SlideShare a Scribd company logo
TOO4TO MODULE
Sustainable Resource
Management (SRM)
PART 2
2
ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE FLOWS AND
MANAGEMENT
Data; Indicators; Methodologies; Visualization and evaluation
3
Analysis is the base of management
„You Can’t Manage What You Don’t Measure“ (Peter Drucker)
Analysis of the state of the art, gaps, trends (past and future) and
identification of the interlinkages between different indicators and
factors is essential for the resource management and improvements
towards sustainability.
This part of the module will introduce main methodologies, indicators
and data sources which would be useful for the material flow analysis.
4
Methods and tools
This presentation will describe shortly few of the bellow mentioned methodologies and will
provide the links to the additional references in order to develop a deeper evaluation
competences.
There are various methodologies for
analysis of resources and their
management activities
- Material Flow Analysis
- Material Flow Cost Accounting
- Life Cycle Analysis
- Sustainability Assessment
- Cost-Benefit Analysis
- Input-Output (IO) models
- Sankey Diagram Methodology
and additional methodologies oriented
towards different application scales and
objects and objectives, like:
- Circularity analysis
- Industrial Ecology
- Environmental Impact Analysis
- Impact of sectors on materials flows
(Mass), climate change (Carbon)
and value creation (Value) MCV
Scoreboard
- Risk analysis
- Energy flow analysis
- and etc.
5
Material flow analysis –
method to describe, investigate, and evaluate the metabolism of
anthropogenic and geogenic systems
MFA is one of assessment tools for exploring
resource sustainability.
• MFA connects the sources, the pathways, and
the intermediate and final sinks of material.
The results of MFA can be controlled by a simple
mass balance comparing all inputs, stocks and
outputs of the process, based on the law of
conservation.
• MFA – attractive as a decision-support tool in
resource management, waste& environmental
management and policy assessment.
Material flow analysis is quantification
and assessment of
materials (water, food, excreta,
wastewater) and
substances (nitrogen, phosphorus,
carbon, ...)
mass flows (primary natural resources)
in a (human) system (city, country...)
during a defined period.
6
The objectives of MFA
• Delineate a system of material flows and
stocks by well-defined, uniform terms
• Reduce the complexity of the system as far
as possible while still guaranteeing a basis for
sound decision making
• Assess the relevant flows and stocks in
quantitative terms, thereby applying the
balance principle and revealing sensitivities
and uncertainties
• Present results about flows and stocks of a
system in a reproducible, understandable, and
transparent way
• Use the results as a basis for managing
resources, the environment, and wastes, in
particular for:
o Early recognition of potentially harmful or
beneficial accumulations and depletions of
stocks, as well as for timely prediction of future
environmental loadings
o The setting of priorities regarding measures
for environmental protection, resource
conservation, and waste management (what
is most important; what comes first?)
o The design of goods, processes, and systems
that promote environmental protection,
resource conservation, and waste management
(green design, ecodesign, design for recycling,
design for disposal, etc.)
7
8
The following slides will present
MFA methodology developed by
P.H Brunner and H.Rechberger,
Technical University of Viena
(TU Wien)
The material flow analysis is based
on the so called
“principle of mass conservation”:
input = output ± stock changes
MFA defines terms and
procedures to establish material
balances of systems
Concept of material flow analysis
9
Based on: Practical Handbook of Material Flow Analysis. P.H. Brunner, H. Rechberger.
1. Identification of the relevant
material flows
2. System analysis (selection of the
relevant matter, processes,
indicator substances and system
boundaries)
3. Quantification of mass flows of
matter and indicator substances
4. Identification of weak points in the
system
5. Development and evaluation of
scenarios and schematic
representation, interpretation of
the results
Methodology of MFA - procedures:
10
The exact definition of terms and
procedures is a prerequisite for
generating reproducible and transparent
results and for facilitating
communication among users of MFA.
Main terms of MFA
https://www.stan2web.net/support/mfa-basics/terms#Stoff
• transfer function
• transfer coefficient kx,j
• materials accounting
• activity
• anthroposphere
• anthropogenic substance flow
• geogenic substance flow
• regional substance flow
• source
• sink
• final sink
• substance
• good
• material
• process
• system
• system boundaries
• flow
• stock
• substance flow analysis (SFA)
• material flow analysis (MFA)
• balance (balance of goods and materials)
• input-output-analysis
Terms of MFA
A substance is any (chemical) element or compound composed of uniform
units.
All substances are characterized by a unique and identical constitution and are
thus homogenous (e.g. N, C, Cu, NH4
+, CO2).
In MFA, chemical elements asd compounds both are correctly addressed as
substances.
Using this definition makes clear that “drinking water” is not a substance. It is
composed of substances such as pure water, calcium, and many trace elements.
Even “PVC” is not a substance, because it consists of polyvinyl chloride and
some additives.
Main terms of MFA (1)
Goods are defined as economic entities of matter with a positive or negative
value (e.g. drinking water, fuel oil, and solid waste, sewage, respectively).
The term good describes merchandise and wares.
The opposite of good is not a bad, meaning that waste meaterials are also
goods (noun).
Some goods have no economic value, i.e. they are neutral in their values,
e.g. air, exhaust or precipitation.
Main terms of MFA (2)
The term material serves as an umbrella term for both substances and
goods. Therefore it includes raw materials as well as all physically or
chemically modified substances.
The term material is used in cases where goods and substances are
