All About Plumbing


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All About Plumbing

  1. 1. Vortex Care & Safety
  2. 2. PLUMBING TIME LINE Vortex Care & Safety
  3. 3. 8000 B.C.: 6000 B.C 3000 B.C 2255 B.C 2500 B.C 2700 B.C 800 B.C2100 B.C 1500 B.C 705 B.C 432 B.C 710 B.C 52 A.D Vortex Care & Safety206 B.C
  4. 4. 1596 700 - 1500 6001775 1829 1870 2002 1915 - 1919 1885 2010 Vortex Care & Safety
  5. 5. Ancient Plumbing Modern Plumbing Plumbing originated during the ancient  Present-day water-supply systems use acivilizations such as the network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes areGreek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese now made of copper, brass, plastic, or othercivilizations as they developed public baths and nontoxic material. Due to lead’s toxicity, lead hasneeded to provide potable water, and drainage of not been used in modern water-supply pipingwastes. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes since the 1930s in the United States, althoughwith broad flanges making use of asphalt for lead was used as a solder until 1986. Drain andpreventing leakages appeared in the urban vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by iron, and lead.2700 B.C. The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions The "straight" sections of plumbing systems areto prevent water theft pipes or tubes. A pipe is typically formed via Improvement in plumbing systems was very casting or welding, where a tube is made throughslow, with virtually no progress made from the extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls andtime of the Roman systems of aqueducts and lead may be threaded or welded, where tubing ispipes until the growth of modern cities. thinner-walled and requires special joining Water systems of ancient times relied on techniques such as brazing compression fittinggravity for the supply of water, using pipes or crimping or for plastics, solvent weldingchannels usually made of clay, lead, bamboowood or stone Eventually the development ofseparate, underground water and sewagesystems eliminated open sewage ditches and Vortex Care & Safetycesspools
  6. 6. What is High rise Structure ???A high-rise building is a structure whose architectural height is between 35and 100 meters. A structure is automatically listed as a high-rise when ithas a minimum of 12 floors, whether or not the height is known. If it hasfewer than 40 floors and the height is unknown, it is also classifiedautomatically as a high-rise.A multi-storey structure between 35-100 meters tall, or a building ofunknown height from 12-39 floors.The six-member high rise committee Mumbai, consisting of officials fromthe civic development plan department, fire department, private architectsand civil engineers, was formed five years ago to vet the proposals for highrises. Under the definition, a high rise is any building over 70 meters inheight (approximately 20 storeys). Vortex Care & Safety
  7. 7. The term High-Rise is very ambiguous, meaning one thing to oneperson and something else to another. In search to overcome ever-escalating cost of land, as well as the scarcity of appropriate sites, buildershave adopted the philosophy of building vertically rather thanhorizontally. Some visionaries have already proposed vertical cities tomaintain our open spaces and halt the devastation of open spread.Buildings are going higher rather then wider. During the 1930s and 40s asix story was considered highrise , and few buildings which exceeded thisheight were classified as SKY – SCRAPERs. During the 50s, 20 and 30storey became common place and during the 60s, the 100- storey buildingwas no longer oddity. Vortex Care & Safety
  8. 8. Gravity feed System: Tanks must be sufficiently elevated to achieve required pressure. For properoperation of the system, the gravity tank is located at least 30 ft or 10 m above thehighest outlet or consumer. In tall buildings its necessary to use pressure reducingvalves in the lowest floors before the fittings.Advantages of gravity system: Extreme simplicity : There are no complicated or sophisticated controls Most Reliable : It is the only system which has a available in the event of the poweror water supply failure Economical: Operating costs are much less and capital is usually no higher thanother systems. Minimum maintenance: Only requirement beyond terms is periodic cleaning andpossible repainting of the tank. Fewer pressure regulating valves are required for the control system Provides additional reserve capacity for fire protection while domestic water isavailable in addition to the fire reserve Vortex Care & Safety
  9. 9. Pressure is to be Gravity controlled with the Tank help of prv stations where ever it exceeds max. pressure limits Break pressure tanks to be provided at regular intervals PG PG Suction Tank PumpCity Main Gravity Feed System Vortex Care & Safety
