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Basic Plumbing System
Basic Plumbing System
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  1. 1. Building Materials and Construction Himalay Kheni Piyush Dhola Siddharth Kukadiya Dhaval Italiya BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
  2. 2. PLUMBING The word “plumbing” comes from the Latin word plumbum for lead, as pipes were once made from lead.
  3. 3.  Plumbing is the system of pipes, drains, fittings, valves, valve assemblies, and devices installed in a building for the distribution of water for drinking, heating and washing, and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems.  "Plumbing" is often denotes the supply and waste system of an individual building, distinguishing it from water supply and sewage systems that serve a group of buildings
  4. 4. COMPONENTS  PIPES - PEX - Copper piping - PVC - Galvanized pipe - Brass - Cast Iron piping - Cement pipe  PIPE FITTINGS - Coupling - Reducer - Valves - Elbow - Unions - Tee - Cross - Cap - barb
  5. 5. PIPES A hollow cylinder following certain dimension rules. Various types of pipes are described below:
  6. 6. PEX  Flexible plastic piping.  Popular selection in residential and small business applications.  Slightly higher initial cost.  Minimum maintenance and fast installation process.  Leak free product offering advantages over copper piping.  Cannot be used in outdoor application as UV rays can damage its outdoor plastic layer.
  7. 7.  Diameters of the following pipes shown below :
  8. 8. COPPER PIPING  Copper piping is most often used for supply of hot and cold tap water, and as refrigerant line in HVAC systems(heating, ventilation, and air conditioning).  There are two basic types of copper tubing : 1. Soft copper 2. Rigid copper
  9. 9. Soft copper pipe  Soft (or ductile) copper tubing can be bent easily to travel around obstacles in the path of the tubing. While the work hardening of the drawing process used to size the tubing makes the copper hard/rigid, it is carefully annealed to make it soft again; it is therefore more expensive to produce than non- annealed, rigid copper tubing.  Most popular choice for refrigerant lines in split- system air conditioners and heat pumps.
  10. 10. Rigid copper  Rigid copper is a popular choice for water lines.  It is joined using a sweat, roll grooved,compression or crimped/pressed connection.  Rigid copper, rigid due to the work hardening of the drawing process, cannot be bent and must use elbow fittings to go around corners or around obstacles.  If heated and allowed to slowly cool in a process called annealing, rigid copper will become soft and can be bent/formed without cracking.
  11. 11. PVC  PVC full name is Poly Vinyl Chloride.  Used for hot and cold potable water as well with sewage application.  Vary on their thickness and configuration depending on the application where to be used.  Example : pressure water pipes are not the same as sewer pipes and not the same as the ones used on storm drainage systems.
  12. 12. Pvc (hot water) Pvc (cold water)
  13. 13. GALVANIZED PIPING  Used several years ago.  Less frequent used now as rust can build up inside small diameter pipes.  If pipe is old, water coming from the faucet with rust traces can be seen.  Can be used to transport grey water or non- potable water.  Use for high temperature or pressure manufacturing processes.  Use in the petroleum industries.
  14. 14. BRASS  Brass is an alloy made of copper and zinc.  The proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties.  Provide great rust resistance piping.  Made of 67% to 85% of copper.  Excellent for hot-water and large distribution systems such as pump fittings, water tanks and wells.  Generally comes in 12 foot straight lengths.
  15. 15. PIPE FITTINGS Fitting is used in pipe plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow. Various common fittings are described below :
  17. 17. COUPLING  A coupling connects two pipes to each other. If the size of the pipe is not the same, the fitting may be called a reducing couple or reducer, or an adapter.
  18. 18. REDUCER  A reducer allows for a change in pipe size to meet hydraulic flow requirements of the systems, or to adapt to existing piping of a different size.  Reducers are usually concentric but eccentric reducers are used when required to maintain the same top-or-bottom of pipe level.
  19. 19. ELBOW  Installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 90 degree or 45 degree.  When its two ends differ in size, the fitting is called reducing elbow.
  20. 20. Types of elbows :  Long Radius (LR) Elbows – Radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter.  Short Radius (SR) Elbows – Radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter.  90 degree Elbow – Where change in direction required is 90 degree.  45 degree Elbow – Where change in direction required is 45 degree.
  21. 21. 90 degree Elbow  Also called “90 bend” or “quarter bend”.  Attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel and lead.  Available in materials like silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, etc  It connects hoses to valves, water pressure pumps and deck drains.
  22. 22. 45 degree Elbow  Also called “45 bend”.  Commonly used in water supply facilities, food industrial pipeline networks, chemical industrial pipeline networks, electronic industrial pipeline networks, air conditioning facility pipeline, etc.
  23. 23. UNIONS  A union is similar to a coupling, except it is designed to allow quick and convenient disconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement.  Standard union pipe is made in three parts consisting of a nut, a female end, and a male end.  When the female and male ends are joined, the nuts then provide the necessary pressure to seal the joint  Since the mating ends of union are interchangeable, changing of a valve or other device can be achieved with a minimum loss of time
  24. 24.  In addition to standard, simple unions, other types of unions exist: Dielectric unions : Unions with dielectric insulation, used to separate dissimilar metals (such as copper and galvanized steel) to avoid he damaging effects of galvanic corrosion. Rotary unions : Unions that allow for rotation of one of the united parts.