considered, or when it is not yet clear at which level (goods or substances)
an analysis will take place.
So carbon as well as wood can be addressed as a material.
Terms of MFA (1)
15
https://www.stan2web.net/support/mfa-basics/goods-vs-substances
Flow of good consist substances
Terms of MFA (2)
A process is defined as the
• transformation,
• transport, or
• storage of goods and substances.
Processes are:
• the metabolism of a city, human, or animal
• an activity in a household (e.g. waste
separation), or plant (e.g. waste incineration
furnace, paper mill, landfill)
• an activity in an environmental medium (e.g.
atmosphere, hydrosphere, or soil)
• a service (e.g. collection of residual waste)
Usually, processes are defined as black box
processes, meaning that processes within the
box are not taken into account. Only the inputs
and outputs are of interest.
If the internal processes are of interest, the
process must be divided into two ore more sub-
processes.
note that
some authors prefer the term reservoir
instead of process.
It is not the same!
Reservoir is merely synonym for stock.
process
stock +/-
The total amount of materials stored in a process is designated as the „stock of
materials“.
There are two different types of stocks:
• e.g. the waste in an incineration plant – new waste results in an increase of the stock,
incineration leads to a decrease of the stock
• e.g. the building as part of the infrastructure – a new building results in an increase of
the stock, the demolition of a building makes a decrease of the stock
Terms of MFA (3)
A flow is defined as a “mass flow rate”, i.e. the ratio of mass per time that flows
through a conductor, e.g. a water pipe.
The physical unit of flow might be given in units of kg/sec or t/yr.
A flux is defined as a flow per “cross section”. In MFA, commonly used cross
sections are a person, the surface area of the system, or an entity such as a
private household or enterprise.
The flux might be given in units like kg/(sec.m²).
good /
substance
Terms of MFA (4)
The system is the actual
object of an MFA
investigation
A system is defined by a group of
elements, and the interaction between
these elements.
In MFA, the elements of a
system are named processes and flows.
A system might be an enterprise (e.g.
waste incineration plant), a region, a
nation, or a private household.
In an MFA-system every good
is clearly identified through a process of
origin and a target process.
Terms of MFA (5)
Steel
4,7
5,3
0,8
3,8
3,3 1
<0,1
0,1
0,3
1,4
44 +2,8
100 -1,4 ? +0,2
0,8
0,2
7,2
System boundary “Austria, 2000”
Produc-
tion of
steel
Produc-
tion of
goods
Iron flows [m t/a]
Iron stocks [m t]
Con-
sumption
Products
Steel
Scrap metals
Ore
Waste
mgmt.
Exports
Imports
Consumption
waste
Production waste
Production waste
Scrap metals
Scrap
metals
Steel
Residual
materials
ore
Ore mine Landfills,
dumps
S Imports = 9,4 S Exports = 8,0
Stocks = 140 + 1,4
Example of a system
The system boundaries are defined in time and space (temporal and spatial system
boundaries).
Commonly applied temporal boundaries for anthropogenic systems such as an
enterprise, a city, or a nation, periods of 1 year are chosen for reasons of data
availability. It also could be 1 s for consumption process, to 1000 years for landfills.
The spatial system boundary is usually fixed by the geographical area in which the
processes are located.
Flows into a system are called imports,
flows leaving a system are exports.
Terms of MFA (6)
Delivered waste
Rejected waste
Waste for landfill
Residues
Light fraction
Iron scrap
Waste for recycling
Waste
collector
Delivery
Magnetic
separator,
sifter
Sorting Shredding
Recycling
Incineration
Landfill
System boundary ”waste disposal firm"
Sccepted
waste
Waste to shredder
Shredded
waste
Exhaust
Spatial system boundary
Delivered waste
Rejected waste
Waste for landfill
Residues
Light fraction
Iron scrap
Waste for recycling
0,2
1,3
10
0,5
9,3
3,6
2,1
3,2
0,9
0,6
2,5
<0,01
3,6
Waste
collector
Delivery Magnetic
separator,
sifter
Sorting Shredding
Recycling
Incineration
Landfill
System boundary ”waste disposal firm"
Accepted
waste
Waste to
shredder
Shredded
waste
Exhaust
Flows: 1000 t/yr
Stocks: 1000 t
Temporal system boundary
http://www.stan2web.net/
STAN (short for subSTance flow
ANalysis) is a freeware that helps to
perform material flow analysis according
to the Austrian standard ÖNorm S 2096
(Material flow analysis - Application in
waste management).
More information: manual, examples,
key points of MFA methodology, video
tutorials and the software STAN could
be found at the website:
MFA – software
STAN
• STAN enables the building of graphical models by using predefined components
(processes, flows, system boundary, text fields). After the input or import of known
data (mass flows, stocks, concentrations, transfer coefficients) for different layers
(good, substance, energy) and periods, unknown quantities can be computed. All
flows can be displayed in Sankey-style, i.e. the width of a flow is proportional to its
value. The graphical picture of the model can be printed or exported. For data import
and export, Microsoft Excel is used as an interface.
• Specialists have the possibility to consider data uncertainties. The calculation
algorithm uses mathematical statistical tools such as data reconciliation and error
propagation.
• STAN is available in German and English.
• Note, that STAN works on Windows operating systems only.
MFA – software STAN
Rivers
ARA
Forest
soil
Top
soil
Settlem.
area
Imports 340 Exports 280
Regional system boundary “Lower Bünztal“
Landfills
Sewer
system
Water
Consumer goods
Car wrecks
House-
hold
Atmos-
phere
Industry
D Stocks ~ 1 000 + 60
water
Filter dust &
construction steel
Solid waste
0.5
0.6
0.2
150+0.6 240+0.9 30+0.2
7
~600+60
5.6
>330
0.6 0.5
2
0.6
0.05
0.9
1.6
60
0.3
0.14
0.15 0.45 >270
Lead [t/yr]
Example of a
regional MFA (1)
Raw products
Consumption waste
Imported raw materials
imported products
Imported raw products
Recycling material
Exported products
Exported raw products
Exported ore
Production waste RP1
Products
ore waste
production waste
RP2
Production waste GP
Exported waste
* Stocks of waste dumps: not estimated
19
4,9
5,3
7,8
2,3
5,5
5,1
3,0
0 1
10
Flows [kg Cu/cap.yr]
Stocks [kg Cu/cap] 13
0
0,6
0,13
0
160-270 +6 60 +1
