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The calculator

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The calculator

  1. 1. The Calculator Presented by: Jothilingam Dinesh Kumar Barath Kumar Deepak
  2. 2. Is scientific calculator is an embedded system? • An electronic calculator was one of the first applications of an embedded microcontroller. • It is considered an embedded system because in addition to calculating answers, it is also handling low level functions such as input from the keypad and output to the LCD screen. • And it is a dedicated system for performing mathematical operation.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  An electronic calculator is a small, portable, often inexpensive electronic device used to perform both basic and complex operations of arithmetic.  The first solid state electronic calculator was created in the 1960s.  Abacus, developed around 2000 BC, and the Mechanical calculator, developed in the 17th century.
  4. 4. HISTORY OF CALCULATOR  The first known tool used to aid arithmetic calculations was the Abacus, devised by Sumerians and Egyptians before 2000 BC.  In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator by the famous intellectual Blaise Pascal, a device that will eventually perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence.  After that many scientist such as G.poleni tried to make a programmable calculator and at last they succeed.
  5. 5. First Electric Calculator
  6. 6. First electronic calculator • Display: Vacuum Fluorescent Display (VFD) • Released in 1965 • Weighing 8.5 kilograms (18.7 pounds) • Has 3 registers and operates with 12 decimal digits • Addition speed = 0.3 seconds • Division speed = 0.5 seconds • Power consumption = 35 watts
  7. 7. Types of Calculator
  8. 8. Pocket calculator • By 1970, a calculator could be made using just a few chips of low power consumption, allowing portable models powered from rechargeable batteries. • The first portable calculators appeared in Japan in • 1970, and were soon marketed around the world. • In 1971 Pico Electronics and General Instrument also introduced their first collaboration in ICs, a complete single chip calculator IC for the Monroe Royal Digital III calculator. • The first American-made pocket-sized calculator, the Bowmar 901B in 1971
  9. 9. Programmable calculator  The first desktop programmable calculators were produced in the mid-1960s by Mathatronics and Casio (AL-1000).  The first programmable pocket calculator was the HP-65, in 1974; it had a capacity of 100 instructions, and could store and retrieve programs with a built-in magnetic card reader.  The first Soviet programmable desktop calculator ISKRA 123, powered by the power grid, was released at the beginning of the 1970s.  Nowadays many companies started manufacturing this type of programmable calculator.
  10. 10. ARTHUR G. EGGERS, BSEE, MBA INSTRUCTOR/PROGRAM DIRECTOR COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF SOUTHERN NEVADA USING THE SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR
  11. 11. ARTHUR G. EGGERS, BSEE, MBA INSTRUCTOR/PROGRAM DIRECTOR COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF SOUTHERN NEVADA USING THE SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR Programmable Scientific Calculators
  12. 12. ARTHUR G. EGGERS, BSEE, MBA INSTRUCTOR/PROGRAM DIRECTOR COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF SOUTHERN NEVADA USING THE SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR GRAPHING CALCULATOR
  13. 13. Specs: • Input: Keyboard: About 40 tiny plastic keys with a rubber membrane underneath and a touch-sensitive circuit underneath that. • Processor: A microchip that does all the hard work. This does the same job as all the hundreds of gears in an early calculator. • Output: A liquid crystal display (LCD) for showing you the numbers you type in and the results of your calculations. • Power source: A long-life battery (mine has a thin lithium "button" cell that lasts several years).Some calculators also have a solar cell to provide free power in the daylight.
  14. 14. Display Variations
  15. 15. Illuminated pad display
  16. 16. vacuum fluorescent display
  17. 17. LCD display
  18. 18. Modern day Natural LCD display
  19. 19. Design  Modern electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations. Some even contain 00 and 000 buttons to make large numbers easier to enter.  Fractions such as 1⁄3 are displayed as decimal approximations, for example rounded to 0.33333333. Also, some fractions such as 1⁄7 which is 0.14285714285714 (to fourteen significant figures) can be difficult to recognize in decimal form; as a result, many scientific calculators are able to work improper fractions and/or mixed numbers.
  20. 20. Basic block diagram
  21. 21. Interfacing 2x16 LCD with microcontroller (in 4 bit mode)
  22. 22. Applications of calculator: • Used for performing calculations involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, roots, powers, exponentiation, logarithms, trigonometric functions, inverse trigonometric functions, iterative solutions for transcendental equations, differential and integral calculus, elementary statistics and matrix algebra. In addition to straightforward calculation problems, the contest shall include geometric and stated problems similar to those found in recently adopted high school algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, pre-calculus and calculus
  23. 23. • Physicists and engineers use scientific calculators, which are much more advanced than standard calculators. These calculators have large screens that can display graphs or multiple lines of calculations • Accountants and other finance professionals also use specialized calculators, known as financial calculators, which can calculate interest on loans or savings and quickly perform currency conversions.
  24. 24. Merits: • To reduce the complexity of solving problems. • for quick learning of subject in students, the calculator is allowed to use in schools and colleges. • Accurate counting of a number can be brought out by using calculator. • Using a calculators, students become more comfortable with developing new technology. • Enough number of problem’s can be solved repeatedly without any difficulty. • Scientific calculator offers a wide range of data conversion.
  25. 25. Demerits: • People find it difficult to do simple calculations without the use of a calculator. • Teachers and Parents are against making use of calculator for lower level class of students because which reduces the basic skill of learning mathematics techniques among them. • Logical thought of mind or logical learning skills keeps on reducing day by day. • Even though the need of a calculator is essential and used in wide range of application manual method of solving the problem is carried out for verification is carried.
  26. 26. TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS  Through the 1970s the hand-held electronic calculator underwent rapid development.  The red LED and blue/green vacuum fluorescent displays consumed a lot of power and the calculators either had a short battery life or were large so that they could take larger, higher capacity batteries.  Busicom introduced the Busicom LE-120A "HANDY" calculator, the first pocket-sized calculator and the first with an LED display.  A more successful series of calculators using a reflective DSM-LCD was launched in 1972 by Sharp Inc with the Sharp EL-805, which was a slim pocket calculator.
  27. 27. Current Major manufacturers of Calculator Aurora Office Equipment Company (China) Canon Electronic Business Machines (HK) Co., Ltd. (Hong Kong) Casio Computer Co., Ltd. (Japan) Citizen Systems Japan Co., Ltd. (Japan) Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. (U.S.A.) Sharp Corporation (Japan) Texas Instruments Inc. (U.S.A.)
  28. 28. reference • https://www.google.co.in/ • http://www.slideshare.net • http://www.answers.com/
  29. 29. Thank you

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