SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Bringing Eudaimonia to
OECD Measures of
Subjective Well-Being
Carol D. Ryff
University of Wisconsin-Madison
OECD Center on Well-Being, Inclusion, Sustainability
and Equal Opportunity (WISE)
Paris, France, March 4, 2024
Plan
❖ How to define and measure eudaimonia
➢ Return to Aristotle + 20th century views
➢ Scale development & evaluation
➢ Distinguish eudaimonia from hedonia
❖Scientific findings on eudaimonia [MIDUS, HRS]
➢ Links to health (biomarkers, morbidity, mortality,
brain & genetic assessments)
➢ Links to growing inequality
❖Synergies: longitudinal cohort studies (LCS) & OECD
➢ LCS bring evidence for what matters
➢ OECD brings public policy focus
Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
Nichomachean Ethics
• Question: what is the highest of all human goods?
• Answer: happiness, but noted different meanings
“The general run of men say that happiness is some plain
and obvious thing, like pleasure, wealth or honor.”
Aristotle likened this to a life “suitable for beasts.”
• Instead, he defined happiness as:
activity of the soul in accord with virtue
Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
Nichomachean Ethics
• Next question: what is the highest virtue?
• Answer: eudaimonia – achieving the best that is within us
❖ personal excellence unique to one’s talents and
capacities, involves growth & self-realization
֍ virtuous personal becoming ֍
Ryff (1989) “Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning
of psychological well-being.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Reaching beyond
happiness and
life satisfaction
Autonomy:
marching to
one’s own
drummer
Kjeragbolten, Norway
Environmental Mastery:
managing your external world
Personal Growth: making the most of
your talents and capacities
Imagerie
Pellerin
d’Epinal
(19th
century)
Positive Relations with Others:
taking care of your social ties
Purpose in Life: finding meaning and
direction in your life
Self-Acceptance: recognizing and
accepting your strengths and weaknesses
Self-portrait by Kseniya
Beliaeva, woman artist
from Belarus
Theory-Guided Definitions
(construct-oriented approach)
Psychometric Progression
Writing items
80 items written for high/low scorer on each of
six dimensions (positively/negatively worded)
Culling item pools
Face validity checks by independent raters;
extensive checks of item-to-scale correlations
Reliability checks
Test-retest reliability; internal consistency
(alpha coefficients)
Validity checks
Convergent/discriminant validity;
confirmatory factor analyses
2021
● Eudaimonic & Hedonic Well-
Being (Ryff, Boylan, & Kirsch,
2021) – links to demographic
factors & health
● Debate about measurement
recommendations
➢problem of thin, poorly
validated measures
➢inadequate assessment tools
undermine science of well-
being
Eudaimonia Greets Hedonia
Empirically
➢ hedonic & eudaimonic measures
➢ related but distinct constructs
➢ different correlates/predictors
(age, education, personality)
Journal of Personality
& Social Psych, 2002
30+ Years After Ryff (1989)
40 languages & 1400+ pubs
Topical Areas
❑Psychometric Properties
❑Adult Development & Aging
❑Personality Correlates
❑Family Life
❑Work & Volunteer Engagements
❑Health & Biomarkers
❑Intervention/Clinical Studies
www.midus.wisc.edu
Data
publicly
available!
Sample:
11,000+
adults
(25-74)
30,000+ users 2,000+ pubs
Purpose in Life/Eudaimonia →
• longevity
• protection against disease
• physiological regulation
• brain-based emotion regulation
• gene expression
Select Findings
Cohen, Bavishi, & Rozanski (2016) Psychosomatic Medicine
10 prospective
studies (n=136,265):
• Higher purpose in
life → reduced risk
all-cause mortality
• Higher purpose in
life → reduced
cardiovascular
events
Purpose in life protects against Alzheimer’s
and mild cognitive impairment.
