school buildings?3. Fellin writes that "an important feature of social systems theory is thespecification of boundaries of the system in relation to its environment.”Describe the geographical and psychological boundaries of a typicalSouth Texas rural school district. Fellin notes that there is a secondfeature of a systems model, the interaction of the system with outsidesystems beyond its own boundary. Using the same rural district, describe
the regional, state, and national entities with which the school districtinteracts as part of its system.4. Using your school district, describe the social class of the student bodyand the extent of class awareness.5. Characterize and define underclass according to Fellin. Then debate theextent to which there is an underclass’ in your school district and school.6. Given the mobility of Americans within and between communities,identify factors that can influence, positively or negatively, the socialissues of neighborhoods.7. Describe how voluntary associations affect the public school setting?8. How does Fellin describe the connection between volunteer involvementand empowerment at personal, political, and interpersonal levels in theLatino community?9. The population of South Texas is predominantly Mexican-American, yetFellin writes that minorities tend not to participate in voluntaryassociations because of cultural inhibition. How can self-helporganizations help the dominant Hispanic population in South Texasovercome cultural inhibition?10.Debate the advantages and disadvantages of multiculturalism. Identifythe difficulties in implementing this type of curriculum.
11. Identify the stakeholders in a school bond election.12. Discuss the issues in redrawing the boundaries of school districts.13. Identify the factors that create a positive neighborhood community anda positive school community.14. How does the role of religion in the lives of students and their familiesimpact on schools in South Texas.15. Discuss the Communitarian movement and its development.16. As a superintendent, how would you implement the Communitarianagenda in your school district.17. Discuss how school reform movements attempt to bring aboutequalization of educational resources for school districts and the twomajor types of funding requests, for millage renewals and increases fortheir budgets and bond proposals usually for new schools and schoolrenovations (Fellin, Chapter 9, p. 171, 1995).Special Emphasis TopicThe following area was not formulated into question, but it is a critical andtimely topic with special emphasis.1. School Reform to improve the educational systemStudy Guide QuestionsThe following are questions from the Mid-term Study Guide, 2000:
1. Communities are distinguished by common locality, or place, by non-place characteristics, and in terms of an individual’s “personalcommunity.” Choose one of the types of communities that you areinvolved in and discuss three advantages and one disadvantage to being amember in this community.2. Individuals participate in multiple communities. Choose a role ofsuperintendent, principal, or teacher and discuss as many of thecommunities you can think of that the person in this position would beinvolved in due to their profession.3. Of the four conditions that enhance the competent functioning of alocality-based community, which has the greater significance and why?4. Ravendale is a “welfare community” where violence is a part of life.Drive-by shootings, gang-related activities, drug abuse and drugtrafficking are an every day occurrence. In regard to “communitycompetence” what can the citizens of Ravendale do to save theircommunity.5. In Warren’s discussion of “What is a good community? What are the fourvalues that appear to compose a good community and how do these relateto education?”
6. Is a school a special type of “planned community”? Review thecharacteristics of planned communities in the textbook and comparethose characteristics to a school community.7. What effect does public education have on the five identified functionsthat a community performs?8. In an attempt to introduce the competitive elements of a free marketeconomy into an educational system built on a tradition of cooperation,business and political interests are introducing various programs andaccountability measurements into the ‘ecological system’ of education.How could the ecologists’ definition of “competition” help a schooldevelop a mentality to adapt to the new climate?9. Fellin cites a framework for understanding the activities of a localcommunity. He calls it a “community as an ecology of games.” What aresome of the “games” in a school district, and how does a newcomer learnthe rules to those “games”?10. Describe the major, chronic social problems ensuing from the continuedand developing urbanization in what are called ‘edge cities’.11.Compare and contrast life in the rural community and in the urbancommunity.
