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Presentation plumbing

  2. 2. Introduction PLUMBING P Is the art and technique of installing pipes, L fixtures & other apparatuses in buildings & for bringing the supply, liquids, substances U &/or ingredients & removing them; M from the Latin plumbum for lead as pipes B were once made from lead. I refers to a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distribution N of potable water and the removal of G waterborne wastes.
  3. 3. Introduction - history PRACTICE OF PLUMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES P Birth of plumbing profession traced back to the 17th century L as Spaniards established Walled City known as Intramuros as a model community. U In 1902, the PLUMBING TRADE was duly recognized by the government. M Master Plumber John F. Hass became the 1st Chief of Division of Plumbing Construction and Construction. A plumbing code B based on the Plumbing Code of the US was incorporated into the Building Code for the City of Manila. I In 1935 the National Master Plumbers Association of the N Philippines (NAMPAP) was organized and registered with the SEC. G
  4. 4. Introduction - history PRACTICE OF PLUMBING IN THE PHILIPPINES P City Ordinance 2411 known as “The Plumbing Code for the City of Manila” was enacted with the consultation of L NAMPAP U In 1954, the 3rd Congress of the Republic of the Philippines approved after the third reading House Bill No. 962. This M became Republic Act No. 1378. On June 28, 1955, R.A. 1378 known as the “Plumbing Code of B the Philippines was signed by President Ramon Magsaysay. I In December 21, 1999 pursuant t Section 4 of R.A. 1378, Joseph Ejercito Estrada approved the Revised Plumbing N Code of 1999. G
  5. 5. Plumbing System - Fundamentals PLUMBING SYSTEM P System includes all potable water supply and distribution pipes, all plumbing fixtures and traps; all sanitary and L storm drainage systems; vent pipes, roof drains, leaders U and downspouts; and all building drains and sewers, including their respective joints and connections; M devices, receptacles, and appurtenances within the property; water lines in the premises; potable, tap, hot B and chilled water piping; potable water treating or using I equipment; fuel gas piping; water heaters and vents for same. N SUPPLY DRAINAGE G PIPE FIXTURE PIPE
  7. 7. Plumbing System - Fundamentals PLUMBING CYLE P S U P P L Y DISTRIBUTION U S E L Water Mains, Pressure, Plumbing U Piping Storage Tanks Fixtures Networks M S O U R C E COLLECTION B Lakes, Rivers, Reservoirs Gravity, Piping Networks I TREATMENT DISPOSAL N Treated water returned to the Sewage Plants, Natural Sanitary and Storm Sewers original source Purification G
  9. 9. Water Supply and Distribution System definition Carries water from the water source, street main or a P pump to the building and to various points in the L building at which water is used. COLD WATER SUPPLY U HOT WATER SUPPLY M WATER B plays an important part in the plumbing system I Providing water is one of the most critical utility requirement N “Universal Solvent” G
  11. 11. Water Supply and Distribution System SOURCES OF WATER P RAIN WATER L Collected from roofs of buildings and special water sheds and stored in cisterns or ponds. U ADVANTAGE M Water is soft & pure and is suitable for the hot water supply system B DISADVANTAGE I Only a source during the wet season N Storage becomes a breeding place for mosquitoes G Roofs may not be clean
  12. 12. Water Supply and Distribution System SOURCES OF WATER P GROUND WATER The portion of the rainwater which has percolated into the earth to L form underground deposits called aquifers (water- bearing soil formation). U From springs and wells and is the principal source of water for domestic use in most rural areas. M ADVANTAGE Usually has an abundant supply; B requires less treatment because of natural filtering. I DISADVANTAGE N May have organic matter & chemical elements usually treatment is suggested. G
  13. 13. Water Supply and Distribution System SOURCES OF WATER P NATURAL SURFACE WATER A mixture of surface run-off and ground water. Surface sources L includes rivers, lakes, ponds and impounding reservoirs. U ADVANTAGE Usually easy to acquire and in large quantities. M Used for irrigation, industrial purposes and, when treated, B for community water supply. I DISADVANTAGE Contains a large amounts of bacteria, organic, & inorganic N substances; Purification & treatment is necessary. G
  15. 15. Water Supply and Distribution System PHYSICAL PROPETIES OF WATER P SURFACE TENSION L The ability to stick itself together and pull itself together U HEAT ABSOPTION/CAPACITY M The ability to absorb heat without becoming warmer B CAPILLARITY I The ability to climb up a surface against the pull of gravity N DISSOLVING ABILITY Known as the “Universal Solvent” G
  16. 16. Water Supply and Distribution System WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AND THEIR CORRECTION P PROBLEMS CAUSE EFFECTS CORRECTION L 1. Acidity Contains carbon dioxide Corrosion of non-ferrous Passing the water through a bed of U pipes Rusting & crushed marble or limestone to achieve alkalinity, M clogging of steel pipes or adding sodium silicate.) B 2. Hardness Presence of Clogging of magnesium and pipes Boiling Introduction of I calcium salts Impaired laundry and water softeners made up of N 3. Turbidity Silt or mud in cooking Discoloration Zeolite Filtration G surface or in ground Bad taste
  17. 17. Water Supply and Distribution System WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AND THEIR CORRECTION P PROBLEMS CAUSE EFFECTS CORRECTION L 4. Color Presence of  Discoloration of Chlorination or U Iron and manganese fixtures and laundry ozonation and file filtration M B 5. Pollution Contamination by organic Disease Chlorination I matter or sewage N G
  18. 18. Water Supply and Distribution System Water treatment and purification is any method that will remove one or more materials that make P the water unsuitable for a given use L AERATION Water is sprayed into the air to release any trapped gases and absorb U additional oxygen for better taste. M B I N G
  19. 19. Water Supply and Distribution System COAGULATION - FLOCCULATION P process by which small sediment particles which do not settle well combine together to form larger particles which can be removed by sedimentation L COAGULATION chemical process in which the coagulant reacts with the sediment to make it capable of U combining into larger particles. FLOCCULATION physical process in which the sediment particles M collide with each other and stick together. B I N G
  20. 20. Water Supply and Distribution System SEDIMENTATION P suspended solids are removed from the water by gravity settling and deposition L water is passed through basins so sediments can settle through a period of time U M B I N G
  21. 21. Water Supply and Distribution System FILTRATION P water is passed through layers of sand and gravel in concrete basins in order to remove the finer suspended particles. L U M B I DISINFECTION/ CHLORINATION N method of introducing a controlled amount of chlorine to the water in order to attain a desired degree of disinfection. G
  22. 22. Water Supply and Distribution System WATER TREATMENT PROCESS P L U M B I N G
  23. 23. Water Supply and Distribution System WELLS P Wells are holes in the earth from which a fluid may be withdrawn using manual or mechanical means such as draw L bucket, pump, etc. GENERAL TYPES OF WELL U SHALLOW WELL DEEP WELL M B TYPES OF WELL (ACCORDING TO METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION) I DUG WELLS N can be constructed with hand tools or power tools depth of about 15 meters (50 ft) G can have the greatest diameter that a space may allow
  24. 24. Water Supply and Distribution System DUG WELL P L U M B I N G
  25. 25. Water Supply and Distribution System DRIVEN WELLS P A steel drive-well point is fitted on one end of the pipe section L and driven into the earth. The point may be driven into the ground to a depth of up to 15 meters (50 ft). U M B I N G
  26. 26. Water Supply and Distribution System BORED WELLS P These are dug with earth augers are usually less than 30 meters (100 ft) deep. The diameter ranges from 2 to 30 inches. The well L is lined with metal, vitrified tile or concrete. U M B I N G
  27. 27. Water Supply and Distribution System DRILLED WELLS P Requires more elaborate equipment depending on the geology of the site. L Used for drilling oil and can reach up to 1000 meters in depth. U M B I N G
  28. 28. Water Supply and Distribution System JETTED WELLS P Use extreme water pressure so as not to affect existing foundation in the vicinity. It makes use of a suction pump above, L while casing acts as the pump riser. U M B I N G
  29. 29. Water Supply and Distribution System PUMPS A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries. P A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. L CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPS U RECIPROCATING PUMP Pump having a plunger that move back and forth within a cylinder M equipped with check valves. The cylinder is best located near or below the ground level. B I N G
  30. 30. Water Supply and Distribution System CENTRIFUGAL PUMP P It contains an impeller mounted on a rotating shaft. The rotating impeller increases the water velocity while forcing the water into a L casing thus converting the water’s velocity into higher pressure. U M B I N G
  31. 31. Water Supply and Distribution System TURBINE PUMP P A turbine pump has a vertical turbine located below groundwater levels and a driving motor located at ground L U M B I N G
  32. 32. Water Supply and Distribution System SUBMERSIBLE PUMP P Is basically a centrifugal pump complete with electric motors which are positioned underwater in a suitable bored hole that delivers the L water to the surface U M B I N G
  33. 33. Water Supply and Distribution System JET (EJECTOR) PUMP P Jet pumps are centrifugal pumps typically used for drawing water up from a well. L U M B I N G
  34. 34. Water Supply and Distribution System PISTON PUMP P Is a positive displacement reciprocating pump in which a plunger is driven backwards and forwards, or up and down by a mechanical L working head. U Water is sucked into a sealed vacuum by use of a piston. M B I N G
  35. 35. Water Supply and Distribution System SUMP PUMP P Sump pumps are used in applications where excess water must be pumped away from a particular area. L a pump used to remove water that has accumulated in a water collecting sump pit, U M B I N G
  36. 36. Water Supply and Distribution System WATER STORAGE FOR DOMESTIC USE P OVERHEAD TANK/ GRAVITY SUPPLY TANK L Does not have any pressure concerns but relies on gravity to supply water to U fixtures below. Use in overhead feed system M COMPONENTS B Supply Pipe I Inlet Overflow Pipe N Drip Pan G Gate Valves
  37. 37. Water Supply and Distribution System CISTERN P Usually built of reinforced concrete underground and connected with a pump. L PNEUMATIC WATER TANK U Used in the air pressure system and often used with a pump. M Make use of pressure relieve valve to release excess pressure if necessary B I N G
  38. 38. Water Supply and Distribution System HOT WATER TANK P Range Boiler Small hot water tank (30-60 cm L diameter; 180cm max length) Made of galvanized steel sheet, U copper or stainless steel Standard working pressure limit is 85 to 150 psi M Storage Boiler B Large hot water tank (60-130 cm in diameter; 5m max length) I Made of heavy duty material sheets applied with rust proof paint N Standard working pressure limit is 65 to 100 psi. G
  39. 39. Water Supply and Distribution System VALVES AND CONTROLS P FUNCTION OF VALVES Control of the water system L - - Start or shut down a system Regulate pressure U - - Check backflow Control the direction of water M TYPES OF VALVES B GATE VALVE (Full-way Valve) I Used mainly to completely close or completely open the water line (does N not control flow of water). Wedge Shape or Tapered Disc Valve G Double Disc Valve
  40. 40. Water Supply and Distribution System GLOBE VALVE Controls the flow of water with a P movable spindle. Can reduce water pressure (throttling). L 3 types U Plug Type Disc Valve M B Conventional Disc Valve I N Composition Disc Valve G
  41. 41. Water Supply and Distribution System CHECK VALVE Main function is to prevent reversal of P flow (backflow) in the line. L 4 types U Swing Check Valve M Lift Check Valve B I Vertical Check Valve N G Horizontal Check valve
  42. 42. Water Supply and Distribution System ANGLE VALVE P Used to make a 90° turn in a line. L U FOOT VALVE Located at the lower end of the pump. Used M mainly to prevent loss of priming of the pumps. B I SAFETY VALVE N Used on water systems, heating systems, compressed air lines & other pipe lines G with excessive pressure.
  43. 43. Water Supply and Distribution System TYPES OF FAUCETS P COMPRESSION COCK Operates by the compression of a soft L packing upon a metal sheet. U KEY COCK Operates with a round tapering plug M ground to fit a metal sheet. B BALL FAUCET I Constructed with a ball connected to the handle. N HOSE BIBB G A water faucet made for the threaded attachment of a hose.
  44. 44. Water Supply and Distribution System WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM The water service pipe, water distribution pipes, and the necessary P connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or L adjacent to the structure or premises. PARTS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM U SERVICE PIPE M The pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supply to the water distribution system of the building served. B WATER METER I Device used to measure in liters or gallons the amount of water that passes through the water service. N DISTRIBUTION PIPE/ SUPPLY PIPE A pipe within the structure or on the premises which conveys water G from the water service pipe or meter to the point of utilization.
  45. 45. Water Supply and Distribution System P RISER L A water supply pipe that extends one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures. U M FIXTURE BRANCH The water supply pipe between the fixture supply pipe & the water B distributing pipe. I FIXTURE SUPPLY N A water supply pipe connecting the fixture with the fixture branch. G
  46. 46. Water Supply and Distribution System COLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM P TYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION DIRECT (UPFEED) L INDIRECT - Down feed or Gravity System U - Hydro pneumatic System ( Air Pressure System) DIRECT (UPFEED) M Water is provided by the city water companies using normal pressure from public water main B I N G
  47. 47. Water Supply and Distribution System DOWNFEED or P GRAVITY SYSTEM L Water is pumped into a large tank on top of the building and U is distributed to the fixtures by means of gravity. M B I N G
  48. 48. Water Supply and Distribution System HYDRO PNEUMATIC SYSTEM/ AIR PRESSURE SYSTEM P L When pressure supplied by city water supply is not strong enough U M Compressed air is used to raise and push water into the system B I N G
  49. 49. Water Supply and Distribution System ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES P Upfeed System L 1. Eliminates extra cost of pumps & 1. Pressure from water main is tanks. inadequate to supply tall buildings. U 2. Water supply is affected during peak load hour. M Air Pressure System B 1. With compact pumping unit. 2. Sanitary due to air tight water 1. Water supply is affected by loss of pressure inside the tank in case of I chamber. 3. economical (smaller pipe diam) power interruption. N 4. less initial construction & maintenance cost 5. Oxygen in the compressed air serves G as purifying agent. 6. Adaptable air pressure. 7. Air pressure serves zones of about 10 stores intervals.
  50. 50. Water Supply and Distribution System P L ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES U Overheadfeeed System M 1. Water is not affected by peak load hour. 1. 2. Water is subject to contamination. High maintenance cost. B 2. Not affected by power interruptions. 3. Occupies valuable space. 3. Time needed to replace broken parts 4. Requires stronger foundation and does not affect water supply. other structure to carry additional I load of tank and water. N G
  51. 51. Water Supply and Distribution System Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems P Upfeed and Gravity Return System L With a continuing network of pipes to provide constant U circulation of water Hot water rises on its own & M does not need any pump for circulation B Hot water is immediately I drawn form the fixture any time Provided economical circulating N return of unused hot water Larger pipe is installed at the G top of the riser & the diminishing sizes passes through the lower floors of the building
  52. 52. Water Supply and Distribution System Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems Downfeed and Gravity Return System P Hot water rises on to L the highest point of the plumbing system U and travels to the fixtures via gravity (closed pipe system) M Water distribution is B dependent on the expansion of hot I water & gravity. Larger pipe is installed N at the bottom of the riser & the diminishing G sizes passes through the upper floors of the building
  53. 53. Water Supply and Distribution System Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems P Pump Circuit System L For a more efficient circulation of hot water to the upper floor levels of multi-storey buildings U M B I N G
  55. 55. Sanitary Drainage System P General Rules in designing the Sanitary system: L The pipes should take the shortest possible route to U the house sewer or the terminating point of the Sanitary system M Control components such as clean-outs, traps, and vents, should be located strategically so as to ensure B efficient circulation I Subsystems of the Sanitary System: N Waste Collection System G Ventilation System
  56. 56. Sanitary Drainage System Waste Pipe conveys only wastewater or liquid waste free of fecal matter. P Vent Pipe L used for ensuring the circulation of air in a plumbing system and for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap seals. U Trap M a fitting or device designed and constructed to provide, when properly vented, a liquid seal which prevents the backflow of foul B air or methane gas without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through it. I Stack N the vertical main of a system of soil, waste or vent pipings extending through one or more stories and extended thru the G roof. Branch any part of the piping system other than a main, riser or stack.
  57. 57. Sanitary Drainage System House/Building Drain P part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system which L receives the discharges from the soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside of a building and conveys it to the house sewer outside U of the building. M B House/Building Sewer I extends from the house drain at a point 0.60 meters from the outside face of the foundation wall of a building to the junction with N the street sewer or to any point of discharge, and conveying the drainage of one building site. G
  58. 58. Sanitary Drainage System CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF SANITARY P DRAINAGE LINES L Horizontal to Horizontal change in direction U use 45° wye branches, combination wye – 1/8 bend M branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep B I Vertical to Horizontal change in direction N 45° wye branches or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep G
  59. 59. Sanitary Drainage System P Horizontal to vertical change in direction L use 45° or 60° wye branches, combination wye -1/8 bend U branches, sanitary tee or sanitary tapped tee branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweeps. M No fitting having more than one inlet at the same level B shall be used (i.e., sanitary cross) Double sanitary tees may be used when the barrel of the I fitting is at least two pipe (2) sizes larger than the largest inlet, (pipe sizes recognized for this purpose are 51, 64, 76, N 89, 102, 114, 127, & 152 mm dia.) G
  60. 60. Sanitary Drainage System P MINIMUM SLOPE OF L SANITARY DRAINAGE LINES U Minimum slope or pitch of horizontal drainage pipe – 2% or M 20mm/m (¼” per foot). B Exception: Where it is impracticable due to depth of street sewer, adverse structural features and irregular building plans, I pipes 102 mm dia or larger may have a slope of not less than 1% or 10mm/m (1/8” per foot), approved by the Administrative N Authority G
  61. 61. Sanitary Drainage System Types of Permissible Traps: P The Common P-Trap L Used for lavatories, kitchen sinks, laundry tubs, & urinals U Materials commonly used for the M P-trap: nickel, chrome plated brass, Galvanized malleable copper, & PVC. B The Deep Seal P-Trap I Water seal is about twice the size of N The common P-trap G Used for extreme conditions because resealing quality is greater
  62. 62. Sanitary Drainage System The Stand Trap P L Used for fixtures such as slop sinks that are usually built low in the U ground, leaving very little space for a foundation & a trap M Serves as a water seal & structural B support for the fixture I The Running Trap N Used within the line of the house drain G
  63. 63. Sanitary Drainage System P The Drum Trap L Has a large diameter (around 0.16 m) Used for fixtures that discharge large amount of water U (bathtubs, shower or floor drains) M B I N G
  64. 64. Sanitary Drainage System REQUIREMENTS: P Traps REQUIRED L Each plumbing fixture, except those with integral traps, shall be separately trapped with an approved-type waterseal trap. U M Only one trap shall be permitted on a trap arm (portion of a fixture drain between a trap and the vent) B I One trap, centrally located, may serve three single compartment sinks or laundry tubs or lavatories, adjacent to each other and in the same N room, where their waste outlets are not more than 0.75 m apart. G
  65. 65. Sanitary Drainage System SIZE OF TRAPS: P The trap shall be the same size as the trap arm to which it is L connected. U Each fixture trap shall have a trap seal of water of not less than 51 mm and not more than 102 mm (except where a deeper seal M is found necessary by the Administrative Authority for special conditions. B I N G
  66. 66. Sanitary Drainage System INSTALLATION OF TRAPS: The vertical distance between a fixture outlet tailpiece and the P trap weir shall not exceed 0.60 m in length. L Horizontal Distance of Trap Arms U TRAP ARM DIAMETER DISTANCE TO VENT M Note: In no case shall the 32 mm 0.76 m trap distance be less than 2 times the diameter of the B 38 mm 51 mm 1.07 m 1.52 m trap arm. I 76 mm 102 mm & larger 1.83 m 3.05 m N The developed length of the trap arm (measured from the top of closet ring to inner edge of vent ) of a water closet or similar G fixture shall not exceed 1.8 m. For trap arm 76 mm dia or larger, a cleanout is required for a change of direction of greater than 22 ½ °.
  67. 67. Sanitary Drainage System P REQUIREMENTS: Clean-outs REQUIRED L at the upper terminal of every horizontal sewer or waste line U at each run of piping more than 15 meters (50 feet) in total M developed length at every 15 m (50 ft) of total developed length or a fraction B thereof additional clean-out shall be provided on a horizontal line with an I aggregate offset angle exceeding 135° inside the building near the connection between the building N drain and the building sewer or installed outside the building at the lower end of the building drain and extended to grade. G
  68. 68. Sanitary Drainage System P L Clean-outs NOT REQUIRED U on a horizontal drain less than 1.5 m in length unless such line is serving sinks or urinals. M on short horizontal drainage pipe installed at a slope of 72 deg or less from the vertical line (or at an angle of 1/5 bend) B I N G
  69. 69. Sanitary Drainage System P VENTILATION L Portion of the drainage pipe installation intended to maintain a U balanced atmospheric pressure inside the system M B Vent Pipe- a pipe or opening used for ensuring the I circulation of air in a plumbing system and for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap seals. N G
  70. 70. Sanitary Drainage System VENTS Main Types: P Main Soil & Waste Vent L U the ‘backbone’ of the entire sanitary M system Connected to the Main Soil & Waste B Stack The portion where waste does not I travel through Continues to the roof; the portion N penetrating the roof is called the Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR) G
  71. 71. Sanitary Drainage System Main Vent P the principal artery of the venting L system to which vent branches are connected. U a.k.a. ‘Collecting Vent Line’ serves as support to the Main Soil & M Waste Vent B I N G
  72. 72. Sanitary Drainage System Individual Vent or Back Vent P L U M B I a pipe installed to vent a fixture trap, that N connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air. G
  73. 73. Sanitary Drainage System P Unit, Common, or Dual Vent L U M B I N an arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipe G serve two (2) traps.
  74. 74. Sanitary Drainage System Relief Vent P L a vertical vent line that provides U additional circulation of air between the drainage and vent systems or to M act as an auxiliary vent on a specially designed system such as a B “yoke vent” connection between the soil and vent stacks. I N G
  75. 75. Sanitary Drainage System Yoke or By-pass Vent P L U a pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack below the floor and M below horizontal connection to an adjacent vent stack at a point above B the floor and higher than the highest spill level of fixtures for preventing I pressure changes in the stacks. N G
  76. 76. Sanitary Drainage System Circuit Vent P L U M B a group vent pipe which starts in front of the I extreme (highest) fixture connection on a horizontal branch and connects to the vent stack. N a.k.a. ‘Loop Vent’ G Serves a battery of fixtures
  77. 77. Sanitary Drainage System Looped Vent P L a vertical vent connection on a U horizontal soil or waste pipe branch at a point downstream M of the last fixture connection and turning to a horizontal line B above the highest overflow level of the highest fixture I connected there N Used in spaces without partitions G
  78. 78. Sanitary Drainage System Wet Vent P that portion of a vent pipe through which wastewater also L flows through. U M B I N G
  79. 79. Sanitary Drainage System P Local Vent L a pipe or shaft to convey foul air U from a plumbing fixture or a room to the outer air. M B Dry Vent I N a vent that does not carry liquid or water-borne wastes. G
  80. 80. Sanitary Drainage System Stack Vent P L the extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain U connected to the stack. M Vent Stack B the vertical vent pipe installed I primarily for providing circulation of air to and from any part of the soil, waste N of the drainage system. The uppermost end above the roof has traditionally been G referred to as Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR).
  81. 81. Sanitary Drainage System REQUIREMENTS: P Vents REQUIRED L Each trap shall be protected against siphonage and back-pressure U through venting. M Vents NOT REQUIRED B on a primary settling tank interceptor which discharges through a horizontal indirect waste pipe into a secondary interceptor. The I secondary interceptor shall be properly trapped and vented. N Traps serving sinks in an island bar counter. Such sink shall discharge by means of an approved indirect waste pipe into a G floor sink or other approved type receptor.
  82. 82. Sanitary Drainage System SANITARY SYSTEM PROBLEMS: P Trap Seal Loss - Direct effect of the Minus & Plus Pressure inside the system due L to inadequate ventilation of traps - Attributed to the following conditions: U Siphonage- direct and momentum M B I N G
  83. 83. Sanitary Drainage System Back Pressure P L U M B Evaporation- caused by extreme temperatures, idleness I Wind Effects- strong winds blow the trap seal Retardation of flow N - Due to the effect of atmospheric pressure and/or gravity G Deterioration of the Materials - Due to the formation of acids
  84. 84. Sanitary Drainage System P L U M B I Indirect Waste Pipe – is a pipe that does not connect directly with the N drainage system but conveys liquid wastes by discharging into a plumbing fixture, interceptor or G receptacle directly connected to the drainage system.
  85. 85. Sanitary Drainage System DISPOSAL PHASE- the final stage of the plumbing process; where P used water and water-carried wastes are brought to various disposal outlets L SEPTIC TANKS Definition: U A watertight covered receptacle designed and constructed to M receive the discharge of sewage from a building sewer, B separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter and store digested solids through a period of detention, and allow I the clarified liquids to discharge for final disposal SLUDGE- solid organic matter that are denser than water and N settle at the bottom of the septic tank G SCUM- lighter organic material that rise to the surface of the water EFFLUENT- liquid content of sewage
  86. 86. Sanitary Drainage System P L Bacteria in septic tank U to encourage decomposition: M Aerobic bacteria- relies on oxygen to survive Anaerobic bacteria- can survive in places without B oxygen I N G
  87. 87. Sanitary Drainage System P L Minimum dimensions- U L= 1500mm W=900mm M D=1200mm B I N G
  88. 88. Sanitary Drainage System COMPARTMENTS: have a minimum of 2 compartments: P First compartment: not less than 2/3 capacity of the total L capacity of tank; not less than 2 cum liquid capacity; shall be at least 0.9 m width and 1.5 m long; Liquid depth not less U than 0.6 m nor more than 1.8 m. Secondary compartment: maximum capacity of 1/3 total M capacity of tank; minimum of 1 cum liquid capacity In septic tanks having over 6 cum capacity, the secondary B compartment should be not less than 1.5 m in length. maintain a slope of 1:10 at the bottom of the digestion chamber I to collect the sludge and make it easily accessible from the manhole N MANHOLES: G with at least two (2) manholes, 508 mm in min dimension; one over inlet, other over outlet. Wherever first compartment exceeds 3.7 m in length, an additional manhole required over the baffle wall.
  89. 89. Sanitary Drainage System P SIZES OF PIPE INLET & OUTLET & THEIR VERTICAL LEGS: L Inlet and Outlet pipes – diameter size not less than the sewer U pipe Vertical legs of inlet and outlet pipes – diameter size not less than M the sewer pipe nor less than 104.6 mm. LENGTH AND LOCATION OF INLET & OUTLET: B Shall extend 101.6 mm above and at least 304.8 mm below the I water surface Invert of the inlet pipe shall be at a level not less than 50.8 mm N above the invert of the outlet pipe. G
  90. 90. Sanitary Drainage System AIR SPACE: P Side walls shall extend 228.6 mm above liquid depth. Cover of septic tank shall be at least 50.8 mm above the back L vent openings. U PARTITION (between compartments): M An inverted fitting equivalent in size to the tank inlet, but in no case less than 104.6 mm in diameter, shall be installed in the inlet B compartment side of the baffle with the bottom of the fitting placed midway in the depth of the liquid. Wooden baffles are I prohibited. N STRUCTURE: G Shall be capable of supporting an earth load of not less than 14.4 kPa
  91. 91. Sanitary Drainage System P CAPACITY: L The capacity of septic tanks is determined by the number of bedrooms or apartment units in dwelling occupancies; by the U estimated waste/sewage design flow rate for various building occupancies; or by the number of fixture units of all plumbing M fixtures; whichever is greater. The capacity of any one septic tank and its drainage system shall B also be limited by the soil structure classification in its drainage field. I N LOCATION: Should not be located underneath the house G At least 15 meters from the water distribution system
  92. 92. Sanitary Drainage System CLASSIFICATION OF SEWERS: P Combination Public Sewers L Oldest variety Carries both storm & sanitary wastes U Storm Sewers M B Sanitary Sewers I Carries regular sanitary wastes only Terminates in a modern sewage disposal plant for N treatment G Built at a depth of 3 meters (tributaries)
  94. 94. Storm Drainage System 3 Major Systems of P Collecting Storm Water: L The Independent System U a.k.a. ‘the Separate System’ M Brings collected water directly to the water reservoirs B I N G
  95. 95. Storm Drainage System The Combined System P Combines storm water L with sanitary wastes U M B I N G
  96. 96. Storm Drainage System The Natural System P Without using any roof gutters or downspouts L Also when rainwater is collected in cisterns U Storm Drain Locations M B I N G
  97. 97. Storm Drainage System Roofing Elements to Collect Rainwater: P L The Gutter Usually located along the U entire perimeter of the roof M The Downspout B Located every 8 to 10 meters I & at every corner of the roof (but, to avoid clogging of pipes, N it is best to locate them every 4 to 6 m) G
  98. 98. Storm Drainage System P The Strainer or Roof Drain L Drain designed to receive water collecting on U the surface of a roof and to discharge it into a downspout. Designed to prevent clogging. M B The Shoe I At the bottom of the roof leader to direct rain- N water towards the nearest catch basin G
  99. 99. Storm Drainage System The Catch Basin P Downspouts should terminate in a catch basin (can serve more than one L downspout) Delivers water to the sewers in the street via gravity U Area-Drain-Catch-Basin: also collects surface water M B I N The Storm Line G Connects to each catch basin
  100. 100. FLEA 2010 REVIEW END