SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 5
Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03
(18btcse009)
Living in cities can be troubling. Urbanization is always expanding, and
traffic in cities is becoming heavier every day. The UN Department of
Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) predicts that all of the increase
to the world’s population will live in urban areas. This increase is
predicted to be as much as 68% by 2050. The population growth is not
only a pressing issue for the government but a tangible daily reality for
most citizens.
Smart parking development implies an IoT-based system that sends data
about free and occupied parking places via web/mobile application. The
IoT-device, including sensors and microcontrollers, is located in each
parking place. The user receives a live update about the availability of
all parking places and chooses the best one.
The main idea was the creation of smart parking using the Internet of
Things and ultrasonic sensors, where available parking places could be
displayed in a web application.
Used IoT ecosystem:
Hardware: ESP8266 microcontroller, HC-SR04 distance measurement
sensor
Network: MQTT protocol
Cloud & Analytics: Amazon Web Services: AWS IoT, AWS Lambda
Used Programming Languages: Micro-Python, Python, JavaScript
Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03
(18btcse009)
User Interface: JavaScript-based web application.
The IoT device consists of an ESP8266 microcontroller and an HC-SR04
distance measurement sensor. The sensor periodically measures the
distance and transmits this data to the microcontroller, which is
connected to AWS IoT service via the MQTT protocol.
Periodically, the device sends measurements to the cloud where they are
stored in AWS IoT shadow as a sensor state. A sensor detects a parked
car by measuring the distance to the nearest obstacle—in our case, to
the bottom of the car. The state can be “occupied” if the distance is in
the range of 100mm – 500mm, “free” if the distance is more than 500mm
and “dirty” if the distance is less than 100mm, which means that the
sensor may be unclean. All of these values can be easily configured.
These values represent both free and occupied parking lots.
In our case, if the sensor detects nothing up to 50 cm, the status is set
to “free” and is shown to the user.
The “occupied” range is between 10 and 50 cm.
Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03
(18btcse009)
Below 10 cm, the status is “dirty”. It means the sensor might be covered
with mud or an obstacle, and requires checking.
When a driver accesses the system via web application, a signal is sent
to the Lambda function. It reads the sensor state values from AWS IoT
shadow and displays parking spaces depending on the state. Green
colour – free space, red colour – occupied space, yellow colour –
pollution.
For now, this particular solution may be used for MVP and POC (proof
of concept).
The building of a full-fledged IoT based smart parking system will be
different. Hardware, software and firmware selection will depend on the
size of the specific parking area and the number of parking slots.
Mobile and/or web application features also play a big role in the IoT
system architecture. If business requirements show demand for a smart
parking development, a more advanced application might be created.
All the hardware should always be selected by the IoT specialist.
Depending on the IoT system architecture, developers will select the
most suitable hardware. In some cases, it’s better to use gateway
and LPWAN for IoT sensors, for others it may not be.
The improvement of smart parking system depends on business needs.
Taking into account retail and healthcare technology trends, smart
parking might take priority. Returning to our smart parking solution, the
main features that might be improved are:
LoRaWAN protocol will increase the autonomous operating time of a
smart parking system. Due to LoRa Alliance’s specification, the
LoRaWAN protocol is optimized for low power consumption, which means
that you don’t need to change batteries more often than once every 2-5
years. Furthermore, it is designed to scale from a single gateway
Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03
(18btcse009)
installation up to large global networks with billions of devices. Thus, it
would be a good idea to apply this or any LPWAN protocol for a smart
park.
Data Science and Computer Vision technologies based on video stream
are also a perfect match for IoT-based innovations. On the subject of
smart parking development, Data Science, Machine Learning and
Computer Vision might be applied for car number recognition.
This feature allows:
 Automatic gate opening, if the car belongs to a given park
 Navigation of cars to available and suitable parking slots
Sensor integration is also a good upgrade for smart parking systems.
The most applicable are:
1. Ultrasonic sensors
Ultrasonic sensors measure distance by using ultrasonic waves in time
between the emission and reception. Advantages: high accuracy of the
sensor. The disadvantages: the probability of sensor contamination.
2. Electromagnetic field sensors
Electromagnetic field sensor is a small-scale microelectromechanical
system device for detecting and measuring magnetic fields. The solution
is based on the change of the electromagnetic field as the metal
mechanisms approach one another.
3. Infrared sensors (IR sensor)
An infrared sensor is an electronic device that emits in order to sense
some aspect of its surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of
Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03
(18btcse009)
an object as well as detect motion. An IR sensor works in a similar way
to ultrasonic sensors.
Custom mobile and web IoT applications might be developed
depending on business needs. The function of a parking slot order
may be a killer feature for mobile/web apps. If a parking area is a
few kilometres long, an integrated AR navigation may help drivers not
to get lost looking for own car.
All the features mentioned above are not the limit of the technology.
The more technology innovations we implement, the more features we
can add. For most cities, smart parking is still evolving technology.
Only by implementing new ideas can we make smart solutions like
these available and use them to improve our everyday life.