12. Discuss three phases of urbanization. How might the future oftechnology affect the metropolitan and diffuse phase?13. Describe how the community of the inner city has significantly changedover the last forty years.14. How has technology affected the decentralization of people, businesses,and industries?15. What is gentrification? Does it have a positive or negative effect oninner cities?16. What are the phases of urbanization?17. What are some of the demographic changes in the inner city?18. Describe race and ethnicity according to Fellin.19. Discuss the difference between social class and class awareness.20. Discuss the six neighborhood types in the Warren & Warren model.21. Discuss the three neighborhood types in the Litwak model.22. Describe a slum and a ghetto.23. Pretend that you are a school superintendent who needs to “test thewaters” concerning upgrading the school facilities. How would theSuperintendent use the knowledge of neighborhood socializationpatterns to help determine how to proceed.24. Discuss settlement patterns and make reference to whites and ethnic
minorities and segregation and integration.25. How many types of voluntary associations may be classified and whatare the characteristics that voluntary associations define as organizedGroups?26. What are the roles of voluntary associations in the helping networkaccording to Powell’s information?27. How does the organization of a voluntary group differ form theorganization of a primary group such as a family?28. Describe voluntary groups that are related to student achievement.29. How can voluntary associations build a sense of community oflearning in South Texas where empowerment is difficult to achieve?Narrative ChapterMajor Points from the book, The Community and the Social Worker, byPhillip FellinDefining CommunitiesGarvin and Tropman state that a community exists “when a group ofpeople form a social unit based on common location, interest, identification,culture, and/or activities (Fellin, p. 3, 1995). Communities are classified asA.) locality-based communities and B.) personal communities. The locality-
based communities are “1.) a functional spatial unit meeting sustenanceneed, 2.) a unit of patterned social interaction, 3.) a symbolic unit ofcollective identity” (Mid-term Study Guide, 2000). An example of alocality-based community is a neighborhood community. A personalcommunity is based on “1.) locational, 2.) identificational, and 3.) interest”(Mid-term Study Guide, 2000). Communities also have the characteristics ofcommon locality, and place, or non-place in an individual’s personalcommunity. A non place community is being a community of identificationor interest. An example of a non place community is being a part of theJewish community.The four conditions that enhance the functioning of a local communityare:1.) residents are committed to there community,2.) various community groups have a self-awareness of their valuesand self-interests3.) community groups are articulate and can communicate with oneanother, and4.) residents identify goals and their implementation.When people think about a good community, they conjure up an individualpicture or image and could be described as a good place to work, raise kids,
or retire. Images of a good community include “1.) the opportunity forprimary group relationships, 2.) the attachment of citizens to theircommunity, 3.) the absence of serious social problems, 4.) the presence ofsolid, functional, safe neighborhoods, 5.) the presence of opportunities foreducation and employment, and 6.) a positive and cultural environment”(mid-term Study Guide, 2000).In approaching education from the ecological system perspective,educators can view the “population characteristics of the community (size,density, heterogeneity), the physical environment (land use), the socialorganization or structure of a community, and the technological forces in acommunity” (Fellin, 1995, p. 11). Ecological systems explain the features ofthe population, such as social class, racial and ethnic composition. Theecological perspective helps us understand “1.) community changes, 2.)movements of population groups, 3.) Patterns of migrations andimmigrations, 4.) succession and segregation,” and “5.) growth dynamics ofcommunities” (Mid-term Study Guide, 2000). The next step to consider isthe interdependencies of people and services to their local and broaderenvironments in the context of community changes due to movements ofpopulations.