L E
System boundary “copper cycle Austria"
Imported waste,
ashes, residues
1
Production of
raw products
Production
of goods
Waste
management
Lithosphere
+ mining
Consumption
Waste dump*
+ landfills
Döberl et al. 2005
Example of a regional MFA (2)
1. Accumulation of P
2. Main sink: soil
3. River: doubling of P load
4. Efficiencies of AP & AS
5. WWTP: raise efficiency
6. Composting of MSW
7. Sewage sludge to soil
109
River
WWTP
Sewer
PBL
3
17
10,000+68
38
19
Plant-
product.
Industry
Landfill
Private
household 21
?
85
28
13
74
19 >40
?
100
45
3+x
30
x
78
24
System Boundary „Bunz Valley, 1987“
S Input = 232 Stock =1000 + 64 S Output = 168
17
Agricult
soil
Animal-
product.
>61
Animal feed
Surface water Surface water
Food
Fertilizer
Cereals, vege-
tables, fruits
Meat, milk, eggs
Industrial products
Food
Flows [t/yr]
Stocks [t]
P
<2
MSW
Sewage sludge
Manure
Plants
take up
Animal feed
Example of a regional MFA (3)
MFA application
• Company, regional, national and global level
• Statistics – for identification of the economic activities
• Statistics – for the evaluation of the recourse use, intensity, scarcity and etc.
• Circularity indicators – global and national Circularity Gap Reports;
• The level of circularity can be measured considering different groups of raw
materials
• The resulting Sankey diagrams will feed into the EC's Raw Material Information
System's (RMIS) MFA module (currently in development) to better visualize
related material flows for the EU and at individual country level.
29
30
https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/development-sankey-diagram-material-flows-eu-economy-based-eurostat-data
Four major material
categories:
1. Metals;
2. Construction minerals;
3. Industrial minerals;
4. Biomass (timber and
products from biomass))
One of the prerequisites for better
monitoring materials use across the whole
life-cycle is a good understanding of
material stocks and flows.
The goal of this report is to show how
readily available statistical information can
be used to generate a Sankey diagram of
material flows and their circularity in the 28
member states of the European Union
(EU-28) for the period 2004 to 2014
(with future updates possible as new
statistical data sets become available)
Development of a Sankey Diagram of Material
Flows in the EU Economy based on Eurostat Data
Using existing data and information, it is possible to generate Sankey diagrams providing a “bird-eyes” view on the flows and
net additions to stocks of major non-energy and non-food material categories in the EU (as well as at member state level) for
different years and show their level of circularity.
Sankey diagram
Different MFA indicatorss used in the statistics (1)
• Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) provide an
aggregate overview, in thousand tonnes per year, of the material flows
into and out of an economy. EW-MFA covers solid, gaseous, and liquid
materials, except for bulk flows of water and air.
• EW-MFA data are downloadable from Eurostat's online database
32
33
• Raw Materials Equivalent (RME) Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) do
not provide an entirely accurate picture of global material footprints because they record
the international flows of materials differently than the materials extracted from the
environment (called domestic extraction in EW-MFA). Imports and exports are recorded
in material flow accounts as the actual weight of the traded goods when they cross
country borders instead of the weight of materials extracted to produce them. As the
former are lower than the latter economy-wide, material flow accounts and the derived
DMC underestimate the material footprint. To adjust for this, the weight of processed
goods traded internationally is converted into the corresponding raw material
extractions they induce.
MFA-RME data are downloadable from Eurostat's online database
Different MFA indicatorss used in the statistics (2)
34
• Material System Analysis (MSA) Consists of a map of the flows of materials through the
economy, as raw materials or as parts of basic materials, components or products, in
terms of entry into the economy (extraction and import), movement through the
economy (production, consumption, exports), additions to stock, and end-of-life through
either disposal or recovery.
An MSA also includes information about the sustainability of the use of materials and the
security of supply.
The Material System Analysis will include the materials consumed in the EU-28 and their
associated flows over the entire life cycle, including exploration, extraction, processing,
manufacturing, use, and end of life disposal and treatment.
A detailed description of the methodology can be found in MSA Methodology.
Different MFA indicators used in the statistics (3)
MCV Scorecard
The impact of different sectors on materials flows (Mass), climate change (Carbon) and value
creation (Value) can be estimated to inform a decision on the sectors having a high priority for
circularity. This information is plotted on a "MCV Scorecard". Based on that different sectors can be
prioritesed based on the volume of the associated material flows, but also their environmental impact
and economic importance. (Circle Economy)
35
36
Product and
materials flow
37
• materialflows.net is an online portal for national material flow data and
state of the art visualizations and analyses hosted by Vienna University
of Economics and Business (WU Vienna).
• The website is based on the UN IRP Global Material Flows Database.
Data and visualizations cover more than 200 countries, the time period of
1970 to 2017, and more than 300 different materials aggregated into 13
categories of material flows.
http://www.materialflows.net/
38
Growing concern about
assuring affordable, equitable
and environmentally
sustainable access to natural
resources is well founded. In
this report we show global
natural resource use trends
and propose indicators for
evidence-based policy
formulation.
UNEP Report. Global Material Flows and Resource
Productivity (with database link)
39
https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/377/publi
kationen/161025_ressourcenbericht_en.pdf
https://www.resourcepanel.org/file/423/download?token=Av9xJsGS

