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 Introduction
 Method of excreta disposal

1.Unsewered Areas:
-Service type latrines
-Non-service type latrines
2.Sewered disposal
-Water carriage system & sewage treatment
 Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
 According to WHO: “Sanitation generally refers to the

provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal
of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a
mojor cause of disease world-wide and improving
sanitation is known to have a significant benefecial
impact on health both in households and across
communities.”
METHOD OF EXCRETA DISPOSAL
I. UNSEWERED AREAS:
1. Service Type Latrines (Conservancy system):
Night soil is collected from pail or bucket type of
latrines by human agency, & later disposed of by
burying or composting.
2. Non-service type (Sanitary latrines):
a. Borehole latrine
b. Dug well or pit latrine
c. Water-seal type of latrines
i.P.R.A.I
ii. R.C.A type
iii. Sulabh Shauchalaya
d. Septic tank
e. Aqua privy
3. Latrines suitable for camps & temporary use:
a.Shallow trench latrine
b.Deep trench latrine
SEWERED AREAS:
1.Water-carriage System:
a.Household sanitary fittings
b.House drain
c.Public sewer
d.sewer appurtenances
2.Sewage Treatments:
a.Primary Treatment
-Screening
-Removal of grit
-Plain sedimentation
b.Secondary Treatment
-Trickling filters
-Activated sludge process
c. Other Methods:
-Sea Outfall
-River Outfall
-Sewage Outfall
-Oxidation ponds
Excreta disposal in unsewered
areas:
1. Service Type (Conservancy System):




Colletion & removal of night soil by human agency is
called service type or conservancy system & the
latrines are called as service latrines
The night soil is carried by night ‘soil carts’ to the
place of final disposal where it is disposed by:
i. Composting
ii. Burial in shallow trenches
2. Non-service type of latrines (Sanitary
Latrines):
 Excreta sould not contaminate the ground or surface

water
 Excreta should not pollute the soil
 Excreta should not be accesible to flies, rodents,
animals & other vehicles of transmission
 Excreta should create a nuisance due to odour or
unsightly appearance
TYPES OF SANITARY LATRINES:
1. BORE HOLE LATRINE:





It is the forerunner of the nonservice type of latrines.
First introduced by Rockefeller
foundation during 1930’s.
It consist of a circular 30 to 40
cm in diameter dug vertically
into the ground to a depth of 4-8
cm most commonly 6m.







Auger is required to dig a bore
hole.
In loose soils the hole is lined
with bamboo matting or earthen
ring.
A suitable foot rests is placed
over the hole
When the contents reach within
50 cm the squatting plate is
removed & the hole is closed.

Auger
MERITS:
 No need of services of a sweeper
 The pit is dark & unsuitable for fly breeding
 If the bore hole is located 15 m away from a source of
water supply there should be no danger of water
pollution.

DEMERITS:
 Bore hole fills up rapidly
 Auger is required which may not be readily available
 Difficult to dig a hole deeper than 3 m in loose soil
2.DUG WELL OR PIT
LATRINE:
 First introduced in Singur, West Bengal in 1949-1950
 A circular pit about 75 cm in diameter & 3-3.5 m deep

is dug into the ground.
 In sandy soil the pit deepness is reduced to 1.5- 2 m.
 Pit is lined with pottery rings to prevent caving of the
soil.
 A concrete squatting plate is placed on top of the pit &
the latrine is enclosed with a superstructure.
ADVANTAGES:
 Easy to construct & no special equipment is required.
 The pit has longer life because of greater cubic capacity.
 A pit of 75 cm diameter & 3-3.5 m deep will last for about 5

yrs for a family.
3.WATER SEAL LATRINE:
 Improvement in the designing for rural families is the

hand flushed “water seal” type latrine.
 Squatting plate is fitted with a water seal.
 2 important function:
1. Prevent access of flies by
a small depth of water in
a bent pipe called trap.
2. Prevents escape of odours &
foul gases & thereby eliminate
the nuisance from smell.
Sulabh shauchalaya:
 Invention of a patna-based firm.
 Low cost pour-flush, water seal type of latrine.

