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With cities and urban areas getting crowded by the minute, finding a
parking space is nothing short of a challenge. It is not only time-
consuming but also quite frustrating. Thanks to IoT, there’s a solution
for solving the parking problem crisis. This IoT-based smart parking
system is designed to avoid unnecessary travelling and harassment in
the search for an appropriate parking area.
Features:
If you are at a parking space, the system uses an IR sensor to monitor the entire area during
the run time and provide you an image for the same. This allows you to see any free spaces in
the parking lot and drive straight to it without wasting any time in looking for a parking
space. Also, the system is tuned to open the car gate n only if there are empty slots available
in a parking space.
The proposed Smart Parking system consists of an on-site deployment of an IoT module that
is used to monitor and signalize the state of availability of each single parking space. A
mobile application is also provided that allows an end user to check the availability of
parking space and book a parking slot accordingly. Automatic gate opening, if the car
belongs to a given park. Navigation of cars to available and suitable parking slots
Sensors and Actuators used:
The IoT device consists of an ESP8266 microcontroller and an HC-SR04 distance
measurement sensor. The sensor periodically measures the distance and transmits this
data to the microcontroller, which is connected to AWS IoT service via the MQTT
protocol. Ultrasonic sensors measure distance by using ultrasonic waves in time
between the emission and reception. Advantages: high accuracy of the sensor.
Electromagnetic field sensor is a small-scale microelectromechanical system device for
detecting and measuring magnetic fields. The solution is based on the change of the
electromagnetic field as the metal mechanisms approach one another. An infrared
sensor is an electronic device that emits in order to sense some aspect of its
surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detect motion.
An IR sensor works in a similar way to ultrasonic sensors.
Working:
Smart parking development implies an IoT-based system that sends data about free and
occupied parking places via web/mobile application. The IoT-device, including sensors
and microcontrollers, is located in each parking place. The user receives a live update
about the availability of all parking places and chooses the best one. In order to
investigate technologies behind the smart parking solution, we implemented an internal
research project. The main idea was the creation of smart parking using the Internet of
Things and ultrasonic sensors, where available parking places could be displayed in a
web application. The proposed SEI-UVM is a smart parking system that is devoted to
private parking lots and composed of three main elements: the SPIN-V, a mobile application,
and a monitoring center. Each parking space is equipped with a SPIN-V located in the middle
of the backend of parking spaces. The mobile application is available for the user/driver to
control and reserve a parking space while the monitoring center can be operated by the owner
of the private parking lots to manage and control the parking spaces and the reservations. The
information shared by the app is stored in a database and observed by the monitoring center
at OBNiSE. All the information is sent from the SPIN-V to the cloud. In addition, the
exchange of information is available through WiFi protocol communication.
Protocols for communication:
1. The LoRa (Long Range) protocol is an “expanded spectrum” modulation technique
Three different configurations are available for our devices.
 LoRaWAN®
It is built according to the specifications of the LoRa Alliance™, which
includes devices, gateways, a network serverand a management platform (for example
our POLIS). Gateway and network server are the devices that the public or private
LoRaWAN® operator must make available.
 LoRaWAN® SPN (Small Private Network)
LoRaWAN® SPN is a variation to the LoRaWAN® which uses gateways with an
integrated network server with reduced features, compared to a real network server. Each
SPN gateway allows to manage a few hundred devices. It is useful to create private
LoRaWAN® networks very quickly, saving the cost of a network server
 LoRa Intercomp
It is a proprietary LoRa protocol developed by Intercomp that exploits the penetration and
distance potential typical of the LoRa protocol but uses only one channel for communication
and the data rate (the communication speed) is normally fixed on SF7.
2. NB-IoT (Narrow Band – Internet of Things) technology uses frequencies and LTE (Long
Term Evolution) band devices. NB-IoT network, unlike LoRa, can control the connected
devices, awake them and make them remain online for the desired time. However, it is
possible for operators to adopt a configuration to allow NB-IoT devices some freedom
to close connections once the packet has been transmitted.