  25. 25. TEE  Available with all female thread sockets, all solvents weld sockets, or with opposed solvent weld sockets and a side outlet with female threads.  used to either combine or split a fluid flow.  T-shaped having two outlets at 90 degree to the connection to the main line.  Used for connecting pipe of different diameters or for changing the direction of pipe runs.  Extensively used in pipeline networks to transport two-phase fluid mixtures.
  26. 26. CROSS  Also called four way fittings.  If a branch line passes completely through a tee, the fitting becomes a cross.  It has one inlet and three outlet or vice versa.  They often have solvent welded sockets end or female threaded ends.  Common in fire sprinkler system due to their extra cost.
  27. 27. CAP  A cap is used like plug, except that the pipe cap screws or attaches on the male thread of a pipe.  They may have a solvent weld socket end or a female threaded end and the other end closed off.  In plumbing systems that use threads, the cap have female threads.  If a solvent weld cap is used to provide for a future connection point, several inches of pipe must be left before the cap because when the cap is cut off for the future connection, enough pipe must remain to allow a new fitting to be glued onto it.
  28. 28. BARB  Used to connect flexible hoses to pipe.  It has a male threaded end used to mate with the female thread.  The other end of the fitting has either a single or multiple barbed tube having a tapered stub with ridges, which is inserted into the flexible hose to secure it.  It can be made of plastic or brass.
  29. 29.  Brass barb is used for hot water application while plastic barb is used for cold.  The barb can be either elbow shaped or straight.
  30. 30. NIPPLE  In plumbing and piping, a nipple is a fitting, consisting of a short piece of pipe, usually provided with a male pipe thread at each end, for connecting two other fittings.
  31. 31. VALVES  A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing or partially obstructing various passageways.  The various types of valves are: Ball valve Check valve Gate valve Zone valve Butterfly valve Locking valve Diaphragm valve Globe valve Pressure Balanced valve
  32. 32. BALL VALVE  A ball valve is a form of quarter-turn valve which uses a hollow, perforated and pivoting ball to control flow through it.  In open position, hole in the sphere is in line with the pipe.  When closed, hole in the sphere is perpendicular to pipe.  Lever handle operates the valve and also serves as an indicator for whether the valve is open or closed.
  33. 33.  Ball valves do not allow for precise flow control as they usually have positive stops(0, 45, 90 degrees), but they do provide a very good seal in the closed position.
  34. 34. GATE VALVE  A gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate out of the path of the fluid.  Controls water flow by raising or lowering the gate, which is generally a piece of metal.  Wheel or knob at the top of the gate valve is present that controls the height of the gate – this, in turn, affects the flow of water.  But unfortunately, the wheel doesn’t provide any indication of whether the valve is open or closed.
  35. 35.  Not durable  Susceptible to corrosion, which will cause the valve to get stuck in the open or closed position
  36. 36. BUTTERFLY VALVE  A butterfly valve is a valve which can be used for isolating or regulating flow.  The closing mechanism takes the form of a disk. Operation is similar to that of a ball valve, which allows for quick shut off.  It is attached to a lever handle that rotates the disc, which adjusts the flow of water  Main drawback : control disc is always present within the flow of water(even when fully open) so there will always be a pressure drop when using them
  37. 37.  Butterfly valves are generally favored because they are lower in cost to other valve designs as well as being lighter in weight, meaning less support is required
  38. 38. DIAPHRAGM VALVE  Diaphragm valves (or membrane valves) consists of a valve body with two or more ports, a diaphragm, and a "weir or saddle" or seat upon which the diaphragm closes the valve.  Similar to gate valve.  In a diaphragm valve, the element is a diaphragm that settles down over a saddle, thus stopping water flow.  The diaphragm below is a weir-type diaphragm valve, where water passes over a weir.
  39. 39.  There is also a straight-type diaphragm valve, which doesn’t force water over a weir  This valves are generally used as shutoff or stop valves
  40. 40. GLOBE VALVE  A globe valve, different from ball valve, is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline, consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body.  Used to throttle or limit the flow of water.  Contains a stopper that is raised and lowered by a wheel or knob on a shaft.  Stopper seals into a baffle to stop flow.
  42. 42. CHECK VALVE  A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve is a valve that normally allows to flow through it in only one direction.  Generally not operational.  Back-flow preventer is a type of check valve.  A ball-check valve uses a ball to stop the flow of water in wrong direction.  A diaphragm-check valve has a rotating disc or rubber flap that is pushed to seal the opening in the event of flow in the wrong direction.
  43. 43.  A stop-check valve is operational and allows a user to completely stop all flow – even flow in the correct direction. It will not allow backward flow when open.
  44. 44. PRESSURE BALANCED VALVE  A pressure-balanced valve provides water at nearly constant temperature to a shower or bathtub, despite pressure fluctuations in either the hot or cold supply lines.  Diaphragm within the valve allows the operator to set mixing of hot and cold water  Many jurisdictions require pressure balanced valves in domestic bathrooms and showers to prevent accidental scalding  If, for example, someone flushes a toilet while the shower is in use.
  45. 45. ZONE VALVE  A zone valve is a specific type of valve used to control the flow of water or steam in a hydronic heating or cooling system.  May be provided in different rooms, floors, or dwelling units so that each place can have local control over the heating or cooling.  Electrically controlled and are connected to a thermostat so that automatic control is achieved.
  46. 46. LOCKING VALVE  Almost any type of valve can be locked to avoid accidental or intentional opening or closing  Valves with lever-type handles allow for more secure locking control  Provide aligning holes so that lock can be passed to stop rotation of the handle  Locks preventing adjustment to non-locking valves are also designed
  47. 47. THANK YOU