More Related Content

Similar to TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 2

A Review On Automated Sorting Of Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste For R...
A Review On Automated Sorting Of Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste For R...A Review On Automated Sorting Of Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste For R...
A Review On Automated Sorting Of Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste For R...
Luz Martinez
 
Analyse De Cycle De Vie Life Cycle Analysis
Analyse De Cycle De Vie   Life Cycle AnalysisAnalyse De Cycle De Vie   Life Cycle Analysis
Analyse De Cycle De Vie Life Cycle Analysis
Benjamin Warr
 
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A ReviewLife Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
inventionjournals
 
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A ReviewLife Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
inventionjournals
 
Life cycle.ppt
Life cycle.pptLife cycle.ppt
Life cycle.ppt
RaymondBatten
 
Deliverable_21_3.pdf
Deliverable_21_3.pdfDeliverable_21_3.pdf
Deliverable_21_3.pdf
JohnSmith344124
 
waste management Module - 1 for vtu students
waste management Module - 1  for vtu studentswaste management Module - 1  for vtu students
waste management Module - 1 for vtu students
Manjunath852579
 
Dealing with concept drifts in process mining
Dealing with concept drifts in process miningDealing with concept drifts in process mining
Dealing with concept drifts in process mining
IGEEKS TECHNOLOGIES
 
Life Cycle Analysis - Environmental LCA's
Life Cycle Analysis - Environmental LCA'sLife Cycle Analysis - Environmental LCA's
Life Cycle Analysis - Environmental LCA's
Hector Rodriguez
 
Rotas tecnológicas para o tratamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos
Rotas tecnológicas para o tratamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanosRotas tecnológicas para o tratamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos
Rotas tecnológicas para o tratamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos
D-Waste
 
11.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 1 pp 95-97
11.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 1 pp 95-9711.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 1 pp 95-97
11.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 1 pp 95-97
Alexander Decker
 
Dealing with concept drifts in process mining
Dealing with concept drifts in process miningDealing with concept drifts in process mining
Dealing with concept drifts in process mining
IGEEKS TECHNOLOGIES
 
Sustainable Mining - Intervening in the Mining Process - Creating a Shift Tow...
Sustainable Mining - Intervening in the Mining Process - Creating a Shift Tow...Sustainable Mining - Intervening in the Mining Process - Creating a Shift Tow...
Sustainable Mining - Intervening in the Mining Process - Creating a Shift Tow...
Benjamin Farrell
 
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA  An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
civej
 
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCAAn Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
civejjour
 
Environmental aspects and impacts
Environmental aspects and impactsEnvironmental aspects and impacts
Environmental aspects and impacts
Bishnu Koirala
 
Lca approaches ppt
Lca approaches pptLca approaches ppt
Lca approaches ppt
Nishant Raj Kapoor
 
Lca approaches ppt
Lca approaches pptLca approaches ppt
Lca approaches ppt
CSIR-CBRI Roorkee
 
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicinEvaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Dr Robert Craig PhD
 
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicinEvaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Dr Robert Craig PhD
 

Similar to TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 2 (20)

A Review On Automated Sorting Of Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste For R...
A Review On Automated Sorting Of Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste For R...A Review On Automated Sorting Of Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste For R...
A Review On Automated Sorting Of Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste For R...
 