The social systems perspective is the relationship of social institutionswithin the community and the social functions the institution provides. It isimportant to focus on how the formal organizations (economic, political,educational, social welfare, and health care) function as subsystems within acommunity. Production/distribution/consumption, socialization, socialcontrol, social participation, and mutual support for individuals and for thecommunity are all-important features according to Warren (Fellin, 1995, p.12). These features of the community are especially important to considerwhen planning or projecting for future trends and social change.The barriers to community competence are the values, attitudes, andpractices of people toward special populations. The special populationgroups are ethnic minorities, women, the physically and mentally disabled,gays and lesbians, cultural and religious groups. The values, attitudes, andpractices shape how the community responds to these specific groups. Fellinquoted Longres to say that racism could be institutionalized when racismcould be built into the norms, traditions, laws, policies and could be found inthe subsystems of a community through economic discrimination,inadequate services to minorities, and insensitivity to the needs ofminorities. Barriers for ethnic minorities include “discriminatory policiesand practices, institutionalized racism” (Mid-term Study Guide, 2000). For
women, communities might need to consider the location of day care,transportation systems, and equal pay structures when considering whetheror not there are barriers to working women. Barriers “place women in adisadvantageous position and impose burdens upon them which restrict theirfull participation in the community” (Mid-term Study Guide, 2000).Architectural designs, transportation, job training, housing, publicaccommodations, employment, communication, recreation, services, andequal opportunity must be considered to determine whether there are barriersfor the disabled and whether there is compliance with the Americans withDisabilities Act of 1990. Gay and lesbian individuals must not denied civilliberties or be excluded from social participation, must not be subjected toviolence or stigma, and should have equal employment opportunities. Allreligious and cultural groups must not suffer discrimination, oppression, orprejudice. Myths, stereotypes, and negative behaviors must not be directedat those members of cultural or religious groups.In the development of communities it is helpful to understand thephases of urbanization, edge cities, gentrification, and the immigration andheterogeneity of communities. The overlapping phases of urbanizationinclude the city-building phase that occurred from the 1830’s to 1925, themetropolitan phase that began about 1920, and the diffuse stage that began
about 1950 to the present. Presently, all three phases exist with themetropolitan phase showing more increased populations around the largerurban cities and a move of industry away from central cities. There was alsoa migration to suburbs. The diffuse stage is characterized by less dominancein central cities and a furthering broadening of industry and business. It isalso characterized by major entertainment centers beyond the center of thecity. Examples of these entertainment centers are superdomes, concert parks,national corporation offices, and hotels.Edge cities were created as the diffuse phase created new cities on theoutskirts of central cities. Office and retail space became available in theonce called bedroom communities. The Edge City would then begin to haveits own identity as a place.Gentrification occurred as a result of the changing land use in theinner cities. Young professional people began to buy the old dwellings thatinvestors developed into up scale residential use. There has been an increasein this movement but it should not be interpreted as a large movement. Adisadvantage of gentrification is a lack of housing options for people whotypically lived in rooming housing or single rooms.Migration and immigration affect communities. Western Europeansimmigrated in the mid 1800’s, and southern and eastern Europeans