More Related Content

What's hot

RFID based car PARKING SYSTEM
RFID based car PARKING SYSTEMRFID based car PARKING SYSTEM
RFID based car PARKING SYSTEMKunal Kabra
 
Smart parking reservation system using SMS
Smart parking reservation system using SMSSmart parking reservation system using SMS
Smart parking reservation system using SMSJithin Prasad
 
Smart car parking system
Smart car parking systemSmart car parking system
Smart car parking systemAmit Shukla
 
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoTIRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoTIRJET Journal
 
IOT Based Smart Parking and Damage Detection Using RFID
IOT Based Smart Parking and Damage Detection Using RFIDIOT Based Smart Parking and Damage Detection Using RFID
IOT Based Smart Parking and Damage Detection Using RFIDMaheshMoses
 
Smart parking system using IOT
Smart parking system using IOTSmart parking system using IOT
Smart parking system using IOTUdit Deo
 
Smart parking system
Smart parking systemSmart parking system
Smart parking systemslmnsvn
 
smart parking system
smart parking system smart parking system
smart parking system Che Tna
 
IRJET-Smart Parking System
IRJET-Smart Parking SystemIRJET-Smart Parking System
IRJET-Smart Parking SystemIRJET Journal
 
Embedded based car parking system
Embedded based car parking systemEmbedded based car parking system
Embedded based car parking systempunitkumar Kulli
 
Internet of Things based smart campus - smart car parking
Internet of Things based smart campus - smart car parkingInternet of Things based smart campus - smart car parking
Internet of Things based smart campus - smart car parkingChandan Taluja
 
SPZ marketing brochure[1]
SPZ marketing brochure[1]SPZ marketing brochure[1]
SPZ marketing brochure[1]Paul Gillespie
 
A PROPOSED MODEL FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTE...
A PROPOSED MODEL FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTE...A PROPOSED MODEL FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTE...
A PROPOSED MODEL FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTE...csandit
 
THE SMART PARKING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
THE SMART PARKING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMTHE SMART PARKING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
THE SMART PARKING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMijcsit
 
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoTIRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoTIRJET Journal
 
Smart parking system
Smart parking systemSmart parking system
Smart parking systemslmnsvn
 
Smart parking system
Smart parking systemSmart parking system
Smart parking systemEditorIJAERD
 

What's hot (20)

RFID based car PARKING SYSTEM
RFID based car PARKING SYSTEMRFID based car PARKING SYSTEM
RFID based car PARKING SYSTEM
 
Smart parking reservation system using SMS
Smart parking reservation system using SMSSmart parking reservation system using SMS
Smart parking reservation system using SMS
 
Smart car parking system
Smart car parking systemSmart car parking system
Smart car parking system
 
Smart Parking
Smart Parking Smart Parking
Smart Parking
 
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoTIRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
 
IOT Based Smart Parking and Damage Detection Using RFID
IOT Based Smart Parking and Damage Detection Using RFIDIOT Based Smart Parking and Damage Detection Using RFID
IOT Based Smart Parking and Damage Detection Using RFID
 
Smart parking system using IOT
Smart parking system using IOTSmart parking system using IOT
Smart parking system using IOT
 
Smart parking system
Smart parking systemSmart parking system
Smart parking system
 
smart parking system
smart parking system smart parking system
smart parking system
 
IRJET-Smart Parking System
IRJET-Smart Parking SystemIRJET-Smart Parking System
IRJET-Smart Parking System
 
Smart Parking System
Smart Parking SystemSmart Parking System
Smart Parking System
 
Embedded based car parking system
Embedded based car parking systemEmbedded based car parking system
Embedded based car parking system
 
Internet of Things based smart campus - smart car parking
Internet of Things based smart campus - smart car parkingInternet of Things based smart campus - smart car parking
Internet of Things based smart campus - smart car parking
 
SPZ marketing brochure[1]
SPZ marketing brochure[1]SPZ marketing brochure[1]
SPZ marketing brochure[1]
 
A PROPOSED MODEL FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTE...
A PROPOSED MODEL FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTE...A PROPOSED MODEL FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTE...
A PROPOSED MODEL FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION USING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTE...
 