Analyse De Cycle De Vie Life Cycle Analysis
Analyse De Cycle De Vie   Life Cycle AnalysisAnalyse De Cycle De Vie   Life Cycle Analysis
Analyse De Cycle De Vie Life Cycle Analysis
 
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A ReviewLife Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
 
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A ReviewLife Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
Life Cycle Assessment of Power Utility Poles – A Review
 
Life cycle.ppt
Life cycle.pptLife cycle.ppt
Life cycle.ppt
 
Deliverable_21_3.pdf
Deliverable_21_3.pdfDeliverable_21_3.pdf
Deliverable_21_3.pdf
 
waste management Module - 1 for vtu students
waste management Module - 1  for vtu studentswaste management Module - 1  for vtu students
waste management Module - 1 for vtu students
 
Dealing with concept drifts in process mining
Dealing with concept drifts in process miningDealing with concept drifts in process mining
Dealing with concept drifts in process mining
 
Life Cycle Analysis - Environmental LCA's
Life Cycle Analysis - Environmental LCA'sLife Cycle Analysis - Environmental LCA's
Life Cycle Analysis - Environmental LCA's
 
Rotas tecnológicas para o tratamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos
Rotas tecnológicas para o tratamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanosRotas tecnológicas para o tratamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos
Rotas tecnológicas para o tratamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos
 
11.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 1 pp 95-97
11.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 1 pp 95-9711.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 1 pp 95-97
11.vol 0003www.iiste.org call for paper no 1 pp 95-97
 
Dealing with concept drifts in process mining
Dealing with concept drifts in process miningDealing with concept drifts in process mining
Dealing with concept drifts in process mining
 
Sustainable Mining - Intervening in the Mining Process - Creating a Shift Tow...
Sustainable Mining - Intervening in the Mining Process - Creating a Shift Tow...Sustainable Mining - Intervening in the Mining Process - Creating a Shift Tow...
Sustainable Mining - Intervening in the Mining Process - Creating a Shift Tow...
 
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA  An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
 
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCAAn Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
An Ex-Ante Evaluation for Solid Waste Treatment Facilities using LCCA
 
Environmental aspects and impacts
Environmental aspects and impactsEnvironmental aspects and impacts
Environmental aspects and impacts
 
Lca approaches ppt
Lca approaches pptLca approaches ppt
Lca approaches ppt
 
Lca approaches ppt
Lca approaches pptLca approaches ppt
Lca approaches ppt
 
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicinEvaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
 
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicinEvaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
Evaluating pollution prevention and control options and practicin
 

More from TOO4TO

TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 2TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 1TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 3TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 3TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 3
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 2TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 2
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 3TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 3
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 1TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 1
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 1TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 1
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 2TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 2
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 3TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO
 
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 2TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO
 

More from TOO4TO (13)

TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 2TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 2
 
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 1TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 1
 
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 3TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 7 / Artificial Intelligence and Sustainability: Part 3
 
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1
 
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 3TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 3
 
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 2TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 2
 
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 3TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 3
 
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 1TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 4 / Sustainable Energy Solutions: Part 1
 
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 1TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 1
 
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 2TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 2 / Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: Part 2
 
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 3TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 3
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 3
 
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 1
 
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 2TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 2
TOO4TO Module 3 / Climate Change and Sustainability: Part 2
 

Recently uploaded

CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapitolTechU
 
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
Kalna College
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Iris Thiele Isip-Tan
 
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
deepaannamalai16
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Kalna College
 
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGHKHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
shreyassri1208
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
TechSoup
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
RandolphRadicy
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
EduSkills OECD
 
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注押注官网-欧洲杯下注押注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注押注官网-欧洲杯下注押注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注押注官网-欧洲杯下注押注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注押注官网-欧洲杯下注押注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
andagarcia212
 
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two HeartsA Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
Steve Thomason
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
ImMuslim
 
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.pptLevel 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Henry Hollis
 
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
indexPub
 
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
Payaamvohra1
 
Information and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in EducationInformation and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in Education
MJDuyan
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
nitinpv4ai
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
PsychoTech Services
 
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
nitinpv4ai
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
 
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
220711130082 Srabanti Bag Internet Resources For Natural Science
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
 
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
 
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
 
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGHKHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
KHUSWANT SINGH.pptx ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT KHUSHWANT SINGH
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
 
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注押注官网-欧洲杯下注押注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注押注官网-欧洲杯下注押注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注押注官网-欧洲杯下注押注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注押注官网-欧洲杯下注押注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
 
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two HeartsA Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
A Visual Guide to 1 Samuel | A Tale of Two Hearts
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
 
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.pptLevel 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
 
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
 
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
 
Information and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in EducationInformation and Communication Technology in Education
Information and Communication Technology in Education
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
 
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
Oliver Asks for More by Charles Dickens (9)
 

TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 2

  • 1.
  • 3. ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE FLOWS AND MANAGEMENT Data; Indicators; Methodologies; Visualization and evaluation 3
  • 4. Analysis is the base of management „You Can’t Manage What You Don’t Measure“ (Peter Drucker) Analysis of the state of the art, gaps, trends (past and future) and identification of the interlinkages between different indicators and factors is essential for the resource management and improvements towards sustainability. This part of the module will introduce main methodologies, indicators and data sources which would be useful for the material flow analysis. 4
  • 5. Methods and tools This presentation will describe shortly few of the bellow mentioned methodologies and will provide the links to the additional references in order to develop a deeper evaluation competences. There are various methodologies for analysis of resources and their management activities - Material Flow Analysis - Material Flow Cost Accounting - Life Cycle Analysis - Sustainability Assessment - Cost-Benefit Analysis - Input-Output (IO) models - Sankey Diagram Methodology and additional methodologies oriented towards different application scales and objects and objectives, like: - Circularity analysis - Industrial Ecology - Environmental Impact Analysis - Impact of sectors on materials flows (Mass), climate change (Carbon) and value creation (Value) MCV Scoreboard - Risk analysis - Energy flow analysis - and etc. 5
  • 6. Material flow analysis – method to describe, investigate, and evaluate the metabolism of anthropogenic and geogenic systems MFA is one of assessment tools for exploring resource sustainability. • MFA connects the sources, the pathways, and the intermediate and final sinks of material. The results of MFA can be controlled by a simple mass balance comparing all inputs, stocks and outputs of the process, based on the law of conservation. • MFA – attractive as a decision-support tool in resource management, waste& environmental management and policy assessment. Material flow analysis is quantification and assessment of materials (water, food, excreta, wastewater) and substances (nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, ...) mass flows (primary natural resources) in a (human) system (city, country...) during a defined period. 6
  • 7. The objectives of MFA • Delineate a system of material flows and stocks by well-defined, uniform terms • Reduce the complexity of the system as far as possible while still guaranteeing a basis for sound decision making • Assess the relevant flows and stocks in quantitative terms, thereby applying the balance principle and revealing sensitivities and uncertainties • Present results about flows and stocks of a system in a reproducible, understandable, and transparent way • Use the results as a basis for managing resources, the environment, and wastes, in particular for: o Early recognition of potentially harmful or beneficial accumulations and depletions of stocks, as well as for timely prediction of future environmental loadings o The setting of priorities regarding measures for environmental protection, resource conservation, and waste management (what is most important; what comes first?) o The design of goods, processes, and systems that promote environmental protection, resource conservation, and waste management (green design, ecodesign, design for recycling, design for disposal, etc.) 7
  • 8. 8 The following slides will present MFA methodology developed by P.H Brunner and H.Rechberger, Technical University of Viena (TU Wien) The material flow analysis is based on the so called “principle of mass conservation”: input = output ± stock changes MFA defines terms and procedures to establish material balances of systems Concept of material flow analysis
  • 9. 9 Based on: Practical Handbook of Material Flow Analysis. P.H. Brunner, H. Rechberger. 1. Identification of the relevant material flows 2. System analysis (selection of the relevant matter, processes, indicator substances and system boundaries) 3. Quantification of mass flows of matter and indicator substances 4. Identification of weak points in the system 5. Development and evaluation of scenarios and schematic representation, interpretation of the results Methodology of MFA - procedures:
  • 10. 10 The exact definition of terms and procedures is a prerequisite for generating reproducible and transparent results and for facilitating communication among users of MFA. Main terms of MFA
  • 11. https://www.stan2web.net/support/mfa-basics/terms#Stoff • transfer function • transfer coefficient kx,j • materials accounting • activity • anthroposphere • anthropogenic substance flow • geogenic substance flow • regional substance flow • source • sink • final sink • substance • good • material • process • system • system boundaries • flow • stock • substance flow analysis (SFA) • material flow analysis (MFA) • balance (balance of goods and materials) • input-output-analysis Terms of MFA
  • 12. A substance is any (chemical) element or compound composed of uniform units. All substances are characterized by a unique and identical constitution and are thus homogenous (e.g. N, C, Cu, NH4 +, CO2). In MFA, chemical elements asd compounds both are correctly addressed as substances. Using this definition makes clear that “drinking water” is not a substance. It is composed of substances such as pure water, calcium, and many trace elements. Even “PVC” is not a substance, because it consists of polyvinyl chloride and some additives. Main terms of MFA (1)
  • 13. Goods are defined as economic entities of matter with a positive or negative value (e.g. drinking water, fuel oil, and solid waste, sewage, respectively). The term good describes merchandise and wares. The opposite of good is not a bad, meaning that waste meaterials are also goods (noun). Some goods have no economic value, i.e. they are neutral in their values, e.g. air, exhaust or precipitation. Main terms of MFA (2)
