1 AHSGE Chapter 3 The United States Government • Magna Carta – document written in ____________that stated a king’s power was not_______________. • John Locke – English __________________who believed the government should get its _______________ from the people. • Jacques Rousseau – French philosopher who believed the right to _______________should come from the people and not a________. • Wrote the Social Contract Theory (there should be an _______________between the people and the government that limits the rights and duties of each.) Thomas Jefferson used this philosophy in the __________________of Independence. • Baron de Montesquieu – believed that government should possess a______________, executive and _______________branch. • Great Awakening – revival of ______________ in the American Colonies. Contributed to a sense of American nationality before the________________. • House of Burgesses – first _______________assembly in the American colonies. • First and Second Continental Congresses – ___________ for forming the United States_____________. • Declaration of Independence – A formal ______________of colonial independence. Established general ________________of human rights.Articles of Confederation-First __________________ of the United StatesCongress can: -declare__________ and make peace -coin and borrow _____________ -establish a __________office -raise an ___________and navy -make __________treaties and alliances -pass laws by 9 of 13 states.Congress cannot: -levy __________ -regulate foreign or domestic ___________ -enforce any of its __________
2CHUNK # 1 Page 36. Read the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. In the space provided below Explain why the weaknesses of the Articles might cause problems within our new nation. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Strengths – States retained rights, __________government established a post office. Weaknesses –_________bonds developed between independent states, one vote per state, no __________or judicial power, and unanimous vote required for_______________. The Constitutional Convention • Meeting held to _____________the Articles of Confederation CHUNK #2 Page 37. Read the first three paragraphs. Fill in the chart below by explaining the Virginia Plan, the New Jersey Plan and the Great Compromise Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan _______________________ ____________________________ _______________________ ____________________________ _______________________ ____________________________ The Great Compromise _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
3 • Virginia Plan – representation in Congress would be based on________________. • New Jersey Plan – representation in Congress would be based on _______________representation • Great Compromise – Congress would be ___________into two houses. • Senate- _________house would have equal representation (two senators). • House of Representatives - Lower house would be based on___________. • 3/5 Compromise – decisions on how to count ___________in the south. For every 5 slaves, 3 would count as a______________.United States Government under the Constitution • The Constitution - Supreme __________of the land. • Federalism – the dividing of _________between the national and ______________governments. • Constitutionalism – government where power is divided among various ____________ but all obey a system of__________.Three Branches of Government • Legislative – Congress __________the laws. • Executive – the President ____________ out the laws. • Judicial- Supreme Court ____________or explains the laws. • Checks and Balances –_________to keep one branch of government from becoming too_______________. • Veto - __________or refuse.The Constitution • Preamble – states the _______________of establishing a new government under the_________________. • Article I – establishes the ________________Branch with a two house Congress (Senate and House of Representatives) • Article II – Outlines the _______________Branch • Article III – Explains the ______________BranchRatifying the Constitution • Ratify – to_____________. • Federalists –_____________of the Constitution. Believed the U.S. needed to have a ______________national government. •
4 • Anti-Federalists –_____________of the Constitution. Believed the new national government would be too powerful and that states should retain more__________________.Amending the ConstitutionWhat must be done to amend the Constitution? Changes can only be madethrough________________.The Bill of Rights • First _________amendments to the Constitution to insure basic rights and freedoms for American_____________.Other Important Amendments to the Constitution • 13th – abolished _____________ • 14th – civil rights of all people born or naturalized in the United States are ___________ (allowed citizenship of African Americans). • 15th – All male citizens have the right to _______regardless of race or color. • 19th – Women are ____________the right to__________. The First Government Under the Constitution • Electoral College – a group of people ____________each state. • George Washington – First______________. • Alexander Hamilton – Secretary of_______________. Federalist Politics and Policies in the New Government • Elastic Clause – gives Congress the power to pass ___________ which is considers “necessary and__________”. It ______________ the power of the Constitution. • Loose Interpretation – The belief by Alexander Hamilton that the government had __________powers than were actuality ___________in the Constitution. Strict Interpretation – The belief by Thomas Jefferson that the government had only the powers ___________listed in the Constitution.
5 Washington’s Farewell Address • Washington said the U.S. should stay ____________and avoid permanent alliances with other nations. • He advised against forming political____________. • He believed good government is based on religion and____________. Formation of PartiesCHUNK #3 Turn to page 43. Read Opposing Views of Hamilton and Jefferson. List the viewpoints of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson below. Hamilton Jefferson__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Federalists – Alexander Hamilton favored a __________central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Power should be with well _______________people. • Democratic-Republicans – Thomas Jefferson, favored states retaining authority and a _____________interpretation of the Constitution. Wanted power in the hands of the ___________people. Important Cases • John Marshall – Chief Justice of the ___________Court. Established ______________of the national government over the states. • Marbury v Madison – established the right of __________review. The Supreme Court could declare a law__________________. • Gibbons v Ogden – Congress had the power to regular _____________and foreign commerce.