immigrated in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. Other large immigrantgroups include Africans, Hispanics from Mexico, Japanese, Chinese, andIndians. Many ethnic populations followed the process of social and spatialconcentration, segregation, acculturation, and assimilation.Stratification in communities occurs based on class, race, andethnicity. Social class is further stratified by socieconomic class, family,social standing, and lifestyle. Socioeconomic status is measured through thecensus by occupation, income, and education levels which is used to developsocial profiles of communities. In 1955, Skevsky and Bell developed asocial area analysis that was based on the three areas of (Fellin, 1995, p. 61):“1. Social rank (education and occupation)2. urbanization or family status (type of housing, marital status,children, members of household working)3. segregation or ethnicity (proportion of minorities in an areacompared to the total community population).”Each area is scored and then ordered to gain a better understanding ofcommunities for assessment of social class levels, as well as occupational,income, and educational levels.Social class is related to lifestyles and is indicated through “value andlocation of homes, clothing styles, consumer spending patterns, club
memberships, restaurants, bars, lounges, summer and winter homes, traveland vacation styles, type of automobile, cooking and food styles,participation in sports, and choices of reading/magazines/books” (Fellin,1995, p. 62). The most evident is the value and location of residence.Neighborhoods serve functions for their residents as illustrated in aframework developed by Warren and Warren in 1977. They identified thefunctions of a neighborhood as a “sociability arena, an interpersonalinfluence center, a source of mutual aid, an organizational base, a referencegroup, and a status area (Fellin, 1995, p. 80). Other models include theLitwak model, the Fellin and Litwak model, and the Figueira-McDonoughmodel. Each model of neighborhood types is described in the Table 1.below.Figure 1. The Models of Neighborhood Types
Warren and Warren 1977Focus:Social identity, social interaction, and linkages to thewider communityIntegral neighborhood –High identity, interaction, and linkages• High capacity to identify problems and take action• Easier for higher social classes to create but is also inwhite-collar suburbs, inner city and blue-collarindustrial communitiesParochial neighborhood –High identity and interaction, lowLinkages• Strong group identity due to race, class, age, andphysical isolation there is a strong commitment tolocality and getting things done• May be limited due to lack of linkages to largercommunityDiffuse neighborhoods –High identity, low interaction and linkages• Doesn’t act on its high degree of collective capacity• People think they don’t need the help• Found in upper-class suburban dwellings and high-rise luxury apartmentsStepping-stone neighborhoods –Low in identity, high interaction and linkagesTransitory neighborhoods –Low identity and interaction, high linkagesLitwak 1985Focus:Emphasizes two important dimensions of neighborhoodprimary groups1.) level of membership change/turnover2.) capacity to retain primary group cohesion/socialintegrationMobile neighborhood –• high turnover of residents, quickly integratenewcomers, retain neighborhood cohesionTransitional neighborhood –• stable membership, not well suited for integratingnew residentsMass neighborhood –• high mobility of residents, little capacity forintegrating new or retaining cohesion
Fellin and Litwak 1968Focus:Organizational, value, and change dimensions ofneighborhood primary groupsNeighborhood with positive values, organized –Neighborhood with positive values, unorganized –Neighborhood with negative values, organized –Neighborhood with negative values, unorganized –Figueira – McDonough 1991Focus:Uses ecological perspective for typology to understanddelinquency rates by the dimensions of population factorsand organizational factorsStepping-stone community –• nonpoor and mobile, low primary networks, highsecondary networks, high external linksEstablished community –• nonpoor and stable, high primary and secondarynetworks, low external linksDisorganized community –• poor and mobile, low primary and secondarynetworks, low external linksParochial community –• poor and stable, high primary networks, lowsecondary networks and low external linksA slum and a ghetto are two different terms and cannot be usedinterchangeably. A ghetto is a “bounded residential are in which a definedracial or ethnic group is forced to live” (Choldan, 1985). A slum is aphysical environment that is “deteriorated, run-down and undesirablehousing units, evidence of filth, dirt, unsanity conditions,” including“boarded up and unoccupied structures” (Fellin, 1995).Suburban neighborhoods are classified according to the threedimensions of social interaction, identity, and linkages to the widercommunity therefore the suburban neighborhood types in Warren andWarren’s model are integral, diffuse, and stepping-stone. Some of thefunctions of neighborhood primary groups are sociability arena,