  • 14. The term material serves as an umbrella term for both substances and goods. Therefore it includes raw materials as well as all physically or chemically modified substances. The term material is used in cases where goods and substances are considered, or when it is not yet clear at which level (goods or substances) an analysis will take place. So carbon as well as wood can be addressed as a material. Terms of MFA (1)
  • 16. Terms of MFA (2) A process is defined as the • transformation, • transport, or • storage of goods and substances. Processes are: • the metabolism of a city, human, or animal • an activity in a household (e.g. waste separation), or plant (e.g. waste incineration furnace, paper mill, landfill) • an activity in an environmental medium (e.g. atmosphere, hydrosphere, or soil) • a service (e.g. collection of residual waste) Usually, processes are defined as black box processes, meaning that processes within the box are not taken into account. Only the inputs and outputs are of interest. If the internal processes are of interest, the process must be divided into two ore more sub- processes. note that some authors prefer the term reservoir instead of process. It is not the same! Reservoir is merely synonym for stock.
  • 17. process stock +/- The total amount of materials stored in a process is designated as the „stock of materials“. There are two different types of stocks: • e.g. the waste in an incineration plant – new waste results in an increase of the stock, incineration leads to a decrease of the stock • e.g. the building as part of the infrastructure – a new building results in an increase of the stock, the demolition of a building makes a decrease of the stock Terms of MFA (3)
  • 18. A flow is defined as a “mass flow rate”, i.e. the ratio of mass per time that flows through a conductor, e.g. a water pipe. The physical unit of flow might be given in units of kg/sec or t/yr. A flux is defined as a flow per “cross section”. In MFA, commonly used cross sections are a person, the surface area of the system, or an entity such as a private household or enterprise. The flux might be given in units like kg/(sec.m²). good / substance Terms of MFA (4)
  • 19. The system is the actual object of an MFA investigation A system is defined by a group of elements, and the interaction between these elements. In MFA, the elements of a system are named processes and flows. A system might be an enterprise (e.g. waste incineration plant), a region, a nation, or a private household. In an MFA-system every good is clearly identified through a process of origin and a target process. Terms of MFA (5)
  • 20. Steel 4,7 5,3 0,8 3,8 3,3 1 <0,1 0,1 0,3 1,4 44 +2,8 100 -1,4 ? +0,2 0,8 0,2 7,2 System boundary “Austria, 2000” Produc- tion of steel Produc- tion of goods Iron flows [m t/a] Iron stocks [m t] Con- sumption Products Steel Scrap metals Ore Waste mgmt. Exports Imports Consumption waste Production waste Production waste Scrap metals Scrap metals Steel Residual materials ore Ore mine Landfills, dumps S Imports = 9,4 S Exports = 8,0 Stocks = 140 + 1,4 Example of a system
  • 21. The system boundaries are defined in time and space (temporal and spatial system boundaries). Commonly applied temporal boundaries for anthropogenic systems such as an enterprise, a city, or a nation, periods of 1 year are chosen for reasons of data availability. It also could be 1 s for consumption process, to 1000 years for landfills. The spatial system boundary is usually fixed by the geographical area in which the processes are located. Flows into a system are called imports, flows leaving a system are exports. Terms of MFA (6)
  • 22. Delivered waste Rejected waste Waste for landfill Residues Light fraction Iron scrap Waste for recycling Waste collector Delivery Magnetic separator, sifter Sorting Shredding Recycling Incineration Landfill System boundary ”waste disposal firm" Sccepted waste Waste to shredder Shredded waste Exhaust Spatial system boundary
  • 23. Delivered waste Rejected waste Waste for landfill Residues Light fraction Iron scrap Waste for recycling 0,2 1,3 10 0,5 9,3 3,6 2,1 3,2 0,9 0,6 2,5 <0,01 3,6 Waste collector Delivery Magnetic separator, sifter Sorting Shredding Recycling Incineration Landfill System boundary ”waste disposal firm" Accepted waste Waste to shredder Shredded waste Exhaust Flows: 1000 t/yr Stocks: 1000 t Temporal system boundary
  • 24. http://www.stan2web.net/ STAN (short for subSTance flow ANalysis) is a freeware that helps to perform material flow analysis according to the Austrian standard ÖNorm S 2096 (Material flow analysis - Application in waste management). More information: manual, examples, key points of MFA methodology, video tutorials and the software STAN could be found at the website: MFA – software STAN
  • 25. • STAN enables the building of graphical models by using predefined components (processes, flows, system boundary, text fields). After the input or import of known data (mass flows, stocks, concentrations, transfer coefficients) for different layers (good, substance, energy) and periods, unknown quantities can be computed. All flows can be displayed in Sankey-style, i.e. the width of a flow is proportional to its value. The graphical picture of the model can be printed or exported. For data import and export, Microsoft Excel is used as an interface. • Specialists have the possibility to consider data uncertainties. The calculation algorithm uses mathematical statistical tools such as data reconciliation and error propagation. • STAN is available in German and English. • Note, that STAN works on Windows operating systems only. MFA – software STAN
  • 26. Rivers ARA Forest soil Top soil Settlem. area Imports 340 Exports 280 Regional system boundary “Lower Bünztal“ Landfills Sewer system Water Consumer goods Car wrecks House- hold Atmos- phere Industry D Stocks ~ 1 000 + 60 water Filter dust & construction steel Solid waste 0.5 0.6 0.2 150+0.6 240+0.9 30+0.2 7 ~600+60 5.6 >330 0.6 0.5 2 0.6 0.05 0.9 1.6 60 0.3 0.14 0.15 0.45 >270 Lead [t/yr] Example of a regional MFA (1)