THE SMART PARKING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
THE SMART PARKING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMTHE SMART PARKING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
THE SMART PARKING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
 
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoTIRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
IRJET- Smart Parking System using IoT
 
Smart IoT Device for Vehicle Theft
Smart IoT Device for Vehicle TheftSmart IoT Device for Vehicle Theft
Smart IoT Device for Vehicle Theft
 
Smart parking system
Smart parking systemSmart parking system
Smart parking system
 
Smart parking system
Smart parking systemSmart parking system
Smart parking system
 

Similar to Living in cities can be troubling

Automatic Free Parking Slot Status Intimating System
Automatic Free Parking Slot Status Intimating SystemAutomatic Free Parking Slot Status Intimating System
Automatic Free Parking Slot Status Intimating SystemIRJET Journal
 
Smart Car Parking System
Smart Car Parking SystemSmart Car Parking System
Smart Car Parking SystemIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Car Obstacle Detection and Pollution Level Tracing using Node MCU
IRJET- Car Obstacle Detection and Pollution Level Tracing using Node MCUIRJET- Car Obstacle Detection and Pollution Level Tracing using Node MCU
IRJET- Car Obstacle Detection and Pollution Level Tracing using Node MCUIRJET Journal
 
A Smart Approach for Traffic Management
A Smart Approach for Traffic Management	A Smart Approach for Traffic Management
A Smart Approach for Traffic Management journal ijrtem
 
Design of intelligent transport related issue system based on arm7
Design of intelligent transport related issue system based on arm7Design of intelligent transport related issue system based on arm7
Design of intelligent transport related issue system based on arm7eSAT Journals
 
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphoneAutomatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphonetheijes
 
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphoneAutomatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphonetheijes
 
IRJET- Emergency Vehicle Pre-Emption using Smart City Concept
IRJET- Emergency Vehicle Pre-Emption using Smart City ConceptIRJET- Emergency Vehicle Pre-Emption using Smart City Concept
IRJET- Emergency Vehicle Pre-Emption using Smart City ConceptIRJET Journal
 
Design of intelligent transport related issue system
Design of intelligent transport related issue systemDesign of intelligent transport related issue system
Design of intelligent transport related issue systemeSAT Publishing House
 
IRJET- Vehicle Monitoring System using Internet of Things
IRJET- Vehicle Monitoring System using Internet of ThingsIRJET- Vehicle Monitoring System using Internet of Things
IRJET- Vehicle Monitoring System using Internet of ThingsIRJET Journal
 
Smart Parking system .pptx
Smart Parking system .pptxSmart Parking system .pptx
Smart Parking system .pptxSantoshKajrekar
 
Tugas Paper Teknik Penulisan Karya Ilmiah
Tugas Paper Teknik Penulisan Karya IlmiahTugas Paper Teknik Penulisan Karya Ilmiah
Tugas Paper Teknik Penulisan Karya IlmiahSyahditaLika
 
IRJET- Intelligent Car Parking System commanded by Android Application
IRJET- Intelligent Car Parking System commanded by Android ApplicationIRJET- Intelligent Car Parking System commanded by Android Application
IRJET- Intelligent Car Parking System commanded by Android ApplicationIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- IoT based Accident Tracking and Reporting
IRJET- IoT based Accident Tracking and ReportingIRJET- IoT based Accident Tracking and Reporting
IRJET- IoT based Accident Tracking and ReportingIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Smart Bus Transportation System
IRJET- Smart Bus Transportation SystemIRJET- Smart Bus Transportation System
IRJET- Smart Bus Transportation SystemIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Automatic Insurance Telematics for Four Wheelers
IRJET-  	  Automatic Insurance Telematics for Four WheelersIRJET-  	  Automatic Insurance Telematics for Four Wheelers
IRJET- Automatic Insurance Telematics for Four WheelersIRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Automatic Gate Crossing and IoT based Train Track Crack Detection Syst...
IRJET- Automatic Gate Crossing and IoT based Train Track Crack Detection Syst...IRJET- Automatic Gate Crossing and IoT based Train Track Crack Detection Syst...
IRJET- Automatic Gate Crossing and IoT based Train Track Crack Detection Syst...IRJET Journal
 