  10. 10.  Use less energy: Pump head, therefore horse power is less then requiredin other systems. The pumps operate to replenish the tank and then shut offso that a high horse power pump is not requires to satisfy light demands as isrequired for the tank less booster pump system. The pumps operate onoptimum duty point on the pump curve for the greater efficiency and lessenergy wastage. Minimum pressure variations in the distribution systems.Disadvantages of Gravity System The tank must be elevated. Provision must be made on the roof of thebuilding to support the tank. A tank on the roof is unslightly and if it isenclosed and dressed up, there is additional architectural expense. The weight of the water and the tank can increase the structural costs.Tanks require maintenance, periodic cleaning and painting Is required. If the tank ruptures. A large quantity of water is released which maycause damage. Vortex Care & Safety
  11. 11. Hydro-pneumatic pressure system Is a modernization of the older gravity tank method of water supply. Its mainpurpose is to control or boost a limited supply pressure to a higher or more uniformvalue so that a continuous and satisfactory water supply will be available at allfixtures within the system.A suitable pump, a pressure tank and essential control devices for making the systemoperate automatically with the least amount of supervision. The pump is used forsupplying the required amount of water into the tank at the proper pressure whilethe tank acts as a storage vessel for the proper ratios of water and air within thepressures and levels maintained by the control devices. The expansion of air under reducing pressures regulates the amount of water whichcan be used by the system before the pump is again called upon to replenish thereserve that is desired to be maintained in the tank. This pressure and volumerelationship is a well known law of physics which states that at constanttemperature the volume of a given weight of gas varies inversely as the absolutepressure. Vortex Care & Safety
  12. 12. Hydro pneumatic pressure boosting Pressure to controlled with the help of prv stations where ever it crosses the Max. pressure limit Pressure Vessel PG Suction City Tank Main Vortex Care & Safety
  13. 13. Advantages:Does not have to be elevatedCan be located anywhere in the building.Can save valuable space by being located outside the buildingIt is not exposed to the outer elements.Disadvantages:Inside corrosion of tank and piping is danger due to addition of air in the tank.A pressure variation of 20 psi is normal in the system pressure.Pumps of higher head are required.Higher initial and operating costs than gravity system due to pressure vesseltype tank, higher head pumps and more sophisticated controls.May take valuable space in the basement or other area. Vortex Care & Safety
  14. 14. Pressure requirements in Plumbing Hydraulics Model plumbing codes limit the pressure supplied to a fixture to 80 psi One feet head equates to pressure of 0.433 psi 1’(feet) = 0.433 psi (pound per square inch) Any Building Over 100 ft tall will require more then one water Distribution - 104 x 0.433 = 45 psi - 45 + 25 = 70 psi - 10% safety factor and friction. - Say 80 psi, there fore a system should never be designed above 80 psi. The most demanding fixtures are: e.g W.C = 25 psi , Shower = 20 psiPressure Zoning Building Over 10 storeys in height requires multiple water piping zone Vortex Care & Safety
  15. 15. Pressure and velocity effects on plumbing systemExcessive pressures and velocities do present some very real dangers:Excessive wear or erosion of piping. Wire drawing of valve seats with resultant maintenance problems. Hydraulic shock and the resulting stresses that could rupture pipes ordamage equipments. Damage to fixtures or equipment which are not designs for high pressureor velocity. Wasted water at outlets due to high rates of flow in excess of required flow.The nuisance of splashing that wets the walls and floors or the users. Reduced life expectancy of the system and equipment.Increased costs of equipment which require special construction foroperation at the higher working pressures Vortex Care & Safety
  16. 16. Hydro Pneumatic System Vortex Care & Safety
  17. 17. Hot water SystemSolar Heating System Local Heating System Vortex Care & Safety
  18. 18. Swimming Pools Vortex Care & Safety
  19. 19. Drainage Shower W.B Sink W.C Floor FinishCombined Soil & Waste Pipe Drainage Line Vent Pipe Connections Typical for all floors External Drainage Line Vortex Care & Safety One Pipe System
  20. 20. Shower W.B Sink W.C Floor FinishWaste Pipe Drainage Line Vent Pipe Vent Pipe Soil Pipe Connections Typical for all floors Gulley Trap External Drainage Line Vortex Care & Safety Two Pipe System
  21. 21. DrainageFlow conditions in plumbing Drainage: The flow in the stack tends to cling to the wall of the pipe. There is a slight spiral motion as the water flows down the pipe. Terminal velocity occurs after 3 stories of flow. VT = 3.0 (q/d)2/5 where : q = flow rate in gpm VT = terminal velocity in stack, d = diameter in inches Terminal velocity in drainage is same from 4th to 100 th storey. Drainage in the stack is the same for a hotel or an office building.Venting:It is important to understand that the sole purpose of venting is to relievethe pressure fluctuations in the soil or waste stack it serves A vent stack must connect to the base of the drainage stack. The connection must be at or below the lowest horizontal branch. The lowest floor would connect to the horizontal building drain after the hydraulic jump. when more ten 10 storeys in height the relief vent is to be the same size of the vent. Vortex Care & Safety