  • 27. Raw products Consumption waste Imported raw materials imported products Imported raw products Recycling material Exported products Exported raw products Exported ore Production waste RP1 Products ore waste production waste RP2 Production waste GP Exported waste * Stocks of waste dumps: not estimated 19 4,9 5,3 7,8 2,3 5,5 5,1 3,0 0 1 10 Flows [kg Cu/cap.yr] Stocks [kg Cu/cap] 13 0 0,6 0,13 0 160-270 +6 60 +1 L E System boundary “copper cycle Austria" Imported waste, ashes, residues 1 Production of raw products Production of goods Waste management Lithosphere + mining Consumption Waste dump* + landfills Döberl et al. 2005 Example of a regional MFA (2)
  • 28. 1. Accumulation of P 2. Main sink: soil 3. River: doubling of P load 4. Efficiencies of AP & AS 5. WWTP: raise efficiency 6. Composting of MSW 7. Sewage sludge to soil 109 River WWTP Sewer PBL 3 17 10,000+68 38 19 Plant- product. Industry Landfill Private household 21 ? 85 28 13 74 19 >40 ? 100 45 3+x 30 x 78 24 System Boundary „Bunz Valley, 1987“ S Input = 232 Stock =1000 + 64 S Output = 168 17 Agricult soil Animal- product. >61 Animal feed Surface water Surface water Food Fertilizer Cereals, vege- tables, fruits Meat, milk, eggs Industrial products Food Flows [t/yr] Stocks [t] P <2 MSW Sewage sludge Manure Plants take up Animal feed Example of a regional MFA (3)
  • 29. MFA application • Company, regional, national and global level • Statistics – for identification of the economic activities • Statistics – for the evaluation of the recourse use, intensity, scarcity and etc. • Circularity indicators – global and national Circularity Gap Reports; • The level of circularity can be measured considering different groups of raw materials • The resulting Sankey diagrams will feed into the EC's Raw Material Information System's (RMIS) MFA module (currently in development) to better visualize related material flows for the EU and at individual country level. 29
  • 30. 30 https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/development-sankey-diagram-material-flows-eu-economy-based-eurostat-data Four major material categories: 1. Metals; 2. Construction minerals; 3. Industrial minerals; 4. Biomass (timber and products from biomass)) One of the prerequisites for better monitoring materials use across the whole life-cycle is a good understanding of material stocks and flows. The goal of this report is to show how readily available statistical information can be used to generate a Sankey diagram of material flows and their circularity in the 28 member states of the European Union (EU-28) for the period 2004 to 2014 (with future updates possible as new statistical data sets become available) Development of a Sankey Diagram of Material Flows in the EU Economy based on Eurostat Data
  • 31. Using existing data and information, it is possible to generate Sankey diagrams providing a “bird-eyes” view on the flows and net additions to stocks of major non-energy and non-food material categories in the EU (as well as at member state level) for different years and show their level of circularity. Sankey diagram
  • 32. Different MFA indicatorss used in the statistics (1) • Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) provide an aggregate overview, in thousand tonnes per year, of the material flows into and out of an economy. EW-MFA covers solid, gaseous, and liquid materials, except for bulk flows of water and air. • EW-MFA data are downloadable from Eurostat's online database 32
  • 33. 33 • Raw Materials Equivalent (RME) Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) do not provide an entirely accurate picture of global material footprints because they record the international flows of materials differently than the materials extracted from the environment (called domestic extraction in EW-MFA). Imports and exports are recorded in material flow accounts as the actual weight of the traded goods when they cross country borders instead of the weight of materials extracted to produce them. As the former are lower than the latter economy-wide, material flow accounts and the derived DMC underestimate the material footprint. To adjust for this, the weight of processed goods traded internationally is converted into the corresponding raw material extractions they induce. MFA-RME data are downloadable from Eurostat's online database Different MFA indicatorss used in the statistics (2)
  • 34. 34 • Material System Analysis (MSA) Consists of a map of the flows of materials through the economy, as raw materials or as parts of basic materials, components or products, in terms of entry into the economy (extraction and import), movement through the economy (production, consumption, exports), additions to stock, and end-of-life through either disposal or recovery. An MSA also includes information about the sustainability of the use of materials and the security of supply. The Material System Analysis will include the materials consumed in the EU-28 and their associated flows over the entire life cycle, including exploration, extraction, processing, manufacturing, use, and end of life disposal and treatment. A detailed description of the methodology can be found in MSA Methodology. Different MFA indicators used in the statistics (3)
  • 35. MCV Scorecard The impact of different sectors on materials flows (Mass), climate change (Carbon) and value creation (Value) can be estimated to inform a decision on the sectors having a high priority for circularity. This information is plotted on a "MCV Scorecard". Based on that different sectors can be prioritesed based on the volume of the associated material flows, but also their environmental impact and economic importance. (Circle Economy) 35
  • 37. 37 • materialflows.net is an online portal for national material flow data and state of the art visualizations and analyses hosted by Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU Vienna). • The website is based on the UN IRP Global Material Flows Database. Data and visualizations cover more than 200 countries, the time period of 1970 to 2017, and more than 300 different materials aggregated into 13 categories of material flows. http://www.materialflows.net/
  • 38. 38 Growing concern about assuring affordable, equitable and environmentally sustainable access to natural resources is well founded. In this report we show global natural resource use trends and propose indicators for evidence-based policy formulation. UNEP Report. Global Material Flows and Resource Productivity (with database link)