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USE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF OECD 
GUIDELINES ON MEASURING SWB 
Marco Mira d’Ercole 
Head of Division, Household Statistics and Progress 
Measurement, OECD Statistics Directorate 
High Level Expert Group on the Measurement of Economic 
Performance and Social Progress 
Workshop on Multidimensional Subjective Well-being 
30-31 October 2014, Turin
Goals of the OECD Guidelines on SWB 
2 
• Improve the quality of measures collected by national statistical 
offices by providing best practice in terms of question wording and 
survey design. 
• Improve the usefulness of data collected by setting out guidelines on 
the appropriate frequency, survey vehicles and co-variates when 
collecting subjective well-being data. 
• Improve the international comparability of SWB measures by 
establishing common concepts, classifications and methods that 
national statistical agencies could use. 
• Provide early guidance on the reporting and use of SWB measures
Good-practice guidance and prototype 
question modules 
•Intended to be used as a common baseline for 
all countries 
•Covers all dimensions in a minimal way 
The only questions we encourage all countries 
to use 
•Modules B, C, D, and E are not intended to be 
used in full, or in all surveys 
•Intended as a resource for countries to develop 
their own questionaires 
•Two options are included for collecting 
experienced well-being 
•Encouraged for inclusion in all Time Use 
Surveys 
Six question modules 
A: Core 
B: Life evaluation 
C: Affect 
D: Eudaimonia 
E: Domain evaluation 
F: Experienced 
well-being 
3 
 But the Guidelines contain much more than just the question modules!
NSO data collections 
4 
EU-SILC coverage 
(2013 ad-hoc module; life sat, 
affect and eudaimonia – freq. 
tbc.) 
European countries with 
additional collections 
Other OECD countries with 
SWB measurement initiatives 
OECD countries 
with no current 
NSO data 
collection 
OECD 
countries 
(25): 
Austria 
Belgium 
Czech Republic 
Denmark 
Germany 
Estonia 
Finland 
Greece 
Ireland 
Spain 
France 
Iceland 
Italy 
Luxembourg 
Hungary 
Netherlands 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Slovenia 
Slovakia 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Turkey 
UK 
Non-OECD 
countries 
(7): 
Bulgaria 
Croatia 
Cyprus 
FYROM 
Latvia 
Lithuania 
Malta 
• Austria (life sat, 2004- 
2012) 
• France (life sat*, in 2011; 
affect in 2010 time-use 
survey; freq. tbc.) 
• Italy (life sat*, from 2012, 
yearly) 
• Netherlands (life sat and 
happiness, from 1974) 
• Poland (life sat, in 2011; 
freq. tbc.) 
• UK (life sat*, affect* and 
eudaimonia*, from 2011, 
yearly) 
• Australia (life sat**, from 2016; 
every 4 years) 
• Canada (life sat*, from 1985; 
yearly) 
• Israel (life sat, from 2006; life 
sat*, affect* and eudaimonia* 
from 2013, yearly) 
• Korea (life sat*, affect* and 
eudaimonia*, from 2013, yearly) 
• Mexico (life sat* and affect, in 
2012, freq, tbc.) 
• New Zealand (life sat** and 
eudaimonia**, from 2014, every 2 
years) 
• United States (affect and 
experienced eudaimonia in 2011 
time-use survey; freq. tbc.) 
• Chile 
• Japan 
*Questions broadly in line with Guidelines; **Questions planned to be in line with Guidelines
Interest in OECD SWB Guidelines 
extends beyond NSOs 
5 
• OECD chapters in the World Happiness Report and the Legatum 
Commission on Wellbeing and Policy 
• WHO-Europe Health 2020 Strategy: OECD is contributing to expert 
group on measurement and target-setting for well-being 
• Japanese Cabinet Office: Economic and Social Research Institute 
• Chinese Academy of Social Sciences: Measuring rural well-being 
• Imagina México: ranking of happiness in 100 municipalities 
• Education initiatives (e.g. OECD PISA testing; non-cognitive skills) 
• PRé Sustainability consulting: measuring social impact 
• World Bank (Survey of Well-being via Instant and Frequent Tracking)
OECD International workshops on 
measuring and using SWB 
To promote awareness and uptake of the Guidelines, and 
discuss open issues/ next steps… 
• Americas workshop (New York, September 2013) 
• European workshop (Paris, June 2014) 
• Asia-Pacific workshop (Korea, forthcoming 2015) 
 Combination of NSOs, community measurement 
initiatives, think tanks, commercial organisations, and 
government officials 
 Generated some useful feedback… 
6
Feedback so far (1) 
• Interest at community/sub-national measurement level – 
does the same advice apply, or do we need more context-specific 
guidance? 
• Challenges reporting SWB, esp. for non-experts (e.g. 
thresholds vs. means; understanding if year-on-year 
differences are meaningful) 
• Translation raised repeatedly - how can NSOs get better info/ 
share findings on this? 
• Several NSOs are doing methodological testing work (ONS, 
Netherlands, Poland) – can we showcase? 
7
Feedback so far (2) 
• Strong demand for domain-specific evaluations (e.g. 
satisfaction with public services; political system; 
neighbourhood…) but relatively little theory/ empirical work 
to guide this 
• Continuing communication challenges: SWB often described 
as “well-being”, but also frequently confused with any kind of 
self-report data 
• Can lessons from SWB be applied to other areas of self-report? 
(e.g. measurement of job quality, social connections, 
trust, etc.) 
• Causal pathways are complex, making policy implications 
challenging to draw out (especially from cross-sectional 
household surveys) 
8

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HLEG thematic workshop on "Multidimensional Subjective Well-being", Marco Mira d'Ercole

  • 1. USE AND IMPLEMENTATION OF OECD GUIDELINES ON MEASURING SWB Marco Mira d’Ercole Head of Division, Household Statistics and Progress Measurement, OECD Statistics Directorate High Level Expert Group on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress Workshop on Multidimensional Subjective Well-being 30-31 October 2014, Turin
  • 2. Goals of the OECD Guidelines on SWB 2 • Improve the quality of measures collected by national statistical offices by providing best practice in terms of question wording and survey design. • Improve the usefulness of data collected by setting out guidelines on the appropriate frequency, survey vehicles and co-variates when collecting subjective well-being data. • Improve the international comparability of SWB measures by establishing common concepts, classifications and methods that national statistical agencies could use. • Provide early guidance on the reporting and use of SWB measures
  • 3. Good-practice guidance and prototype question modules •Intended to be used as a common baseline for all countries •Covers all dimensions in a minimal way The only questions we encourage all countries to use •Modules B, C, D, and E are not intended to be used in full, or in all surveys •Intended as a resource for countries to develop their own questionaires •Two options are included for collecting experienced well-being •Encouraged for inclusion in all Time Use Surveys Six question modules A: Core B: Life evaluation C: Affect D: Eudaimonia E: Domain evaluation F: Experienced well-being 3  But the Guidelines contain much more than just the question modules!
  • 4. NSO data collections 4 EU-SILC coverage (2013 ad-hoc module; life sat, affect and eudaimonia – freq. tbc.) European countries with additional collections Other OECD countries with SWB measurement initiatives OECD countries with no current NSO data collection OECD countries (25): Austria Belgium Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Finland Greece Ireland Spain France Iceland Italy Luxembourg Hungary Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Slovenia Slovakia Sweden Switzerland Turkey UK Non-OECD countries (7): Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus FYROM Latvia Lithuania Malta • Austria (life sat, 2004- 2012) • France (life sat*, in 2011; affect in 2010 time-use survey; freq. tbc.) • Italy (life sat*, from 2012, yearly) • Netherlands (life sat and happiness, from 1974) • Poland (life sat, in 2011; freq. tbc.) • UK (life sat*, affect* and eudaimonia*, from 2011, yearly) • Australia (life sat**, from 2016; every 4 years) • Canada (life sat*, from 1985; yearly) • Israel (life sat, from 2006; life sat*, affect* and eudaimonia* from 2013, yearly) • Korea (life sat*, affect* and eudaimonia*, from 2013, yearly) • Mexico (life sat* and affect, in 2012, freq, tbc.) • New Zealand (life sat** and eudaimonia**, from 2014, every 2 years) • United States (affect and experienced eudaimonia in 2011 time-use survey; freq. tbc.) • Chile • Japan *Questions broadly in line with Guidelines; **Questions planned to be in line with Guidelines
  • 5. Interest in OECD SWB Guidelines extends beyond NSOs 5 • OECD chapters in the World Happiness Report and the Legatum Commission on Wellbeing and Policy • WHO-Europe Health 2020 Strategy: OECD is contributing to expert group on measurement and target-setting for well-being • Japanese Cabinet Office: Economic and Social Research Institute • Chinese Academy of Social Sciences: Measuring rural well-being • Imagina México: ranking of happiness in 100 municipalities • Education initiatives (e.g. OECD PISA testing; non-cognitive skills) • PRé Sustainability consulting: measuring social impact • World Bank (Survey of Well-being via Instant and Frequent Tracking)
  • 6. OECD International workshops on measuring and using SWB To promote awareness and uptake of the Guidelines, and discuss open issues/ next steps… • Americas workshop (New York, September 2013) • European workshop (Paris, June 2014) • Asia-Pacific workshop (Korea, forthcoming 2015)  Combination of NSOs, community measurement initiatives, think tanks, commercial organisations, and government officials  Generated some useful feedback… 6
  • 7. Feedback so far (1) • Interest at community/sub-national measurement level – does the same advice apply, or do we need more context-specific guidance? • Challenges reporting SWB, esp. for non-experts (e.g. thresholds vs. means; understanding if year-on-year differences are meaningful) • Translation raised repeatedly - how can NSOs get better info/ share findings on this? • Several NSOs are doing methodological testing work (ONS, Netherlands, Poland) – can we showcase? 7
  • 8. Feedback so far (2) • Strong demand for domain-specific evaluations (e.g. satisfaction with public services; political system; neighbourhood…) but relatively little theory/ empirical work to guide this • Continuing communication challenges: SWB often described as “well-being”, but also frequently confused with any kind of self-report data • Can lessons from SWB be applied to other areas of self-report? (e.g. measurement of job quality, social connections, trust, etc.) • Causal pathways are complex, making policy implications challenging to draw out (especially from cross-sectional household surveys) 8