  22. 22.  Air movement is within the conventional stack, which pressures attempt to balance between the floors Relief vent must be located every 10 ten branch intervals down from the top of stack for conventional systemsStorm Water Drainage Storm water piping is probably subjected to the most frequentmovement of any plumbing system, but not necessarily the maximumexpansion . the movement is due to the frequently changing difference in theoutside temperature relative to the inside temperature. Low temperature flowin the storm water piping will cause condensation to form on the outside of thepiping in the building. It is therefore advisable to insulate all storm wateroffsets to prevent condensation from staining ceilings. The higher the buidingthe more economical its use becomes, but even far importance than theeconomies realized, controlled flow roof drainage is one of the best way tocombat water flooding during heavy rainfalls. Vortex Care & Safety
  23. 23. Rain Water Harvesting Storm Water Harvesting Terrace Lvl Storm Water run off is collected in filtration (silt remover) through Channels Over Flow is connected to the Bore well Water is pumped back for non potable use Filtration Harvesting Tank To Non Potable water Tanks For Flushing & Irrigation Purpose Vortex Care & Safety
  24. 24. Pre- Primary Secondary Tertiary Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Pre-treatment removes Primary treatment Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment is materials that can be consists of temporarily removes dissolved sometimes defined as easily collected from the holding the sewage in a and suspended anything more than primary raw waste water before quiescent basin where and secondary treatment in biological matter. they damage or clog the heavy solids can settle to order to allow rejection into Secondary treatment pumps and skimmers of the bottom while a highly sensitive or fragile primary treatment oil, grease and lighter is typically performed ecosystem (estuaries, low- clarifiers (trash, tree solids float to the surface. by indigneous, water- flow rivers, coral reefs,...). limbs, leaves, etc.). It The settled and floating borne micro- Treated water is sometimes Includes materials are removed organisms in a disinfected chemically or  Screening and the remaining liquid managed habitat. physically (for example, by  Grit removal may be discharged or Secondary treatment lagoons and microfiltration)  Flow equalization subjected to secondary may require a prior to discharge into a  Fat and grease stream, river, bay, lagoon treatment. separation process to removal or wetland, or it can be remove the micro- used for the irrigation of a organisms from the golf course, green way or treated water prior to park. If it is sufficiently discharge or tertiary clean, it can also be used treatment for ground water recharge or agricultural purposes. Non Potable water Tank Treated Water for Tank Fishing & Irrigation Over Flow to Municipal SewerSewage Treatment Plant Vortex Care & Safety
  25. 25. Plumbing fixtures are divided in to following classes:Water ClosetsUrinalsLavatoriesSinksService SinksBath tubsShowersDrinking FountainsBidets.A Water Closet is a Closet that disposes of human waste by usingwater to flush it through a drainpipe to the main sewer stackA Urinal is a specialized toilet for urinating into. It has the form of acontainer or simply a wall, with drainage and automatic or manualflushing.A sink (also basin, hand basin and wash basin) is a bowl-shapedplumbing fixture used for washing hands, for dishwashing or otherpurposes. Vortex Care & Safety
  26. 26. Sinks generally have taps (faucets) that supply hot and cold water and may includea spray feature to be used for faster rinsing. They also include a drain to removeused water; this drain may itself include a strainer and/or shut-off device and anoverflow-prevention device. Sinks may also have an integrated soap dispenserService Sink is a Deep fixed basin, supplied with hot and cold water, which is usedfor rinsing of mops, disposal of cleaning water, or washing clothes and otherhousehold items.A bath tub or tub (informal) is a large container for holding water in which aperson may bathe (take a bath). Most modern bathtubs are made of acrylic orfiberglass, but alternatives are available in enamel over steel or cast iron, andoccasionally waterproof finished wood. A bathtub is usually placed in a bathroomeither as a stand-alone fixture or in conjunction with a showerA shower (or shower-bath, walk-in shower, steam shower) is an area in whichone bathes underneath a spray of waterA water fountain or drinking fountain is designed to provide drinking water andhas a basin arrangement with either continuously running water or a tap. Thedrinker bends down to the stream of water and swallows water directly from thestream Vortex Care & Safety