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With cities and urban areas getting crowded by the minute (1)

  • 1. With cities and urban areas getting crowded by the minute, finding a parking space is nothing short of a challenge. It is not only time- consuming but also quite frustrating. Thanks to IoT, there’s a solution for solving the parking problem crisis. This IoT-based smart parking system is designed to avoid unnecessary travelling and harassment in the search for an appropriate parking area. Features: If you are at a parking space, the system uses an IR sensor to monitor the entire area during the run time and provide you an image for the same. This allows you to see any free spaces in the parking lot and drive straight to it without wasting any time in looking for a parking space. Also, the system is tuned to open the car gate n only if there are empty slots available in a parking space. The proposed Smart Parking system consists of an on-site deployment of an IoT module that is used to monitor and signalize the state of availability of each single parking space. A mobile application is also provided that allows an end user to check the availability of parking space and book a parking slot accordingly. Automatic gate opening, if the car belongs to a given park. Navigation of cars to available and suitable parking slots Sensors and Actuators used: The IoT device consists of an ESP8266 microcontroller and an HC-SR04 distance measurement sensor. The sensor periodically measures the distance and transmits this data to the microcontroller, which is connected to AWS IoT service via the MQTT protocol. Ultrasonic sensors measure distance by using ultrasonic waves in time between the emission and reception. Advantages: high accuracy of the sensor. Electromagnetic field sensor is a small-scale microelectromechanical system device for detecting and measuring magnetic fields. The solution is based on the change of the electromagnetic field as the metal mechanisms approach one another. An infrared sensor is an electronic device that emits in order to sense some aspect of its surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of an object as well as detect motion. An IR sensor works in a similar way to ultrasonic sensors. Working: Smart parking development implies an IoT-based system that sends data about free and occupied parking places via web/mobile application. The IoT-device, including sensors and microcontrollers, is located in each parking place. The user receives a live update about the availability of all parking places and chooses the best one. In order to investigate technologies behind the smart parking solution, we implemented an internal research project. The main idea was the creation of smart parking using the Internet of Things and ultrasonic sensors, where available parking places could be displayed in a web application. The proposed SEI-UVM is a smart parking system that is devoted to private parking lots and composed of three main elements: the SPIN-V, a mobile application, and a monitoring center. Each parking space is equipped with a SPIN-V located in the middle of the backend of parking spaces. The mobile application is available for the user/driver to control and reserve a parking space while the monitoring center can be operated by the owner of the private parking lots to manage and control the parking spaces and the reservations. The
  • 2. information shared by the app is stored in a database and observed by the monitoring center at OBNiSE. All the information is sent from the SPIN-V to the cloud. In addition, the exchange of information is available through WiFi protocol communication. Protocols for communication: 1. The LoRa (Long Range) protocol is an “expanded spectrum” modulation technique Three different configurations are available for our devices.  LoRaWAN® It is built according to the specifications of the LoRa Alliance™, which includes devices, gateways, a network serverand a management platform (for example our POLIS). Gateway and network server are the devices that the public or private LoRaWAN® operator must make available.  LoRaWAN® SPN (Small Private Network) LoRaWAN® SPN is a variation to the LoRaWAN® which uses gateways with an integrated network server with reduced features, compared to a real network server. Each SPN gateway allows to manage a few hundred devices. It is useful to create private LoRaWAN® networks very quickly, saving the cost of a network server  LoRa Intercomp It is a proprietary LoRa protocol developed by Intercomp that exploits the penetration and distance potential typical of the LoRa protocol but uses only one channel for communication and the data rate (the communication speed) is normally fixed on SF7. 2. NB-IoT (Narrow Band – Internet of Things) technology uses frequencies and LTE (Long Term Evolution) band devices. NB-IoT network, unlike LoRa, can control the connected devices, awake them and make them remain online for the desired time. However, it is possible for operators to adopt a configuration to allow NB-IoT devices some freedom to close connections once the packet has been transmitted.