interpersonal influence center, organizational base, reference group, andstatus area (Mid-term Study Guide, 2000). Older neighborhoods exhibitlower interaction.Social class neighborhoods are evident due to the status symbols oflocation, house, and people in varying combinations. The status of suburbanneighborhoods changes much more slowly than urban neighborhoods. Untilthe 1960’s, many African-Americans and Hispanics continued to reside inthe same neighborhood regardless of social status. These groups had ties ofreligion, family, ethnic, and small towns.Ethnic neighborhoods, also called communities or commonalities, areareas in large cities with a high concentration of a similar minority group.Mixed land use characterizes the neighborhood to include residences,businesses, agencies, and schools. Zones of emergence describe the areas inthe central city or suburbs where the middle class minority have moved inlarge numbers.Housing segregation is attributed to discrimination and prejudice thatthe New York Times and others state that is due to race or ethnicity.Segregated housing still exists due to socioeconomic factors and preference.Some housing costs are prohibitive to some and nonwhites have preferred to
live in homogeneous neighborhoods. Segregated housing continues topersist.White flight occurred in dramatically after World War II to bringmore white families to the suburbs. There were nonracial “pushes” and“pulls” as well as racial causes to generate this movement. White familieshad pent up housing needs which the accessibility and size of suburbanhousing filled. The economy allowed for upward mobility, lower interestloans were available, and there were lower taxes. The segregatedneighborhoods in the suburbs were also attractive to the families.Succession, a series of events that caused the replacement of aneighborhood by a population or land use, is seen as part of the process ofchange of a neighborhood. The text termed the incoming group as“invaders” and the original group as “established” (Fellin, 1995, p. 105). Thesuccession of the movement of minority groups into white areas shouldconsider “1.) the causes and conditions of the process, 2.) the process ofradical change itself, and 3.) the social and economic consequences of theprocess” (Aldrich in Fellin, 1995, p. 105). Whites view the incoming peoplenegatively and make assumptions according to Aldrich. The assumptions arethat single family dwellings will become multiple, household membershipwill increase, more people will gather at residences, and the business
ownership will change (Aldrich in Fellin, 1995). Ultimately, tipping willoccur when whites begin moving away.Hernandez (1985) has explained the settlement of new immigrants asa framework of neighborhood typology. The first is a ghetto or barrio whichis described as heterogeneously mixed with a single group dominating. Thesecond is a heterogeneous mix with no predominant group. The next ismulti-ethnic, multi-racial with a gentrification of white middle class. Thenimmigrants might enter or move to an older neighborhood. The last isscattered suburban settlements with lower and upper middle classes.Voluntary associations in America are viewed as social units withmany diverse forms and functions. The associations can be a vehicle for“worship, social support, social participation, political influence, self-help,service, and client organizations” (Mid-term Study Guide, 2000). Theorganizations are helping networks involving citizen volunteers as well asformal human service organizations. The four systems are 1.)lay informalservice systems, 2.) quasi formal and self-help systems, 3.) professionalservice organizations, and 4.) inter-organizational relationships. Voluntaryassociations link individuals with the larger community and help withintegration into the primary group of neighborhood. The associations serve
an important role in influencing minority groups regarding empowerment,mutual aid, social support, advocacy, and in dealing with relevant issues.Women are important to volunteer organizations and have comprisedthe majority of membership due to their interest in connecting with theircommunities. Women have also gained power through their involvement inself-help groups. Women have joined with others to bring about changes intheir communities.Religious groups can be viewed as voluntary associations and canidentify themselves as communities of identification and interest. Theseassociations play important roles in the community’s social welfare systems.A direct service agency in an agency that meets the social welfareneeds of the community residents. Some of the services provided arevocational rehabilitation and counseling. These agencies could be eitherpublic or voluntary and provide services to families and children rangingfrom social welfare policies, child protective services, to parentingeducation. Health care services, public and private, provide services athospital, clinics, and mental health centers. Lack of coordination betweenpublic and private as well as between physical and mental health subsystemshave been the major criticisms of health care.