IRJET- Automatic Gate Control and Parking System using AVR Controller
IRJET- Automatic Gate Control and Parking System using AVR ControllerIRJET- Automatic Gate Control and Parking System using AVR Controller
IRJET- Automatic Gate Control and Parking System using AVR ControllerIRJET Journal
 

Similar to Living in cities can be troubling (20)

Automatic Free Parking Slot Status Intimating System
Automatic Free Parking Slot Status Intimating SystemAutomatic Free Parking Slot Status Intimating System
Automatic Free Parking Slot Status Intimating System
 
MIU car parking.pptx
MIU car parking.pptxMIU car parking.pptx
MIU car parking.pptx
 
Smart Car Parking System
Smart Car Parking SystemSmart Car Parking System
Smart Car Parking System
 
IRJET- Car Obstacle Detection and Pollution Level Tracing using Node MCU
IRJET- Car Obstacle Detection and Pollution Level Tracing using Node MCUIRJET- Car Obstacle Detection and Pollution Level Tracing using Node MCU
IRJET- Car Obstacle Detection and Pollution Level Tracing using Node MCU
 
A Smart Approach for Traffic Management
A Smart Approach for Traffic Management	A Smart Approach for Traffic Management
A Smart Approach for Traffic Management
 
Design of intelligent transport related issue system based on arm7
Design of intelligent transport related issue system based on arm7Design of intelligent transport related issue system based on arm7
Design of intelligent transport related issue system based on arm7
 
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphoneAutomatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
 
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphoneAutomatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
Automatic Park and retrieve assissted systems for automobiles using smartphone
 
A1103040106
A1103040106A1103040106
A1103040106
 
IRJET- Emergency Vehicle Pre-Emption using Smart City Concept
IRJET- Emergency Vehicle Pre-Emption using Smart City ConceptIRJET- Emergency Vehicle Pre-Emption using Smart City Concept
IRJET- Emergency Vehicle Pre-Emption using Smart City Concept
 
Design of intelligent transport related issue system
Design of intelligent transport related issue systemDesign of intelligent transport related issue system
Design of intelligent transport related issue system
 
IRJET- Vehicle Monitoring System using Internet of Things
IRJET- Vehicle Monitoring System using Internet of ThingsIRJET- Vehicle Monitoring System using Internet of Things
IRJET- Vehicle Monitoring System using Internet of Things
 
Smart Parking system .pptx
Smart Parking system .pptxSmart Parking system .pptx
Smart Parking system .pptx
 
Tugas Paper Teknik Penulisan Karya Ilmiah
Tugas Paper Teknik Penulisan Karya IlmiahTugas Paper Teknik Penulisan Karya Ilmiah
Tugas Paper Teknik Penulisan Karya Ilmiah
 
IRJET- Intelligent Car Parking System commanded by Android Application
IRJET- Intelligent Car Parking System commanded by Android ApplicationIRJET- Intelligent Car Parking System commanded by Android Application
IRJET- Intelligent Car Parking System commanded by Android Application
 
IRJET- IoT based Accident Tracking and Reporting
IRJET- IoT based Accident Tracking and ReportingIRJET- IoT based Accident Tracking and Reporting
IRJET- IoT based Accident Tracking and Reporting
 
IRJET- Smart Bus Transportation System
IRJET- Smart Bus Transportation SystemIRJET- Smart Bus Transportation System
IRJET- Smart Bus Transportation System
 
IRJET- Automatic Insurance Telematics for Four Wheelers
IRJET-  	  Automatic Insurance Telematics for Four WheelersIRJET-  	  Automatic Insurance Telematics for Four Wheelers
IRJET- Automatic Insurance Telematics for Four Wheelers
 
IRJET- Automatic Gate Crossing and IoT based Train Track Crack Detection Syst...
IRJET- Automatic Gate Crossing and IoT based Train Track Crack Detection Syst...IRJET- Automatic Gate Crossing and IoT based Train Track Crack Detection Syst...
IRJET- Automatic Gate Crossing and IoT based Train Track Crack Detection Syst...
 