 It consist of specially designed pan & a water-seal trap.
 It is connected to a pit 3 feet square & as deep.
 Excreta undergoes bacterial decomposition & is

converted to manure.
 Requires very little water.
4. SEPTIC TANK
 Key component of the septic system.
 A small-scale sewage treatment system common in

areas with no connection to main sewage pipes
provided by local governments on private
corporations.
 It is a satisfacory means of disposing excreta & liquid
wastes but do not have access to a public sewerage
system.
DESIGN FEATURES:
 There are various designs: single chambered & double
chambered septic tanks.
 Single chambered: for small installations.
 Two compartments are expensive.

The main design features:
 Capacity: The minimum capacity should be 500
gallon.
 Length: length is usually twice the breadth.
 Depth: 1.5-2 m.
 Liquid depth: 1.2 m
 Air space: Minimum of 30 cm between the level of

liquid & undersurface of the cover.
 Bottom:
 Inlet & outlet:
 Cover:
 Retention period:
Working of Septic Tank:
 The solids settle down to form sludge.
 Lighter solids form scum.
 The first stage of purification called anaerobic

digestion.
 A portion of solid is transferred into liquids & gases
in the form of bubbles.
 Effluent contains numerous bacterial, cysts, organic
matters in solution or fine suspension.
 The effluent is allowed to percolate into sub-soil by
means of perforated or open-jointed pipes laid in
trenches.
 Millions of aerobic bacteria in the upper layers of soil

attack the organic matter present in the effluent.
 Thus the organic matter is oxidised into stable end
products.
Operation & Maintenance:
 Use of soap water & disinfectants should be avoided as

they are injurious to bacterial flora.
 Desludging: Contents of the tank should be bailed out

atleast once a year.
 New built tank is first filled with water & then seeded

with ripe sludge from another septic tank.
5. AQUA PRIVY:
 It functions like a septic tank.
 It consist of a water-tight chamber.

 A short drop pipe dips from latrine floor into the

water.
 The shape of the tank may be circular or rectangular.
 A capacity for 1 cubic m is recommended for 6 yrs or
more.
 Night soil undergoes purification

by anaerobic digestion.
 A vent should be provided for

escape of gases.
 It should be treated the same

manner as the septic tank.
 The digested sludge should be

removed at intervals.
LATRINES SUITABLE FOR TEMPORARY
USE:
1. SHALLOW TRENCH LATRINE:


Simple trench



30 cm wide & 90-150 cm deep.



Length depends on number of users: 3-3.5 m for 100
people.



Seperate trenches for men & women should be provided.


Earth from trench should be piled up at the side.



Its an arrangement for a short period (1 week).



It must be covered when the trench is filled 30 cm
below the ground level.
2. DEEP TRENCH LATRINE:
 Intended for longer duration( a few week- a few

months)
 Its 1.8-2.5 m deep and 75-90 cm wide.
 A superstructure is built for privacy & protection.
II. SEWERED AREAS
WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM:
 Its collecting & transporting of human excreta & waste

water by a network of sewers to the place of ultimate
disposal.
 There are 2 types of carriage system:
i.The combined sewer system: (sewage & surface water)
ii.The seperate sewer system: (sewage)
A Water Carriage System consists of the
following elements:
1. HOUSEHOLD SANITARY FITTINGS:

The usual household sanitary fittings:
i.Water closet,
ii.Urinal, &
iii.Wash basin.
i.

WATER CLOSETS:



2 types: Indian Squatting type & Western Commode
type.



The water closets are provided with a ‘flushing rim’.



The closet is connected to a cistern by a pipe 2.53.75cm in diameter.



The flushing cistern normally holds 15 l of water
 For efficient performance of water closet:

-Water seal area should not be more than
7.5 cm.
-There should not be any sharp corners in
the trap.

-The volume of water should not exceed
1.75 l to maintain a minimum of 50 mm
deep water seal.
-The interior of the bowl should be
vertical atleast 50-75 mm just above the
surface of water seal.
2.HOUSE DRAIN:
 10 cm in diameter & is laid in the courtyard about 15
cm below the ground level.
 The house drain empties the sewage into the main
sewer.