The role of the federal government has been strong in the area ofservice and educational. Government programs include the Head Startprogram, the National School Lunch Program, and programs for childrenwith special needs. Brown vs. Board of Education ruled against segregationbecause it deprived students of educational opportunity. The role of theschool board was clarified and the Buckley amendment ruled that all studentrecords must be kept confidential. Many states were teaching sex education.In Texas, there were several cases of Edgewood vs. Kirby, etc. to equalizefunding resources for all school districts. School reform was beginning to bethe new focus with a “Nation At Risk” presenting the state of education asthe lack of improvement in SAT scores.Multiculturalism is the study of minority cultures. The study is anemphasis on everyone’s uniqueness but some argue that the Americanculture is being minimized. The Children of the Rainbow in New York Cityis an example of cultural diversity as a valuable asset. Critics of this programrefer to the family situations particularly gay and lesbian couples withchildren.Political economy is the community interdependence withorganizations, groups, and individuals engaged in the production,distribution and consumption of goods and services. The economic system
of local community includes “1.) numerous bureaucratic organizations suchas industrial companies and commercial businesses, 2.) offices ofprofessional and private or group practice such as accountants, lawyers,physicians, social workers, psychologists; 3.) small, less formalizedbusinesses, home industries, service operations, and 4.) an undergroundeconomy which includes a variety of legal and illegal remunerative activitiesby individuals or groups” (Mid-term Study Guide, 2000).Equal employment opportunities for employment, pay, andadvancement differ in communities. Pay for women is less than men andeven lower for Black and Hispanic women. Felice Schwartz (1989)introduced the career track idea so that women could be viewed asindividuals with varying needs. One track was a career-primary woman andthe other was a career-and-family track. Schwartz has also developed aquestionnaire for businesses to assess how they treat women employees. Theissues for women in workplace are 1.) support of women in the workplace,2.) in the home, and 3.) on options of workplace and/or home.The Americans with Disabililities Act of 1990 applies to theeconomic, social, vocational, and educational discrimination to individualswith physical or mental disabilities. Businesses with 25 or medical moreemployees must comply with this act. The employer cannot inquire about
such areas as medical history, insurance claims, work absenteeism; mustmake reasonable accommodation; defines a disabled person as one withphysical or mental disability that impairs one ore more life activities; anddefines a qualified disabled person as one who can perform the essentialfunctions of the job.Sexual harrassment is addressed in the Titles VII and IX of the CivilRights Act of 1964. Discrimination in hiring practices of gays and lesbiansmay fall under this act. Sexual harassment is a critical area of knowledge foran employer.Problems in the Community Economics system include opportunitiesfor various occupations, discrimination in hiring, promotion, and unequalbenefits. Enterprise zones, established in Florida in 1981, focused on hiringarea residents and was a local response to high unemployment, high crime,and welfare dependency. The employer received tax incentives forparticipating in the program.The feminization of poverty is apparent when discussing theunderclass and the economy. The underclass is composed of individuals whorely on the public welfare system for income and services. The reliance isdue to a lack of education and training as well as lack of occupationaltraining for women.
High unemployment and low wage industries such as nursing homes,hospitals, hotels, small businesses, department stores, and retail food storescharacterize the economy of the ghetto. The low occupational and residentialmobility prevent movement out of the ghetto (Mid-term Study Guide, 2000).When redrawing district boundaries, it is worthwhile to be aware ofthe pitfalls of gerrymandering. Gerrymandering is the drawing of votingdistricts so that white and non-white groups outnumber other groupsassuring specific groups majority residential group of representation in local,state, or federal government. Social power is the potential ability to select,change, or attain the goals of the social system. Ethnic minority groups,women, and community power can be assessed by identifying thecommunity leaders according to their position, reputation, or the policydecisions they have made.Community conflict serves positive functions in a community.Conflict allows a community to establish and maintain identity andboundaries of societies and groups, provides opportunities to vent hostilityand express dissent, allows group to assess the power and influence ofanother group and serves as a balancing mechanism, and brings peopletogether in coalitions.
