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  • A Master Plan is a long-term plan prepared with the purpose of planned development of cities. The document includes the space requirements for various uses and allocates land for the same. it also spells out the policies, guidelines as per the vision, goal and objectives of the plan.
  • Presentation2

    2. 2. Master Plan • India has adopted it’s planning processes from the British Legislation. The British Town Planning Legislation has guided the process of master plans in India. • Traditional master plans have had the physical planning approach translated into spatial plans, i.e. envisaging spatial distribution of land uses for the cities in future. • It is based on surveys and studies on the present status and future growth prospects, which direct the physical development of the city. • However, in the last three decades master plan could hardly achieve it’s target.
    3. 3. Master Plan (contd.) • Planning process suffered from improper phasing of development, lack of financial support and accountability, as well as inadequate monitoring or evaluation. • Scope is confined to broad proposals and allocation of land for various uses, as it is prepared with the objective of guiding physical development. • Moreover, the plan is prepared envisioning development over a period of 20-25 years, which is too long a period considering the fast pace development in the recent times. • The earliest Master Plans prepared were for cities like Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta and Madras. over the years, the growth of these cities has been largely governed by the stipulations made in their master plans.
    4. 4. Master Plan (contd.) • Traditional planning has neglected the social, political and economic dynamics shaping the city and driving change, as there were many actors and interests involved, and the probability of conflicting interests. • It’s legal bindings bring about an end in itself, while planning is a continuous process. • The plan is too rigid and the pace of change in Indian cities quickly renders the plan obsolete. • Master plan as a tool for development of cities have been criticized for being restrictive and ineffective in terms of process, content, implementation and monitoring programs.
    5. 5. Development Plan • It was the Bombay Town Planning Act, 1954 which referred to the preparation of a Development Plan as a broader entity than just a Master Plan. • After intensive surveys and consultations, the Development Plan for Greater Bombay was sanctioned in 1964. • This plan was detailed and effective but it precipitated haphazard development on the periphery of Greater Bombay. The need for a metropolitan region plan accordingly surfaced where the boundaries of the region had to be fixed on the degree of physical and economic unity of an area.
    6. 6. Development Plan (contd.) • Through the brief historic perspective, it may be noted that India has come a long way from projects aimed at postponing decay to Master Plans with boundaries limited to urban areas and then to Comprehensive Development Plans for more than one contiguous local authority. • Such plans have been prepared for many cities and towns and are being made available for all urban settlements with population over 20,000. • It is a comprehensive plan of a local planning area covering the whole area or part thereof, conceived within the framework of the perspective plan providing medium term (5years) policies, programmes and detailed proposals for socio economic and spatial development of such area indicating the manner in which the use of land and development therein shall be carried out.
    7. 7. Development Plan (contd.) • The basic purpose of Perspective Plan (in this case, the master plan) is to provide policy framework for further detailing and it serves as a guide for urban local authority in preparation of the Development plan. • It provides a background to the shorter term plans and serves as a guide for urban local bodies in preparation of the Development Plan. • The components of the Perspective Plan re spatial and economic developed policies, strategies and programs of the local authority. • The main function of the Perspective Plan is to be in the line with government of India's objectives which are detailed in the development plan.
    8. 8. Development Plan (contd.) • "A Master Plan is the long term perspective plan for guiding the sustainable planned development of the city. This document lays down the planning guidelines, policies, development code and space requirements for various socio-economic activities supporting the city population during the plan period. It is also the basis for all infrastructure requirements.“ ( source: DDA website) • Master plan is an incremental growth plan. • A development plan is a medium term plan (generally 5 years) prepared within the framework of the approved perspective plan, providing to the people the comprehensive proposals for socioeconomic and spatial development of the urban settlement indicating the manner in which the use of the land and development therein shall be carried out by the local authority and other agencies.
    10. 10. Types of Development Plans • • • • • • Based on the scope of coverage, the development plan can be categorised as: Comprehensive Development Plan Zonal Development Plan Regional Development Plan Sub-regional Plan Local area Development Plan Development Plan for areas outside urban limits.
    11. 11. Types of Development Plans 1. Comprehensive Development Plan is one such effort anchored on the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, which aims at creating economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive cities. • A CDP is both a perspective as well as a vision document for future development of city. It defines the potential of the city and reflects its unique attributes in terms of comparative and competitive advantages, values and preferences of the city's residence. • It thus is a detailed strategic document, which is done in consultation among the key stakeholders.
    12. 12. Types of Development Plans • The CDP also provides a city investment plan in lines of estimate of the level of investment. • The preparation of CDP is done keeping in mind the pattern of population growth and its special spread within the city together with its economic base. • The CDP includes the key sectors that drive the city's economy. • An integral focus of the CDP is a detailed infrastructure profile of the city.
    13. 13. Types of Development Plans • It measures the gap between the demand and supply of different infrastructure services, indicating the adequacy or inadequacy of infrastructural services in terms of coverage, quantity and quality, thus attempting to identify the factors responsible for inadequate development of infrastructure services. • The CDP also focuses on techniques for strengthening municipal governance, financial accounting and other bottle necks. • Whereas the emphasis of CDP is to integrate financial profile of a city plan, its investment plan with that of the infrastructure profile of the city.
    14. 14. Types of Development Plans 2. District Development Plan is a five year regional plan of socio-economic and spatial development of a district incorporating both physical and fiscal proposals of the development plans of various municipal bodies and panchayats located in the district. 3. Metropolitan Area Development Plan is a five year regional plan of socio-economic and spatial development of metropolitan area conceived within the framework of the approved perspective plan.
    15. 15. Types of Development Plans 4. An Annual Plan conceived within the framework of the development plan, is a plan containing the details of the new and ongoing projects that the local authority intends to implement during the respective financial year and for which necessary fiscal resources shall be mobilized through plan funds and other sources. 5. Projects and schemes are plans, conceived within the framework of approved development plan, containing detailed working layouts with all supporting infrastructure and documents including cost of development, source of finance and recovery instruments for their execution.