3.PUBLIC SEWER:
 Not less than 22.5 cm in diameter, bigger ones may be
2-3 m in diameter.
 Laid 3 m below ground level with ‘self cleansing’
velocity of 2-3 feet per second.
4. SEWER APPURTANCES:
 These are manholes & traps.
 Manholes are placed:

i. whenever there is a change in direction of sewer.s
ii. at the meeting point of 2 or more sewers.
iii. at distance of 100 m in long straight runs.
 Traps are placed in 3 situation:

i.under the basin of water
closet
ii.where the house drain joins
the public drain

iii.where surface wastes water
enters the drain.
Sanitary drainage fittings
Sanitary drainage fittings
Sanitary drainage fittings

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Sanitary drainage fittings

  • 1.
  • 2.  Introduction  Method of excreta disposal 1.Unsewered Areas: -Service type latrines -Non-service type latrines 2.Sewered disposal -Water carriage system & sewage treatment  Conclusion
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  According to WHO: “Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a mojor cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant benefecial impact on health both in households and across communities.”
  • 4. METHOD OF EXCRETA DISPOSAL I. UNSEWERED AREAS: 1. Service Type Latrines (Conservancy system): Night soil is collected from pail or bucket type of latrines by human agency, & later disposed of by burying or composting. 2. Non-service type (Sanitary latrines): a. Borehole latrine b. Dug well or pit latrine
  • 5. c. Water-seal type of latrines i.P.R.A.I ii. R.C.A type iii. Sulabh Shauchalaya d. Septic tank e. Aqua privy 3. Latrines suitable for camps & temporary use: a.Shallow trench latrine b.Deep trench latrine
  • 6. SEWERED AREAS: 1.Water-carriage System: a.Household sanitary fittings b.House drain c.Public sewer d.sewer appurtenances 2.Sewage Treatments: a.Primary Treatment -Screening -Removal of grit -Plain sedimentation
  • 7. b.Secondary Treatment -Trickling filters -Activated sludge process c. Other Methods: -Sea Outfall -River Outfall -Sewage Outfall -Oxidation ponds
  • 8. Excreta disposal in unsewered areas: 1. Service Type (Conservancy System):   Colletion & removal of night soil by human agency is called service type or conservancy system & the latrines are called as service latrines The night soil is carried by night ‘soil carts’ to the place of final disposal where it is disposed by: i. Composting ii. Burial in shallow trenches
  • 9. 2. Non-service type of latrines (Sanitary Latrines):  Excreta sould not contaminate the ground or surface water  Excreta should not pollute the soil  Excreta should not be accesible to flies, rodents, animals & other vehicles of transmission  Excreta should create a nuisance due to odour or unsightly appearance
  • 10. TYPES OF SANITARY LATRINES: 1. BORE HOLE LATRINE:    It is the forerunner of the nonservice type of latrines. First introduced by Rockefeller foundation during 1930’s. It consist of a circular 30 to 40 cm in diameter dug vertically into the ground to a depth of 4-8 cm most commonly 6m.
  • 11.     Auger is required to dig a bore hole. In loose soils the hole is lined with bamboo matting or earthen ring. A suitable foot rests is placed over the hole When the contents reach within 50 cm the squatting plate is removed & the hole is closed. Auger
  • 12. MERITS:  No need of services of a sweeper  The pit is dark & unsuitable for fly breeding  If the bore hole is located 15 m away from a source of water supply there should be no danger of water pollution. DEMERITS:  Bore hole fills up rapidly  Auger is required which may not be readily available  Difficult to dig a hole deeper than 3 m in loose soil
  • 13. 2.DUG WELL OR PIT LATRINE:  First introduced in Singur, West Bengal in 1949-1950  A circular pit about 75 cm in diameter & 3-3.5 m deep is dug into the ground.  In sandy soil the pit deepness is reduced to 1.5- 2 m.  Pit is lined with pottery rings to prevent caving of the soil.  A concrete squatting plate is placed on top of the pit & the latrine is enclosed with a superstructure.
  • 14. ADVANTAGES:  Easy to construct & no special equipment is required.  The pit has longer life because of greater cubic capacity.  A pit of 75 cm diameter & 3-3.5 m deep will last for about 5 yrs for a family.
  • 15. 3.WATER SEAL LATRINE:  Improvement in the designing for rural families is the hand flushed “water seal” type latrine.  Squatting plate is fitted with a water seal.  2 important function: 1. Prevent access of flies by a small depth of water in a bent pipe called trap. 2. Prevents escape of odours & foul gases & thereby eliminate the nuisance from smell.