Religious institutions and organizations serve important functions incommunities as instruments of socialization, education, social control, andmutual support. Formally, they facilitate community integration throughreligious-oriented schools, social agencies, volunteer groups, creation ofown volunteer groups, and through the informal relationships of leadingmutual aid and social supports among families connected to a religiouscongregation.Major Points from book, The Spirit of Community, by Amitai EtzioniMany writers such as Sinclair Lewis and John O’Hara describe smalltowns as narrow places “inhabited by petty, mean spirited people” whichgave a negative view of the idea of gemeinschaft, the German word forcommunity (Etzioni, 1993, p. 116). Tonnies labeled social relations as eithergemeinschaft, which means community or gesellschaft, the German wordfor society. During the twentieth century there was a transition togesellschaft even though large cities were portrayed more favorably thanthey were in reality.James Q. Wilson, a political analyst, saw the cities as gesellschaft andhe thought that the YMCA and other associations were trying to provide a“socially appropriate, morality-sustaining context” (Etzioni, p. 118, 1993).Herbert Gans, a Columbia University sociologist, painted a different picture
of cities through his observance of urban villages, or gemeinschaft, in whichneighbors were friendly and diverse groups of people lived side by side.Suburbs that share similarities with small communities now characterizeAmerica. The author describes this movement as an enhancement to theCommunitarian nexus. The Communitarian movement is an environmentalmovement dedicated to the betterment of our moral, social, and politicalenvironment (Study Guide Test #2, 2000, p. 5). It is characterized by a fourpoint agenda including 1.) a Moratorium, a transition period, which puts atight lid on new rights; 2.) Rights Presume Responsibilities, claiming rightswithout assuming responsibilities is unethical and illogical; 3.)Responsibilities without rights, we have some duties of moral claims; and4.) Careful adjustments, outlaws unreasonable searches and seizures (StudyGuide Test #2, 2000, p. 5).The Communitarian recognizes a need for a new social map. In the50’s, there was a clear set of values for most Americans, discriminationagainst minorities was commonplace, and was very authoritarian.Challenging voices came out in the 1960’s to embrace new values. Violent,sexual, and commercial messages were heard. The 80’s were the “me-istic”time with self-interest and greed considered to be virtuous. The 90’s had agrowing awareness that there were few firmly established moral positions.
Marriage was a disposable relationship and the moral values includedmalingering at work, drug and alcohol abuse, physical force used againstanother person, and a tendency to violence. There was a call for moralcommitment in the early 90’s and a positive response. The opponentsdubbed the movement “neopuritanism” (Study Guide Test #2, 2000, p. 7).The Communitarian nexus is further sustained by the reluctance ofAmericans to move as frequently breaking ties to friends and to roots. Therehave also been new, nongeographic communities developing. Examples ofthese communities are the work-based and professional communities madeup of people who work together, interact with each other, grow to care foreach other, and also reinforce moral expectations.Etzioni describes those people who are supporting the gesellschaft andinvesting themselves into making higher salaries and moving to a higherrank but points out that this is an unsatisfying activity because there isalways someone else who makes more money or has a higher rankingposition. The author writes that people should instead “combine their self-advancement with investment in their community” and a “we-ness”approach with one or more groups of people (Etzioni, 1993, p. 124).Examples of we-ness are neighborhood crime watches, soup kitchens for theless fortunate, a folk dance group that meets weekly, an Alcoholics
Anonymous chapter, and especially centers for senior citizens whichprovides activities for groups. It is possible to train recruiters and facilitatorsof we-ness to foster a Communitarian nexus to revive communities.Etzioni continues to support the importance of gemeinschaft orCommunitarian activity and writes that it should not be trivialized.Volunteer efforts are more important than ever to education and to nationalservice. Educators can help to identify ways that the public can helpeducation. Volunteers provide an enormous service, as almost half of theemergency medical technicians are not paid.Institutions are important to the communities because of the servicesthey provide but play an even more important role in that communities cometogether around these institutions. Local schools provide a source of identityfor the community. Many times loss of community is a social cost whenschools consolidate. Churches, synagogues, senior citizen centers, and thelocal grocery store serve as unifying institutions within the community.Etzioni suggests that Communitarians should consider the moral and socialas well as the financial consequences when they are considering the closingof shops or the consolidation of schools.The movement to community policing is an example of trying toreconstruct a core institution for the purpose of rebuilding communities.
