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Wellbeing measures
in the HBSC
Professor Oddrun Samdal, University of Bergen,
HBSC Data Manager and new International Coordinator
OECD Conference on measure development of wellbeing in adolescents, 4th March 2024
1983
2021 Russian Federation
suspended April 2022
Aimsof the study
Raise awareness
of adolescent
health
Advance scientific
knowledge
Gather cross-
nationally
comparative data
Build international
network and
research capacity
Encourage use of
data in policy and
practice
Collaborate with
key partners with
advocacy role
HBSCoverview:WHO
collaborativeproject.
Studyingadolescent
healthsince1983/1984.
Samplingstrategy:
Clustersampling,
assessingcirca1500
studentseachfromage
groups11,13,and15.
Globalreach:
51countriesandregions,
andover450network
members.
Recentparticipation:
The2021/2022survey
included279,117young
participants.
Standardmethods:
School-basedsurveys
andaconsistent
researchprotocol.
Aboutthe survey
1998 - 2022
Well-being among adolescents
• Many dimensions of well-being in this age group
• Young people’s feelings about their health and about
their lives
• Expressed in their behaviour and lifestyles
• Influenced by their life circumstances
Growing up in a changing world
● Globalisation
● Urbanisation
● Rapid technological development
● Invention of the smartphone (1992) and introduction of the iphone (2007)
● War & mass displacement
● Migration
● Global financial crisis 2007/08
● Climate crisis
● Global pandemic(s)
● Energy crisis
Adolescents’ life satisfaction (hedonic)
is one dimension of well-being
Key findings 2022
AlinaCosma
HBSC,(co)ChairofMentalHealthandWellbeingFocusGroup
TrinityCollegeDublin,Ireland
VOLUME1AFOCUSONADOLESCENTMENTALHEALTHANDWELL-BEINGIN EUROPE,CENTRALASIAANDCANADA
HEALTHBEHAVIOURINSCHOOL-AGEDCHILDREN(HBSC)INTERNATIONALREPORTFROMTHE2021/2022SURVEY
Mental
well-being
Life satisfaction
WHO-5 Well-being Index
Cantril’s ladder
Life satisfaction
Cantril, H. (1965). The pattern of human
concern. Rutgers University Press.
Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder “10” is the best possible life for
you and the bottom “0” is the worst possible life for you. In general, where on the
ladder do you feel you stand at the moment?
Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand.
10 Best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 Worst possible life
WHO5 WELLBEING
INDEX
Please indicate for each of the five statements which is closest to how you
have been feeling over the last two weeks.
Over the last two weeks…
All the
time
Most of
the time
More
than
half of
the time
Less
than
half of
the time
Some of
the time
At no
time
I have felt
cheerful and
in good spirits
5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢
I have felt
calm and
relaxed
5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢
I have felt
active and
vigorous
5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢
I woke up
feeling fresh
and rested
5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢
My daily life
has been
filled with
things that
interest me
5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢
Lifesatisfactionisdeclining
Withgirlsreportingworseoutcomescomparedtoboys
8.2
7.8
7.5
7
7.1
6.7
2018 2022
Life
satisfaction
(mean
score)
11-year-olds
13-year-olds
15-year-olds
8.2 8.1
7.9 7.7
7.6 7.4
2018 2022
11-year-olds
13-year-olds
15-year-olds
Norwegian 15-year-olds with high life satisfaction
Boys Girls
Multiple
health
complaints
Health
complaints,
HBSC-HCL
In the last 6 months: how often have you had the following….?
Please tick one box for each line.
About every
day
More than
once a week
About every
week
About every
month
Rarely or never
Headache 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
Stomachache 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
Backache 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
Feeling low 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
Irritability or bad
temper
1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
Feeling nervous
1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
Difficulties in
getting to sleep
1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
Feeling dizzy 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
Girlsreporthigherprevalenceofmultiplehealth
complaintscomparedto boys
For girls, the prevalence
increases with age in all
countries.