  • 16. Sulabh shauchalaya:  Invention of a patna-based firm.  Low cost pour-flush, water seal type of latrine.  It consist of specially designed pan & a water-seal trap.  It is connected to a pit 3 feet square & as deep.  Excreta undergoes bacterial decomposition & is converted to manure.  Requires very little water.
  • 17. 4. SEPTIC TANK  Key component of the septic system.  A small-scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments on private corporations.  It is a satisfacory means of disposing excreta & liquid wastes but do not have access to a public sewerage system.
  • 18. DESIGN FEATURES:  There are various designs: single chambered & double chambered septic tanks.  Single chambered: for small installations.  Two compartments are expensive. The main design features:  Capacity: The minimum capacity should be 500 gallon.  Length: length is usually twice the breadth.  Depth: 1.5-2 m.
  • 19.  Liquid depth: 1.2 m  Air space: Minimum of 30 cm between the level of liquid & undersurface of the cover.  Bottom:  Inlet & outlet:  Cover:  Retention period:
  • 20. Working of Septic Tank:  The solids settle down to form sludge.  Lighter solids form scum.  The first stage of purification called anaerobic digestion.  A portion of solid is transferred into liquids & gases in the form of bubbles.  Effluent contains numerous bacterial, cysts, organic matters in solution or fine suspension.  The effluent is allowed to percolate into sub-soil by means of perforated or open-jointed pipes laid in trenches.
  • 21.  Millions of aerobic bacteria in the upper layers of soil attack the organic matter present in the effluent.  Thus the organic matter is oxidised into stable end products.
  • 22. Operation & Maintenance:  Use of soap water & disinfectants should be avoided as they are injurious to bacterial flora.  Desludging: Contents of the tank should be bailed out atleast once a year.  New built tank is first filled with water & then seeded with ripe sludge from another septic tank.
  • 23. 5. AQUA PRIVY:  It functions like a septic tank.  It consist of a water-tight chamber.  A short drop pipe dips from latrine floor into the water.  The shape of the tank may be circular or rectangular.  A capacity for 1 cubic m is recommended for 6 yrs or more.
  • 24.  Night soil undergoes purification by anaerobic digestion.  A vent should be provided for escape of gases.  It should be treated the same manner as the septic tank.  The digested sludge should be removed at intervals.
  • 25. LATRINES SUITABLE FOR TEMPORARY USE: 1. SHALLOW TRENCH LATRINE:  Simple trench  30 cm wide & 90-150 cm deep.  Length depends on number of users: 3-3.5 m for 100 people.  Seperate trenches for men & women should be provided.
  • 26.  Earth from trench should be piled up at the side.  Its an arrangement for a short period (1 week).  It must be covered when the trench is filled 30 cm below the ground level.
  • 27. 2. DEEP TRENCH LATRINE:  Intended for longer duration( a few week- a few months)  Its 1.8-2.5 m deep and 75-90 cm wide.  A superstructure is built for privacy & protection.
  • 28. II. SEWERED AREAS WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM:  Its collecting & transporting of human excreta & waste water by a network of sewers to the place of ultimate disposal.  There are 2 types of carriage system: i.The combined sewer system: (sewage & surface water) ii.The seperate sewer system: (sewage)
  • 29. A Water Carriage System consists of the following elements: 1. HOUSEHOLD SANITARY FITTINGS: The usual household sanitary fittings: i.Water closet, ii.Urinal, & iii.Wash basin.
  • 30. i. WATER CLOSETS:  2 types: Indian Squatting type & Western Commode type.  The water closets are provided with a ‘flushing rim’.  The closet is connected to a cistern by a pipe 2.53.75cm in diameter.  The flushing cistern normally holds 15 l of water
  • 31.  For efficient performance of water closet: -Water seal area should not be more than 7.5 cm. -There should not be any sharp corners in the trap. -The volume of water should not exceed 1.75 l to maintain a minimum of 50 mm deep water seal. -The interior of the bowl should be vertical atleast 50-75 mm just above the surface of water seal.
  • 32. 2.HOUSE DRAIN:  10 cm in diameter & is laid in the courtyard about 15 cm below the ground level.  The house drain empties the sewage into the main sewer. 3.PUBLIC SEWER:  Not less than 22.5 cm in diameter, bigger ones may be 2-3 m in diameter.  Laid 3 m below ground level with ‘self cleansing’ velocity of 2-3 feet per second.
  • 33. 4. SEWER APPURTANCES:  These are manholes & traps.  Manholes are placed: i. whenever there is a change in direction of sewer.s ii. at the meeting point of 2 or more sewers. iii. at distance of 100 m in long straight runs.
  • 34.  Traps are placed in 3 situation: i.under the basin of water closet ii.where the house drain joins the public drain iii.where surface wastes water enters the drain.