IRJET- Automatic Gate Control and Parking System using AVR Controller
IRJET- Automatic Gate Control and Parking System using AVR ControllerIRJET- Automatic Gate Control and Parking System using AVR Controller
IRJET- Automatic Gate Control and Parking System using AVR Controller
 

More from SubhashKumar329

Dbms (www.gate2016.info)
Dbms (www.gate2016.info)Dbms (www.gate2016.info)
Dbms (www.gate2016.info)SubhashKumar329
 
Understanding blockchaintechnology
Understanding blockchaintechnology Understanding blockchaintechnology
Understanding blockchaintechnology SubhashKumar329
 
Operation systems (www.gate2016.info)
Operation systems (www.gate2016.info)Operation systems (www.gate2016.info)
Operation systems (www.gate2016.info)SubhashKumar329
 
Graph theory (www.gate2016.info)
Graph theory (www.gate2016.info)Graph theory (www.gate2016.info)
Graph theory (www.gate2016.info)SubhashKumar329
 
Digital logic (www.gate2016.info)
Digital logic (www.gate2016.info)Digital logic (www.gate2016.info)
Digital logic (www.gate2016.info)SubhashKumar329
 
Understanding blockchaintechnology
Understanding blockchaintechnologyUnderstanding blockchaintechnology
Understanding blockchaintechnologySubhashKumar329
 
Java programming language
Java programming languageJava programming language
Java programming languageSubhashKumar329
 

More from SubhashKumar329 (9)

Dbms (www.gate2016.info)
Dbms (www.gate2016.info)Dbms (www.gate2016.info)
Dbms (www.gate2016.info)
 
Understanding blockchaintechnology
Understanding blockchaintechnology Understanding blockchaintechnology
Understanding blockchaintechnology
 
Operation systems (www.gate2016.info)
Operation systems (www.gate2016.info)Operation systems (www.gate2016.info)
Operation systems (www.gate2016.info)
 
Graph theory (www.gate2016.info)
Graph theory (www.gate2016.info)Graph theory (www.gate2016.info)
Graph theory (www.gate2016.info)
 
Digital logic (www.gate2016.info)
Digital logic (www.gate2016.info)Digital logic (www.gate2016.info)
Digital logic (www.gate2016.info)
 
Understanding blockchaintechnology
Understanding blockchaintechnologyUnderstanding blockchaintechnology
Understanding blockchaintechnology
 
java
javajava
java
 
Java programming language
Java programming languageJava programming language
Java programming language
 
Blockchain technology
Blockchain technologyBlockchain technology
Blockchain technology
 

Recently uploaded

12 Week Weight Loss Planner to help with planning weight loss
12 Week Weight Loss Planner to help with planning weight loss12 Week Weight Loss Planner to help with planning weight loss
12 Week Weight Loss Planner to help with planning weight lossSimpleMoneyMaker
 
Call In girls Delhi Safdarjung Enclave/WhatsApp 🔝 97111⇛⇛47426
Call In girls Delhi Safdarjung Enclave/WhatsApp 🔝  97111⇛⇛47426Call In girls Delhi Safdarjung Enclave/WhatsApp 🔝  97111⇛⇛47426
Call In girls Delhi Safdarjung Enclave/WhatsApp 🔝 97111⇛⇛47426jennyeacort
 
Living in the Light_ A guide to personal transformation ( PDFDrive ).pdf
Living in the Light_ A guide to personal transformation ( PDFDrive ).pdfLiving in the Light_ A guide to personal transformation ( PDFDrive ).pdf
Living in the Light_ A guide to personal transformation ( PDFDrive ).pdfkalpana413121
 
Dry and cracked heels foot cream in India
Dry and cracked heels foot cream in IndiaDry and cracked heels foot cream in India
Dry and cracked heels foot cream in IndiaUniqaya Lifestyle
 
Uttoxeter & Cheadle Voice, Issue 122.pdf
Uttoxeter & Cheadle Voice, Issue 122.pdfUttoxeter & Cheadle Voice, Issue 122.pdf
Uttoxeter & Cheadle Voice, Issue 122.pdfNoel Sergeant
 
Masjid Ishaq The Mosque of Babo Dehri Swabi
Masjid Ishaq The Mosque of Babo Dehri SwabiMasjid Ishaq The Mosque of Babo Dehri Swabi
Masjid Ishaq The Mosque of Babo Dehri SwabiAlhamdulillah 33
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS
FUNDAMENTALS OF ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNISFUNDAMENTALS OF ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS
FUNDAMENTALS OF ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNISe98298697
 
Love and Hate: Unveiling the Strongest Emotion
Love and Hate: Unveiling the Strongest EmotionLove and Hate: Unveiling the Strongest Emotion
Love and Hate: Unveiling the Strongest EmotionbluetroyvictorVinay
 
Group Discussion and panel Discussion
Group Discussion  and   panel DiscussionGroup Discussion  and   panel Discussion
Group Discussion and panel DiscussionAbdulGhaffarGhori
 
《QUT毕业文凭网-认证昆士兰科技大学毕业证成绩单》
《QUT毕业文凭网-认证昆士兰科技大学毕业证成绩单》《QUT毕业文凭网-认证昆士兰科技大学毕业证成绩单》
《QUT毕业文凭网-认证昆士兰科技大学毕业证成绩单》rnrncn29
 

Recently uploaded (10)

12 Week Weight Loss Planner to help with planning weight loss
12 Week Weight Loss Planner to help with planning weight loss12 Week Weight Loss Planner to help with planning weight loss
12 Week Weight Loss Planner to help with planning weight loss
 
Call In girls Delhi Safdarjung Enclave/WhatsApp 🔝 97111⇛⇛47426
Call In girls Delhi Safdarjung Enclave/WhatsApp 🔝  97111⇛⇛47426Call In girls Delhi Safdarjung Enclave/WhatsApp 🔝  97111⇛⇛47426
Call In girls Delhi Safdarjung Enclave/WhatsApp 🔝 97111⇛⇛47426
 
Living in the Light_ A guide to personal transformation ( PDFDrive ).pdf
Living in the Light_ A guide to personal transformation ( PDFDrive ).pdfLiving in the Light_ A guide to personal transformation ( PDFDrive ).pdf
Living in the Light_ A guide to personal transformation ( PDFDrive ).pdf
 
Dry and cracked heels foot cream in India
Dry and cracked heels foot cream in IndiaDry and cracked heels foot cream in India
Dry and cracked heels foot cream in India
 
Uttoxeter & Cheadle Voice, Issue 122.pdf
Uttoxeter & Cheadle Voice, Issue 122.pdfUttoxeter & Cheadle Voice, Issue 122.pdf
Uttoxeter & Cheadle Voice, Issue 122.pdf
 
Masjid Ishaq The Mosque of Babo Dehri Swabi
Masjid Ishaq The Mosque of Babo Dehri SwabiMasjid Ishaq The Mosque of Babo Dehri Swabi
Masjid Ishaq The Mosque of Babo Dehri Swabi
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS
FUNDAMENTALS OF ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNISFUNDAMENTALS OF ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS
FUNDAMENTALS OF ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS ARNIS
 
Love and Hate: Unveiling the Strongest Emotion
Love and Hate: Unveiling the Strongest EmotionLove and Hate: Unveiling the Strongest Emotion
Love and Hate: Unveiling the Strongest Emotion
 
Group Discussion and panel Discussion
Group Discussion  and   panel DiscussionGroup Discussion  and   panel Discussion
Group Discussion and panel Discussion
 
《QUT毕业文凭网-认证昆士兰科技大学毕业证成绩单》
《QUT毕业文凭网-认证昆士兰科技大学毕业证成绩单》《QUT毕业文凭网-认证昆士兰科技大学毕业证成绩单》
《QUT毕业文凭网-认证昆士兰科技大学毕业证成绩单》
 