  27. 27. Bidets are primarily used to wash and clean the genitalia, perimeum, innerbuttocks, and anus. They may also be used to clean any other part of the body suchas feet. Despite appearing similar to a toilet, it would be more accurate tocompare it to the wash basin or bathtub.TrapsTrap plays an very important part where drainage is concerned, it is a part ofsanitary appliance which is designed to hold a quantity of water. This part ofwater is called a trap seal, trap seal acts as a barrier to prevent air from passingout from water and in to the roomThe primary purpose of the trap is to prevent the passage of air, odours or verminthrough it from the sewer in to the buildings. The require of the ideal trap is asfollows. It must be able to pass used water freely without mechanical help.It must be self cleansing.It must have seal,prefarably more then 50 mm deep.It must have strong and proof against leakage from it of gas or liquid.It must have no moving partsIt must be provided with a clean out to access to the interior in the event of chocking Vortex Care & Safety
  28. 28. It must have no recess or cavities or pockets.It must have no internal projections to catch hold hair, lint, bits of matches.Bottle Traps:This device is provided that recieves wastes from washbasins, kitchen sinks andother appliances where the appliances do not have built in traps in it.Nahani / Floors Traps:The waste water from floors, wash basins and sinks are often taken to waste pipethrough floor traps. The depth of water seal provided is about 50 mm .Gully trapsThe function of this trap is to form an obstacle to the passage of foul gases from theinterior of the drain or waste to the outside and thus to prevent the surroundingair being polluted by sewage gas.Grease TrapsIt is the device installed in the waste pipe from one or more fixtures for the purposeof separating grease from the liquid and retaining the grease. A grease trap isrequired in the waste pipe from sinks and other fixtures in which greasy and oilyfoods are prepared and dishes are washed. Such as hotels, restaurants, food courtsetc Vortex Care & Safety
  29. 29. Sewer TrapThis trap is installed where internal sewer line connects to the main (city sewer)sewer line. So that the odor in the mains do not enter the internal sewer of thebuilding. Vortex Care & Safety
  30. 30. Galvanised Iron Pipes:Although GI pipes are widely used in india , GI pipes are more prone tocorrosion. Corrosion in pipes reduces the bore diameter and subsequent waterflow in the pipe and shortens its life span. GI pipes usually give service not morethen 20 years.Copper PipesUse of copper pipes is as old as our civilization, they are easy to assemble ,they donot rust and do not require painting, which in case of hot water pipes avoids theunpleasant smell of warm paint. The very smooth internal surface offers a verylow frictional resistance to flow of water. The joints commonly used arecompression joints and capillary joint. Both these joints can be safely used forhigher temperatures and pressures of water.Plastic PipesNow a days plastic pipes are becoming more and more common, due to theirproperties of corrosion resistance, light weight and economy. Vortex Care & Safety
  31. 31. LDPELow density poly ethylene pipes are flexible and this material is used up to63mm diameter pipes. These pipes are recommended for usage in long runs.These pipes require supports at closer intervals due to flexibility. These are notsuitable for internal supply system.HDPEThese are tougher compared to LDPE. These a pipes are not used in smallersizes due to practical difficulties.cPVCChlorinated poly vinyl chloride pipes are made from specialitythermoplastics, These pipes are useful for hot and cold water distribution. Pipescan withstand temperature upt o 93 deg C without insulation. This material donot support combustion increasing the fire safety of buildinguPVCunplasticized (Rigid) poly vinyl chloride pipes are widely used for cold waterservices internal/external water supply system, water mains, rain watersystem, soil /waste piping system and also in underground drainage piping. Vortex Care & Safety
  32. 32. PPRCGreen polypropylene Random Copolymer pipes are green in colour and aremade as per DIN standards these pipes are reliable for hot and cold watersupply. The pipes are designed to last for 50 years at a pressure of 10kg/cm2 and temp. Of 60 deg. C.PE-AL-PEThese re polyethylene aluminum composite pipes that combines the bestfeatures of both material to form a pipe that is light, strong, and does notsupport corrosion. These are designed for hot water reliability up to 95deg.C for 50 years. It is clean non corroding plastic interior, there will benever a problem of odor, colour, taste, etc.Sanitary fittingsSpouts, mixers, waste couplings valves, faucets and stop cocks are calledfittings and are used for controlling the flow into, through, and from thepipe. Vortex Care & Safety
