What is a Rock?• Naturally-occurring mixtures  of minerals. Sometimes include  organic matter.
What is a Rock?• Rocks are divided into 3  groups based on how they  were formed:   • IGNEOUS   • SEDIMENTARY   • METAMORP...
What is the difference between a rock and a       mineral?• Rocks are made up of ONE or  MORE minerals.
Once a rock is formed, does it stay the same rock forever?• NO!
• Rocks are continually changed by many  processes, such as weathering,  erosion, compaction, cementation,  melting, and c...
What is the process through   which rocks change?• The Rock Cycle—earth materials  change back and forth among the  differ...
• No set path a rock takes to become  another kind of rock
IGNEOUSWeathering, Erosion,   Compaction,                                                   Recrystallization   Cementatio...
• “Ignis” = Latin for “fire”• Formed from the cooling of either  magma or lava• The most abundant type of rock• Classified...
ORIGIN— Where IGNEOUS rocks                are formed      2 TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCK:1) Below ground = from magma(intrusive ...
2) Above ground = from lava (extrusiveigneous rock)    Usually have SMALL or NO crystals (they     cooled too quickly)
Peridotite: Intrusive or  Extrusive? Why?
Granite: Intrusive or Extrusive? Why?
Obsidian: Intrusive or Extrusive? Why?
• Formed from sediments  (rock fragments, mineral  grains, animal & plant  remains) that are pressed  or cemented together...
• These sediments are moved by wind,  water, ice or gravity.• Sedimentary rocks represent 7% of the  Earth’s crust, but th...
What turns sediments into solid rock?1)Water or wind breaks down anddeposits sediment (erosion & deposition)
2)The heavy sediments press down onthe layers beneath (compaction)
3)Dissolved minerals flow between theparticles and cement them together(cementation)
How can sedimentary layers help us  understand the age of fossils?• As sedimentary rocks  are deposited, they  form horizo...
• Rocks that have changed due to  intense temperature and pressure• “Meta” means “change” and morphosis  means “form” in G...
What occurs in the Earth to   change these rocks?  • Pressure from overlying rock layers  • High heat, but not enough to m...
• *You can think of metamorphic rocks  as a squished peanut butter & jelly  sandwich in your lunch.
Bill Nye Video
QUESTIONS1. What are the three types of rocks?2. What type of rocks hold fossils?3. What are the 2 kinds of igneous rocks?...
Rocks Presentation
Rocks Presentation
Rocks Presentation
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Rocks Presentation

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Rocks Presentation

  1. 1. What is a Rock?• Naturally-occurring mixtures of minerals. Sometimes include organic matter.
  2. 2. What is a Rock?• Rocks are divided into 3 groups based on how they were formed: • IGNEOUS • SEDIMENTARY • METAMORPHIC
  3. 3. What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?• Rocks are made up of ONE or MORE minerals.
  4. 4. Once a rock is formed, does it stay the same rock forever?• NO!
  5. 5. • Rocks are continually changed by many processes, such as weathering, erosion, compaction, cementation, melting, and cooling• Rocks can change to and from the three types
  6. 6. What is the process through which rocks change?• The Rock Cycle—earth materials change back and forth among the different types of rocks
  7. 7. • No set path a rock takes to become another kind of rock
  8. 8. IGNEOUSWeathering, Erosion, Compaction, Recrystallization Cementation Melting, Solidification Melting, Solidification RecrystallizationSEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC Weathering, Erosion, Compaction, Cementation
  9. 9. • “Ignis” = Latin for “fire”• Formed from the cooling of either magma or lava• The most abundant type of rock• Classified according to their origin and composition
  10. 10. ORIGIN— Where IGNEOUS rocks are formed 2 TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCK:1) Below ground = from magma(intrusive igneous rock) • Usually have LARGE crystal grains (they cooled slowly)
  11. 11. 2) Above ground = from lava (extrusiveigneous rock) Usually have SMALL or NO crystals (they cooled too quickly)
  12. 12. Peridotite: Intrusive or Extrusive? Why?
  13. 13. Granite: Intrusive or Extrusive? Why?
  14. 14. Obsidian: Intrusive or Extrusive? Why?
  15. 15. • Formed from sediments (rock fragments, mineral grains, animal & plant remains) that are pressed or cemented together or when sediments precipitate out of a solution.
  16. 16. • These sediments are moved by wind, water, ice or gravity.• Sedimentary rocks represent 7% of the Earth’s crust, but they cover 70% of the Earth’s surface.• Sedimentary rocks are fossil-carrying rocks.
  17. 17. What turns sediments into solid rock?1)Water or wind breaks down anddeposits sediment (erosion & deposition)
  18. 18. 2)The heavy sediments press down onthe layers beneath (compaction)
  19. 19. 3)Dissolved minerals flow between theparticles and cement them together(cementation)
  20. 20. How can sedimentary layers help us understand the age of fossils?• As sedimentary rocks are deposited, they form horizontal layers• Scientists know that the layers on top (and the fossils in the top layer) are YOUNGER than the fossils in lower layers.
  21. 21. • Rocks that have changed due to intense temperature and pressure• “Meta” means “change” and morphosis means “form” in Greek• Igneous, sedimentary and other metamorphic rocks can change to become metamorphic rocks
  22. 22. What occurs in the Earth to change these rocks? • Pressure from overlying rock layers • High heat, but not enough to melt the rock • Rocks may be flattened or bent or atoms may be exchanged to form new minerals.
  23. 23. • *You can think of metamorphic rocks as a squished peanut butter & jelly sandwich in your lunch.
  24. 24. Bill Nye Video
  25. 25. QUESTIONS1. What are the three types of rocks?2. What type of rocks hold fossils?3. What are the 2 kinds of igneous rocks?4. What kind of igneous rocks are formed below the earth’s surface?5. What kind of rock has the Grand Canyon formed in?6. What are rocks made of?7. Will an igneous rock stay an igneous rock forever?

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