Living in cities can be troubling

  • 1. Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03 (18btcse009) Living in cities can be troubling. Urbanization is always expanding, and traffic in cities is becoming heavier every day. The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) predicts that all of the increase to the world’s population will live in urban areas. This increase is predicted to be as much as 68% by 2050. The population growth is not only a pressing issue for the government but a tangible daily reality for most citizens. Smart parking development implies an IoT-based system that sends data about free and occupied parking places via web/mobile application. The IoT-device, including sensors and microcontrollers, is located in each parking place. The user receives a live update about the availability of all parking places and chooses the best one. The main idea was the creation of smart parking using the Internet of Things and ultrasonic sensors, where available parking places could be displayed in a web application. Used IoT ecosystem: Hardware: ESP8266 microcontroller, HC-SR04 distance measurement sensor Network: MQTT protocol Cloud & Analytics: Amazon Web Services: AWS IoT, AWS Lambda Used Programming Languages: Micro-Python, Python, JavaScript
  • 2. Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03 (18btcse009) User Interface: JavaScript-based web application. The IoT device consists of an ESP8266 microcontroller and an HC-SR04 distance measurement sensor. The sensor periodically measures the distance and transmits this data to the microcontroller, which is connected to AWS IoT service via the MQTT protocol. Periodically, the device sends measurements to the cloud where they are stored in AWS IoT shadow as a sensor state. A sensor detects a parked car by measuring the distance to the nearest obstacle—in our case, to the bottom of the car. The state can be “occupied” if the distance is in the range of 100mm – 500mm, “free” if the distance is more than 500mm and “dirty” if the distance is less than 100mm, which means that the sensor may be unclean. All of these values can be easily configured. These values represent both free and occupied parking lots. In our case, if the sensor detects nothing up to 50 cm, the status is set to “free” and is shown to the user. The “occupied” range is between 10 and 50 cm.
  • 3. Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03 (18btcse009) Below 10 cm, the status is “dirty”. It means the sensor might be covered with mud or an obstacle, and requires checking. When a driver accesses the system via web application, a signal is sent to the Lambda function. It reads the sensor state values from AWS IoT shadow and displays parking spaces depending on the state. Green colour – free space, red colour – occupied space, yellow colour – pollution. For now, this particular solution may be used for MVP and POC (proof of concept). The building of a full-fledged IoT based smart parking system will be different. Hardware, software and firmware selection will depend on the size of the specific parking area and the number of parking slots. Mobile and/or web application features also play a big role in the IoT system architecture. If business requirements show demand for a smart parking development, a more advanced application might be created. All the hardware should always be selected by the IoT specialist. Depending on the IoT system architecture, developers will select the most suitable hardware. In some cases, it’s better to use gateway and LPWAN for IoT sensors, for others it may not be. The improvement of smart parking system depends on business needs. Taking into account retail and healthcare technology trends, smart parking might take priority. Returning to our smart parking solution, the main features that might be improved are: LoRaWAN protocol will increase the autonomous operating time of a smart parking system. Due to LoRa Alliance’s specification, the LoRaWAN protocol is optimized for low power consumption, which means that you don’t need to change batteries more often than once every 2-5 years. Furthermore, it is designed to scale from a single gateway
  • 4. Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03 (18btcse009) installation up to large global networks with billions of devices. Thus, it would be a good idea to apply this or any LPWAN protocol for a smart park. Data Science and Computer Vision technologies based on video stream are also a perfect match for IoT-based innovations. On the subject of smart parking development, Data Science, Machine Learning and Computer Vision might be applied for car number recognition. This feature allows:  Automatic gate opening, if the car belongs to a given park  Navigation of cars to available and suitable parking slots Sensor integration is also a good upgrade for smart parking systems. The most applicable are: 1. Ultrasonic sensors Ultrasonic sensors measure distance by using ultrasonic waves in time between the emission and reception. Advantages: high accuracy of the sensor. The disadvantages: the probability of sensor contamination. 2. Electromagnetic field sensors Electromagnetic field sensor is a small-scale microelectromechanical system device for detecting and measuring magnetic fields. The solution is based on the change of the electromagnetic field as the metal mechanisms approach one another. 3. Infrared sensors (IR sensor) An infrared sensor is an electronic device that emits in order to sense some aspect of its surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of
  • 5. Subhash kumar ASSIGNMENT-03 (18btcse009) an object as well as detect motion. An IR sensor works in a similar way to ultrasonic sensors. Custom mobile and web IoT applications might be developed depending on business needs. The function of a parking slot order may be a killer feature for mobile/web apps. If a parking area is a few kilometres long, an integrated AR navigation may help drivers not to get lost looking for own car. All the features mentioned above are not the limit of the technology. The more technology innovations we implement, the more features we can add. For most cities, smart parking is still evolving technology. Only by implementing new ideas can we make smart solutions like these available and use them to improve our everyday life.