Other examples are restoration of housing projects and opening communitymental health centers. Community policing allows for the officers to developrelationships and communicate with people as they patrol their beats on foot.Grievances are resolved more directly and the police work is a more integralpart of the community.In order to enhance public safety, Communitarians can support crimewatches, citizen patrols, build community bonds, sentence nonviolentoffenders to community service, and public humiliating or public shamingby publishing the names of people frequenting prostitutes or requiringconvicted drunken drivers to display signs on their cars. Communitarians arealso expected to participate in politics and governance as an important wayto build community. Schools, hospitals, libraries and other communityactivities offer ample opportunities for public participation.The Communitarian family has a commitment to the children whorequire attention, time, energy, and self. Communitarianism is a movementaway from the institutionalization of children into child care centers wherebonding with families was not occurring. Etzioni favors two parent familiesover single parent families and supports the division of educational labor.Parents need to parent more and have to make choices between income andbetter relationships with their children. Divorce moves fathers away and
children are faced with the adjustment to fragile relationships with therevolving boyfriends and girlfriends of parents. Etzioni supports a slowmovement to marriage with counseling for young people. During marriage,families should eat together, go to marriage encounters, renew vows, and getcounseling when it is needed. Mechanisms have been suggested to slowdown family break-ups and divorce such as a waiting period. The benefits ofmarriage include greater happiness, less depression, stable identity, bonding,and the we-ness of being a couple.Key Terms and DefinitionsCentralization – a clustering of institutions and service in a central locationCommunitarianism – a community member with a sense of gemeinschaftand who works to build and maintain the communityCommunity policing – a local, usually on foot, police who work within thecommunity and build relationships with people in the communityCrowding – a stress producing environment, either psychological orsubjective, resulting from a person recognizing that he/she has lessspace than desired, described by KrupatGemeinschaft – the German term for a small, traditional community, a typeof social relation described by Ferdinand Tonnies, a Germansociologist
Gesellschaft – the German word for society, another type of social relation,which Tonnies used to refer to “people who have rather few bonds,like people in a crowd or a mass society” in which isolation andindividuation in the place of communal ties could occur (Etzioni, 1993,p. 116; Fellin, 1995, p. 45).Minority group – people of color, groups identified by the Equal Rights Actof 1964 as African American, Asian American, Native American, andHispanic (Fellin, 1995, p. 68)Nongeographic community – a community made of people who do not livenear each other such as a work-based or professional community(Etzioni, 1993)We-ness – a shared sense of belonging to a group or groups comprised ofsignificant others with whom they have meaningful, stable, andaffective relationships (Etzioni, 1993)Internet Links:Gemeinschaft and gesellschafthttp://www.imsa.edu/~bernie/gemeingesell.htmlhttp://www.cf.ac.uk/socsi/frameset_students/introsoc/gemein.htmlhttp://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed376996.htmlConcentration and Segregation
http://www.scp.nl/boeken/cahiers/cah123/uk/samenvatting.htmhttp://www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/resseg/def.htmlhttp://education.mit.edu/tep/11124/school.htmhttp://www.idra.org/Newslttr/1997/Oct/Albert.htmhttp://www.nber.org/reporter/spring98/hoxby_spring98.htmlhttp://www.uncfsu.edu/NCcatalyst/new_page_15.htmSocial Classhttp://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/class/class.htmhttp://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/strat.htmlhttp://hss.fullerton.edu/sociology/orleans/436.htmSocial Issues and Neighborhoodshttp://www.neighborhoodcoalition.org/
ReferencesAnderson, T. & Cohort VIII. (2000). Mid-term study guide, SOCI6302 Community Development, Kingsville, TX: Texas A & M University.Anderson, T. & Cohort VIII. (2000). Study guide test #2, SOCI 6302Community Development, Kingsville, TX: Texas A & M University.Etzioni, A. (1993). The spirit of community: The reinvention ofamerican society. New York: Simon & Schuster.Fellin, P. (1995). The community and the social worker. Itasca, IL:Peacock.