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Data, data, everywhere? Not nearly enough!


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Rachael LammeyCrossref Mary Hirsch DataCite
The underlying data created and/or reused and remixed for research is becoming as crucial as the resulting text-based output. This is your opportunity to dig into the what, the why, and the how of data publication, data citation, and data sharing. Workshop hosts will cover this topic from a range of perspectives. Let’s review the best practices and case studies in data citation and data publishing, add to our collective understanding of why this is so important, and contribute to the next steps in building solutions to improving infrastructure for research data

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Data, data, everywhere? Not nearly enough!

  1. 1. Data, data, everywhere? Not nearly enough! Rachael Lammey, Crossref Mary Hirsch, DataCite UKSG Group C
  2. 2. ● Introducing data citation ● Data citation for publishers ○ How to ● Data citation for data repositories ○ How to ● Using data citation information (Event Data API) ● Summary/wrap up ● Q&A We’ll cover
  3. 3. ● References to data, the same way researchers routinely provide a bibliographic reference to other scholarly resources ● Data are often shared, but they are not often cited the same way as journal articles or other publications. ● Let’s change that! What is data citation? HT to Patricia Cruse
  4. 4. ● Access ● Transparency and reproducibility ● Reuse ● Track, measure, and count ● Credit ● Mandates ○ Funders ○ Publishers Why cite data? HT to Patricia Cruse
  5. 5. Data citation for publishers • Supports scholarship • Extends research • Data cited consistently provides • Transparency • Context “eLife is committed to ensuring researchers get credit for all their outputs, and data is a major component of this.” -- Melissa Harrison, eLife
  6. 6. Data citation for publishers Step 1 • Develop a data policy that includes data citation - not too scary ○ Jones, L., Grant, R., & Hrynaszkiewicz, I. (2019). Implementing publisher policies that inform, support and encourage authors to share data: two case studies. Insights, 32(1), 11. DOI: Step 2 • Explain to authors how they should be citing data - not too scary Step 3 • Update internal workflows, including your DTD and instructions to suppliers - quite scary but others have done it and are happy to help Step 4 • Include these citations in your Crossref metadata - Crossref is making this as easy as possible! Cousijn, H. et al. A data citation roadmap for scientific publishers. Sci. Data. 5:180259 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2018.259 (2018).
  7. 7. Data citation for publishers eLife 2019;8:e43599 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.43599
  8. 8. Including data citations in Crossref metadata 1. References - include data citations in the citations you register with Crossref <citation key="ref2"> <doi>10.6084/m9.figshare.5981968</doi> </citation> 1. Relations - include relationships between DOIs and other items in your Crossref metadata records <rel:related_item> <rel:description>Sicard-2018-External-database-S1 </rel:description> <rel:inter_work_relation identifier-type="doi" relationship- type="references"> 10.6084/m9.figshare.5981968 </rel:inter_work_relation> </rel:related_item>
  9. 9. Future plans Expanded citation markup with publication types <citation key="ref3" publication_type=”data”> <author>Morinha F</author> <cYear>2017</cYear> <institution>Dryad Digital Repository</institution> <title>Data from: Extreme genetic structure in a social bird species despite high dispersal capacity</title> <doi>10.5061/dryad.684v0</doi> <identifier type=”accession”>ABC123</identifier> <unstructured_citation>Morinha F, Dávila JA, Estela B, Cabral JA, Frías Ó, González JL, Travassos P, Carvalho D, Milá B, Blanco G (2017) Data from: Extreme genetic structure in a social bird species despite high dispersal capacity. Dryad Digital Repository.</unstructured_citation> </citation>
  10. 10. References ● Good option for publishers who make their reference metadata openly available via Crossref ● Can be a better fit with their existing workflows ● Data Citations made openly available via Crossref’s APIs ● Citations with DataCite DOI are sent to Event Data Relations ● At the moment, these can give more context about the data/article relationship (can specify ‘references’ or ‘isSupplementedBy’ as relation type) ● Good option for publishers who don’t make their reference information visible via Crossref ● Relations are available via metadata APIs ● Future: will be events in Event Data
  11. 11. Data citation for repositories Data repositories recognize the importance of establishing links between datasets and articles ➢ ‘Data citation makes data visible to the research community. Without it, data cannot be accessed for re-use or reproduced for transparency’ - ICPSR ➢ ‘Data publishers efforts often risk going unnoticed, and the true impact of sharing data remains invisible’ - GBIF
  12. 12. Data citation for repositories - how? Step 1 ● Researchers ensure associated publications indicated somewhere in dataset metadata (many repositories do additional curation work to establish these links) Step 2 ● Include these links in your DataCite metadata (instructions on next slide) Step 3 ● Publishers can access this information and link back from the article to the dataset
  13. 13. Adding links to your metadata deposit
  14. 14. Example metadata DataCite DOI Cardiff University Research Portal
  15. 15. Crossref DOI
  16. 16. Data Citation in Three Steps Reference to dataset included in article metadata (Crossref) and/or reference to article included in dataset metadata (DataCite). Crossref DOI <-> DataCite DOI extracted from metadata, stored in Event Data service and made available via APIs. New services and updates of existing services, e.g. DataCite Search, that integrate Event Data information. 1 2 3
  17. 17. Data Citation in Four Steps Work with bibliometrics community to understand data citation data provided via Event Data, and develop data metrics. 4
  18. 18. Event Data ● Service jointly developed by Crossref and DataCite to capture references, mentions and other events around DOIs that are not provided via DOI metadata. ● Also includes references between different DOI registration agencies (like data citations!) ● Events is used as a broad term to for example also include social media mentions and usage statistics. ● Data citations are a small subset of the events captured by the Event Data service.
  19. 19. Event Data Service is crucial for Data Citation Before Event Data ● Data citations needed to be found in DOI metadata, separate for Crossref and DataCite. ● Doesn’t scale well, limiting adoption of data citation. After Event Data ● Data citations are extracted into a separate service and can easily be found. ● Scales well, will lead to adoption of data citation.
  20. 20. Here’s an example Crossref article metadata article Crossref Event Data
  21. 21. Event Data Service is crucial for Data Citation Additional Data Sources Event Data can be extended to include other types of events outside the usual article-to-dataset relations. ● Crossref is pulling social media information into Event Data (like Twitter and Wikipedia) ● DataCite is sending data repository usage reports to Event Data (views and downloads)
  22. 22. View and downloads
  23. 23. Event Data APIs Crossref Event Data Query API Query Event Data using a large number of parameters. https://www.eventdata.cros DataCite REST API Query Event Data that include a DataCite DOI. Integrated into the DataCite REST API, includes basic DOI metadata, and aggregations. /docs/eventdata-guide Scholix-compatible API Data citations in Event Data using the Scholix metadata standard. MORE INFO 1 2 3
  24. 24. Event Data APIs ● These are openly available, anyone can use them ● They’re free to use (and we encourage you to do so!)
  25. 25. In summary ● There are lots of good reasons for data citation ● Collecting data citations from authors is a good place to start! ● Publishers can cite data in their Crossref metadata ● Data repositories can link their data to the articles that cite them ● Data citation information is then made openly available via Event Data so that anyone interested can find and use this information. ● In future, we expect that lots of services will build off Event Data!
  26. 26. Thank you! Questions?
  27. 27. ● Crossref Data & Software Citation Deposit Guide for Publishers: Software-Citation-Deposit-Guide-for-Publishers ● Crossref Event Data: ● A Data Citation Roadmap for Scientific Publishers: ● A Data Citation Roadmap for Scholarly Data Repositories ● Make Data Count webinar: ● Useful links and contacts: