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GLOBAL
WARMING

P SE E B
RE NT D Y:

SUPTA SARKAR
CHSCAU-75
CONTE NT:
• INTRODUCTION
• FACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
• GREEN HOUSES GASES
• GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
• CAUSES OF GOBAL WARMING
• CONSEQUENSES

Contd.
• Global coolinG
• SoME PoSiTiVE conSEQUEncES
• EFFEcTS
-WorldWidE
-india
• SolUTionS
• conclUSion
INTRODUCTION
• The earth’s temperature rises.
• S.Arrhenius, 1896
FACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
• The Earth's surface temperature is at an average of 59°F(‘09).
• IPCC:By the year 2100, the average change could range from
2.5°F to about 10°F.
• It is occurring since the ice ages.
• Effecting began with the Industrial Revolution.
• 75% of the increase in the carbon dioxide content is
caused due to fossil fuels.
• NOAA: 1998 to 2007 ranks among the top 25 warmest
years
• 2000-2009 hottest decade on record.
• 2005-warmest year [NASA & NCDC]
Contd..
• India is 5th major emitter (env. Minister
report,2009).
• It's too late to stop global warming, but we
can limit it.

“Save earth, Go GREEN”
GREEN HOUSE GASES
• The major natural greenhouse gases:
-water vapour causing about 36-70% of
greenhouse effect
-carbon dioxide causing 9-26%;
-methane causing 4-9%, &
-nitrious oxide, which causes 3-7%.
-CFC , which causes 2-3%.

the

Contd.
• Kyoto protocol came into action
CONTRIBUTION TO CO 2
EMISSION PER YEAR
COUNTRY

China
United States
Russia
India
Japan

% PER YEAR

21.5%
20.2%
5.5%
5.3%
4.6%
Source: Science Reporter (Dec’10)
RESEARCH STUDY:
GEOPHYSICAL
RESEARCH


IPCC, [24th Mar.’ 2011]



Climate model [Dec.’ 2010] :



Reducing CO2 concentrations could help
drought caused by global warming.
Source: Down To Earth (April 16-30, 2011)



Source: IPCC Assessment (2009)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/greenhousegas
GREENHOUSE EFFECT
• The temperature rises because the sun’s
heat and light is trapped in the earth’s
atmosphere.
• Example of a closed car in a parking area on
a hot summer day.
CAUSES
•

Cutting down of trees:

•

Industries:

•

Transportation:
• Electrical pollution

• Household sources:

• Garbage: (landfills.)
CONSEQUENCES
Glaciers and Sea Levels

• Melting Glaciers & ice caps

• Sea-Level Rise
HealtH
• Deadly Heat Waves

• Bad Air, Allergy and Asthma

• Infectious Disease and Food and
Waterborne Illness Outbreaks
Wildlife
• Melting the habitats.

• Extinction of species
Weather Patterns
• More Powerful and Dangerous
Hurricanes
• Drought and Wild fire
• Intense Rainstorms


Conjecture during 1970s



In 2009 the concept gained recognition based on
Global Climate model 1999
-Aerosol
-Orbital forcing

AE
ROSOL
:
-reflecting solar radiation

Orbital forcing:
-changes in the tilt of axis & in orbit shape




IPCC: Global cooling heading way by next 30
years
Some positive consequences
• Lower mortality in the temperate zones.
• Wood production,
• Agricultural yields in temperate zones,
• Increased water resources
EFFECTS:
WARNING SIGNS TODAY
GLACIERS & SEA LEVEL:

• NASA’ 09: melting ice caps at the rate of 9% per
decade.
• Arctic ice thickness has decreased 40% since the
1960s.
• IPCC : sea levels could rise 10 to 23 inches by 2100.
• Melting Greenland’s glacier [ Nature Geoscience
research: March’2011]
HEALTH
• In 2003, heat waves in Europe killed 70,000 lives.
• France, 15,000 people died of soaring temperatures
(104° F)
• In July 2006, North America, 140 people died due to
severe heat wave.
• Ground-level ozone smog production caused asthma.
WEATHER
• IPCC’ 07: 50 million people could become
"environmental refugees" by 2020.
• NOAA: 2006 had its wettest summer on
record.
WILDLIFE
• IPCC’10: About 20-30% of species are at a risk
of extinction if temperature increases by 2.74.5° F more.
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
ON INDIA
• Submerged several low-lying islands in the Sundarban.
• Retreat Himalayan glaciers.
• 1998 coral bleaching in Lakshadweep and the Andaman.
• Over flow from Bangladesh cause
flooding problem.
• IPCC: About 7 million people are to be displaced of
parts of Mumbai and Chennai.
• Meghalaya: Cherrapunji and Mawsynram, the wettest
places in the world due to their high rainfall.
SOLUTION
• Replacing with a compact fluorescent
Light(CFL) bulb (saves 300pound CO2).

• Cleaning or replacing filters (350 pound CO2).

• Covering pots while cooking
(2.5% GHG).
• Planting a tree.

• Protecting & conserving forest worldwide.

• Recycling at home (saves 2400 pound of CO2).
• Driving carefully
[ 1 L petrol = 1 kg H2O & 2.17 kg CO2 ]

• Choosing efficient mode of transport
---
CONCLUSION
“E
ART on F
H
ire...J hands to save our
oin
earth.. H to prevent GL AL W
elp
OB
ARM
ING”

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Global warming

  • 1. GLOBAL WARMING P SE E B RE NT D Y: SUPTA SARKAR CHSCAU-75
  • 2. CONTE NT: • INTRODUCTION • FACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING • GREEN HOUSES GASES • GREEN HOUSE EFFECT • CAUSES OF GOBAL WARMING • CONSEQUENSES Contd.
  • 3. • Global coolinG • SoME PoSiTiVE conSEQUEncES • EFFEcTS -WorldWidE -india • SolUTionS • conclUSion
  • 4. INTRODUCTION • The earth’s temperature rises. • S.Arrhenius, 1896
  • 5. FACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING • The Earth's surface temperature is at an average of 59°F(‘09). • IPCC:By the year 2100, the average change could range from 2.5°F to about 10°F. • It is occurring since the ice ages. • Effecting began with the Industrial Revolution.
  • 6. • 75% of the increase in the carbon dioxide content is caused due to fossil fuels. • NOAA: 1998 to 2007 ranks among the top 25 warmest years • 2000-2009 hottest decade on record. • 2005-warmest year [NASA & NCDC] Contd..
  • 7. • India is 5th major emitter (env. Minister report,2009). • It's too late to stop global warming, but we can limit it. “Save earth, Go GREEN”
  • 8. GREEN HOUSE GASES • The major natural greenhouse gases: -water vapour causing about 36-70% of greenhouse effect -carbon dioxide causing 9-26%; -methane causing 4-9%, & -nitrious oxide, which causes 3-7%. -CFC , which causes 2-3%. the Contd.
  • 9. • Kyoto protocol came into action
  • 10. CONTRIBUTION TO CO 2 EMISSION PER YEAR COUNTRY China United States Russia India Japan % PER YEAR 21.5% 20.2% 5.5% 5.3% 4.6% Source: Science Reporter (Dec’10)
  • 11. RESEARCH STUDY: GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH  IPCC, [24th Mar.’ 2011]  Climate model [Dec.’ 2010] :  Reducing CO2 concentrations could help drought caused by global warming. Source: Down To Earth (April 16-30, 2011)
  • 12.   Source: IPCC Assessment (2009) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/greenhousegas
  • 13. GREENHOUSE EFFECT • The temperature rises because the sun’s heat and light is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere. • Example of a closed car in a parking area on a hot summer day.
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  • 15. CAUSES • Cutting down of trees: • Industries: • Transportation:
  • 16. • Electrical pollution • Household sources: • Garbage: (landfills.)
  • 17. CONSEQUENCES Glaciers and Sea Levels • Melting Glaciers & ice caps • Sea-Level Rise
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  • 20. HealtH • Deadly Heat Waves • Bad Air, Allergy and Asthma • Infectious Disease and Food and Waterborne Illness Outbreaks
  • 21. Wildlife • Melting the habitats. • Extinction of species
  • 22. Weather Patterns • More Powerful and Dangerous Hurricanes • Drought and Wild fire • Intense Rainstorms
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  • 24.  Conjecture during 1970s  In 2009 the concept gained recognition based on Global Climate model 1999 -Aerosol -Orbital forcing AE ROSOL : -reflecting solar radiation 
  • 25. Orbital forcing: -changes in the tilt of axis & in orbit shape   IPCC: Global cooling heading way by next 30 years
  • 26. Some positive consequences • Lower mortality in the temperate zones. • Wood production, • Agricultural yields in temperate zones, • Increased water resources
  • 27. EFFECTS: WARNING SIGNS TODAY GLACIERS & SEA LEVEL: • NASA’ 09: melting ice caps at the rate of 9% per decade. • Arctic ice thickness has decreased 40% since the 1960s. • IPCC : sea levels could rise 10 to 23 inches by 2100. • Melting Greenland’s glacier [ Nature Geoscience research: March’2011]
  • 28. HEALTH • In 2003, heat waves in Europe killed 70,000 lives. • France, 15,000 people died of soaring temperatures (104° F) • In July 2006, North America, 140 people died due to severe heat wave. • Ground-level ozone smog production caused asthma.
  • 29. WEATHER • IPCC’ 07: 50 million people could become "environmental refugees" by 2020. • NOAA: 2006 had its wettest summer on record.
  • 30. WILDLIFE • IPCC’10: About 20-30% of species are at a risk of extinction if temperature increases by 2.74.5° F more.
  • 31. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON INDIA • Submerged several low-lying islands in the Sundarban. • Retreat Himalayan glaciers. • 1998 coral bleaching in Lakshadweep and the Andaman. • Over flow from Bangladesh cause flooding problem.
  • 32. • IPCC: About 7 million people are to be displaced of parts of Mumbai and Chennai. • Meghalaya: Cherrapunji and Mawsynram, the wettest places in the world due to their high rainfall.
  • 33. SOLUTION • Replacing with a compact fluorescent Light(CFL) bulb (saves 300pound CO2). • Cleaning or replacing filters (350 pound CO2). • Covering pots while cooking (2.5% GHG).
  • 34. • Planting a tree. • Protecting & conserving forest worldwide. • Recycling at home (saves 2400 pound of CO2).
  • 35. • Driving carefully [ 1 L petrol = 1 kg H2O & 2.17 kg CO2 ] • Choosing efficient mode of transport ---
  • 37. “E ART on F H ire...J hands to save our oin earth.. H to prevent GL AL W elp OB ARM ING”