  33. 33. Fittings are used in pipe and plumbing systems to connect straight pipe ortubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for otherpurposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow.Material with which a pipe is manufactured often forms as the basis forchoosing any pipe. Materials that are used for manufacturing pipes include: Carbon Steel (CS) Low Temperature Service Carbon Steel (LTCS) Stainless Steel (SS) Non-Ferrous Metals (Inconel, Incoly Cupro - Nickel etc.) Non-Metallic (ABS, PVC, HDPE, tempered glass, etc. )Chrome-molybdenum steel (Alloy steel) — Generally used for high temperatureserviceElbow: is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing toallow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle though 22.5° elbows arealso made. The ends may be machined for butt welding threaded (usuallyfemale), or socketed, etc. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called areducing elbow or reducer elbow.Coupling connects two pipes to each other. If the size of the pipe is not thesame , the fitting may be called a reducing coupling or reducer, or anadapter Vortex Care & Safety
  34. 34. Union : is similar to a coupling, except it is designed to allow quick and convenientdisconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement.Reducer: allows for a change in pipe size to meet hydraulic flow requirements of thesystem, or to adapt to existing piping of a different size.Olets are generally used Whenever branch connections are required in size wherereducing tees are not available .Tee is the most common pipe fitting. It is available with all female thread sockets, allsolvent weld sockets, or with opposed solvent weld sockets and a side outlet withfemale threads.Cross fittings : are also called 4-way fittings. If a branch line passes completelythrough a tee, the fitting becomes a cross. A cross has one inlet and three outlets, orvice versa. They often have solvent welded socket ends or female threaded endsCap: is a type of pipe fitting, usually liquid or gas tight, which covers the end of a pipe.A cap is used like plugPlug closes off the end of a pipe. It is similar to a cap but it fits inside the fitting it ismated.Nipple is defined as being a short stub of pipe which has external male pipe threadsat each end, for connecting two other fittings.Barb is used to connect flexible hoses to pipes.Valve is equipment designed to stop or regulate flow of any fluid(liquid, gas, condensate, stem, slurry etc.) in its path.Sweep elbows are usually long radius or sweep types, to reduce flow resistance andsolids deposition when the directionVortex Care isSafety of flow & changed
  35. 35. Closet flange is the drain pipe flange to which a water closet (toilet) isattached. It is a specialized type of flange connection designed to sit flush withthe floor.Clean-outs are fittings with removable elements that allow access to drainswithout requiring removal of plumbing fixtures.Trap primers regularly inject water into traps so that "water seals" aremaintained, as necessary to keep sewer gases out of buildings.Combination tee (combo tee) is a tee with a gradually curving centerconnecting joint. It is used in drain systems to provide a smooth, graduallycurving path to reduce the likelihood of clogs.Sanitary tee is a tee with a curved center section designed to minimize thepossibility of siphon action that could draw water out of a trap.Double Sanitary tee differs from a standard cross in that two of the ports havecurved inlets. The fitting has been used in the past for connecting the drains ofback-to-back fixturesWye is a "Y" shaped fitting which allows one pipe to be joined to another at a 45degree angle.Double-tapped bushing is a fitting that has opposing threads on the insidediameter of the bushing Vortex Care & Safety
  36. 36. Fastening of pipesA fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or moreobjects together.A threaded pipe is a pipe with a screw thread at one or both ends for assembly.Steel pipe is often joined using threaded connectionsA Solvent is applied to PVC, CPVC, ABS, or other plastic piping, to partially dissolveand fuse the adjacent surfaces of piping and fitting.To make a Solder connection, a chemical flux is applied to the inner sleeve of asleeve type joint, and the pipe is inserted.Brazing is a thermal joining process in which the two pieces of the base metal arejoined when a molten brazing filler metal is allowed to be drawn into a capillarygap between them.Welding is a fabrication that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, bycausing coalescene.Compression fittings consist of a tapered concave conical seat, a hollow barrel-shaped compression ring, and a compression nut which is threaded onto the bodyof the fitting and tightened to make a leak proof connection.Flared connections should not be confused with compression connectors, withwhich they are generally not interchangeable. Flared connectors lack acompression ring, but do use a threaded nut.Flanges are generally used when there is a connection to valves, in-lineinstruments and/or connection to equipment nozzles is required. Vortex Care & Safety
  37. 37. “Building Services, Building Relations” Thank You Contact queries Vortex Care & Safety 9819213266 / 9819804845