Age
31
33 36
42 58 66
11 13 15
Multiple health
complaints
Other wellbeing
measures used in the
HBSC
Mental Health Index -
KIDSCREEN
KIDSCREEN
PH1.1 Thinking about the last week …
Never
*(Not at all)
Seldom
*(Slightly)
Quite often
*(Moderately)
Very often
*(Very)
Always
*(Extremely)
1) Have you felt fit and well? *
2) Have you felt full of energy?
3) Have you felt sad?
4) Have you felt lonely?
5) Have you had enough time for yourself?
6) Have you been able to do the things that you want to do in your free time?
7) Have your parent(s) treated you fairly?
8) Have you had fun with your friends?
9) Have you got on well at school? *
10) Have you been able to pay attention?
Ravens-Sieberer, U. et al. (2005). KIDSCREEN-52 quality-of-life measure for children and adolescents.
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 5 (3), 353-364
Strength and
difficulty
questionnaire
SDQ
PH2.1. For each item please mark the box for not true, somewhat true or
certainly true. It would help us if you answer all items as best as you can even
if you are not absolutely certain or the item seems draft! Please give your
answers on the basis of how things have been for you over the last month
Not
true
Somewhat
true
Certainly
true
1) I am restless, I cannot stay still for long
2) I get a lot of headaches, stomach-aches or sickness
3) I get very angry and often lose my temper
4) I am usually on my own. I generally play alone or keep to myself
5) I usually do as I am told
6) I worry a lot
7) I am constantly fidgeting or squirming
8) I have one good friend or more
9) I fight a lot. I can make other people do what I want
10) I am often unhappy, down-hearted or tearful
11) Other people my age generally like me
12) I am easily distracted, I find it difficult to concentrate
13) I am nervous in new situations, I easily lose my confidence
14) I am often accused of lying or cheating
15) Other children or young people pick on me or bully me
16) I think before I do things
17) I take things that are not mine from home, school or elsewhere
18) I get on better with adults than with people my age
19) I have many fears, I am easily scared
20) I finish the work I’m doing. My attention is good
Very long and somewhat repetitive
of other measures HBSC uses
Marzocchi, GM, Capron, C., Di Pietro, M, Tauleria,
W., Duyme, M., Frigerio, A. et al (2004). The use of
the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)
in Southern European countries. European Child
and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(S2,) 40-46.
Conclusions and final comments
• Growing gender and age disparities in mental health and well-being
• Do the measures account adequately for boys’ wellbeing?
• Identify what are the key dimensions and adequate timeline of well-being to be
measured
• Measures to be included in adolescent health surveys cannot be too long
• HBSC is interested in developing, piloting, and using new adolescent wellbeing
measures

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Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf

  • 1. Wellbeing measures in the HBSC Professor Oddrun Samdal, University of Bergen, HBSC Data Manager and new International Coordinator OECD Conference on measure development of wellbeing in adolescents, 4th March 2024
  • 4. Aimsof the study Raise awareness of adolescent health Advance scientific knowledge Gather cross- nationally comparative data Build international network and research capacity Encourage use of data in policy and practice Collaborate with key partners with advocacy role
  • 7. Well-being among adolescents • Many dimensions of well-being in this age group • Young people’s feelings about their health and about their lives • Expressed in their behaviour and lifestyles • Influenced by their life circumstances
  • 8. Growing up in a changing world ● Globalisation ● Urbanisation ● Rapid technological development ● Invention of the smartphone (1992) and introduction of the iphone (2007) ● War & mass displacement ● Migration ● Global financial crisis 2007/08 ● Climate crisis ● Global pandemic(s) ● Energy crisis
  • 9. Adolescents’ life satisfaction (hedonic) is one dimension of well-being
  • 10. Key findings 2022 AlinaCosma HBSC,(co)ChairofMentalHealthandWellbeingFocusGroup TrinityCollegeDublin,Ireland VOLUME1AFOCUSONADOLESCENTMENTALHEALTHANDWELL-BEINGIN EUROPE,CENTRALASIAANDCANADA HEALTHBEHAVIOURINSCHOOL-AGEDCHILDREN(HBSC)INTERNATIONALREPORTFROMTHE2021/2022SURVEY
  • 12. Cantril’s ladder Life satisfaction Cantril, H. (1965). The pattern of human concern. Rutgers University Press. Here is a picture of a ladder. The top of the ladder “10” is the best possible life for you and the bottom “0” is the worst possible life for you. In general, where on the ladder do you feel you stand at the moment? Tick the box next to the number that best describes where you stand. 10 Best possible life 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Worst possible life
  • 13. WHO5 WELLBEING INDEX Please indicate for each of the five statements which is closest to how you have been feeling over the last two weeks. Over the last two weeks… All the time Most of the time More than half of the time Less than half of the time Some of the time At no time I have felt cheerful and in good spirits 5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢ I have felt calm and relaxed 5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢ I have felt active and vigorous 5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢ I woke up feeling fresh and rested 5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢ My daily life has been filled with things that interest me 5 ▢ 4 ▢ 3 ▢ 2 ▢ 1 ▢ 0 ▢
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 17. Norwegian 15-year-olds with high life satisfaction Boys Girls
  • 19. Health complaints, HBSC-HCL In the last 6 months: how often have you had the following….? Please tick one box for each line. About every day More than once a week About every week About every month Rarely or never Headache 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢ Stomachache 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢ Backache 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢ Feeling low 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢ Irritability or bad temper 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢ Feeling nervous 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢ Difficulties in getting to sleep 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢ Feeling dizzy 1 ▢ 2 ▢ 3 ▢ 4 ▢ 5 ▢
  • 20. Girlsreporthigherprevalenceofmultiplehealth complaintscomparedto boys For girls, the prevalence increases with age in all countries. Age 31 33 36 42 58 66 11 13 15 Multiple health complaints
  • 21.
  • 23. Mental Health Index - KIDSCREEN
  • 24. KIDSCREEN PH1.1 Thinking about the last week … Never *(Not at all) Seldom *(Slightly) Quite often *(Moderately) Very often *(Very) Always *(Extremely) 1) Have you felt fit and well? * 2) Have you felt full of energy? 3) Have you felt sad? 4) Have you felt lonely? 5) Have you had enough time for yourself? 6) Have you been able to do the things that you want to do in your free time? 7) Have your parent(s) treated you fairly? 8) Have you had fun with your friends? 9) Have you got on well at school? * 10) Have you been able to pay attention? Ravens-Sieberer, U. et al. (2005). KIDSCREEN-52 quality-of-life measure for children and adolescents. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 5 (3), 353-364
  • 26. SDQ PH2.1. For each item please mark the box for not true, somewhat true or certainly true. It would help us if you answer all items as best as you can even if you are not absolutely certain or the item seems draft! Please give your answers on the basis of how things have been for you over the last month Not true Somewhat true Certainly true 1) I am restless, I cannot stay still for long 2) I get a lot of headaches, stomach-aches or sickness 3) I get very angry and often lose my temper 4) I am usually on my own. I generally play alone or keep to myself 5) I usually do as I am told 6) I worry a lot 7) I am constantly fidgeting or squirming 8) I have one good friend or more 9) I fight a lot. I can make other people do what I want 10) I am often unhappy, down-hearted or tearful 11) Other people my age generally like me 12) I am easily distracted, I find it difficult to concentrate 13) I am nervous in new situations, I easily lose my confidence 14) I am often accused of lying or cheating 15) Other children or young people pick on me or bully me 16) I think before I do things 17) I take things that are not mine from home, school or elsewhere 18) I get on better with adults than with people my age 19) I have many fears, I am easily scared 20) I finish the work I’m doing. My attention is good Very long and somewhat repetitive of other measures HBSC uses Marzocchi, GM, Capron, C., Di Pietro, M, Tauleria, W., Duyme, M., Frigerio, A. et al (2004). The use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Southern European countries. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(S2,) 40-46.
  • 27. Conclusions and final comments • Growing gender and age disparities in mental health and well-being • Do the measures account adequately for boys’ wellbeing? • Identify what are the key dimensions and adequate timeline of well-being to be measured • Measures to be included in adolescent health surveys cannot be too long • HBSC is interested in developing, piloting, and using new adolescent wellbeing measures