(Boyle et al., Archives Gen Psychiatry, 2010)
Rush MAP
Purpose in life modifies association between Alzheimer’s
disease pathology in the brain and cognitive function
(Boyle et al., Arch Gen Psych, 2012)
Rush MAP
➢Purpose in life →reduces risk of myocardial infarction
among adults with coronary heart disease
(Kim et al., J Behav Med, 2013)
➢Purpose in life → reduced risk of stroke
(Kim et al., J Psychosomatic Res, 2013)
➢ Purpose in life →more preventive health
behaviors (cholest tests, cancer screenings).
(Kim, Strecher, & Ryff, PNAS, 2014)
Health and Retirement Study (HRS)
➢ Purpose in life →decreased risk of functional
decline (grip strength, walking speed)
(Kim, Kawachi, Chen, Kubzansky, JAMA Psychiatry, 2017)
High Purpose →reduced risk
future drug misuse
Kim et al (2020), Psychosomatic Medicine
Purpose in life → lower levels of allostatic load
(summary index of biological risk)
(Zilioli et al. 2015, J of Psychosomatic Research)
Eudaimonic well-being protects against
inflammation among the less educated
(Morozink & Ryff, 2010, Health Psychology)
Lower educational attainment predicts
higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6)
Interleukin-6
• marker of inflammation
involved in etiology of
numerous diseases
(cardiovascular, cancer,
rheumatological,
osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s)
High well-being protects
against high IL-6 among the less educated
Reward circuitry, eudaimonic well-being,
and cortisol (Heller et al., Psych. Science, 2013)
Sustained engagement of ventral striatum in
response to positive stimuli → higher eudaimonia
Sustained ventral striatal activity
Residualized
AUCg(nm/L)
Cortisol
magnitude
(nmol/L) Walking 30-Mins. post Walking Lunch Bed-time
Sustained VS activity → reduced cortisol output
over the day
Schaefer et al., (2013). Purpose in life predicts better emotional recovery
from negative stimuli. PLoS ONE
Nair et al., (2024). Purpose in life as resilience factor in brain health.
Frontiers in Psychiatry
Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being
and Gene Expression
Fredrickson et al., (2013) PNAS
• inflammatory gene
expression (CTRA)
• healthy pattern linked with
eudaimonia
• unhealthy pattern linked
with hedonia
Apsley et al., (2024) Brain, Behavior & Immunity
Cuevas et al., (2023) Brain, Behavior, & Immunity
Mann et al., (2021) Biodemography & Social Biology
Problems of inequality
forces against
eudaimonia
Growing Inequality in America:
Psychosocial/Biological Pathways
Kirsch, Love, Radler, & Ryff, American Psychologist, 2019
• Summarized MIDUS
findings on health
inequalities
• Compared two national
samples from before to
after Great Recession
Links between SES & health mediated or
moderated by psychosocial factors
➢ MIDUS Core (1995)
➢ MIDUS Refresher (2012)
[pre/post Recession]
Despite gains in education
over time:
❖ Refresher had worse
economics, worse health,
less well-being than Core
Kirsch, Love, Radler, & Ryff (2019) American Psychologist
Higher Distress & Lower Well-Being
Concentrated Among Low SES Individuals
Goldman, Glei, & Weinstein (2018). Declining mental health among
disadvantaged Americans. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences
Differences
between pre- &
post-Recession
samples
(1995 – 2012)
2017
Growing Class Divide in U.S.
(top 20% vs. rest)
The upper middle class have
privileged access to…
❖Better education and jobs
❖Stable marriages to equally
or more successful partners
❖Safe, thriving neighborhoods
❖Higher income and more
wealth
❖Healthier lifestyles and
longer life-spans
Preceding discrepancies
translate to
compromised levels of:
• Optimism
• Life satisfaction
• Happiness
among the
disadvantaged
2017
2020
Past two decades:
• rise in deaths from
suicide, drugs
(opioids) & alcohol
• context
• broken families
• declining wages
• healthcare costs
2023
….“persistence of extreme want in a
nation of extraordinary wealth”
Exploitation:
• paying undocumented
workers < minimum wage
• overdraft fees (banks)
• high rent for low-income
tenants with no alternatives
• payday lenders charging high
interest
Poverty in UK:
• Deeply divided society
• family fragility, stagnating
wages, poor housing,
frayed communities,
unsafe streets
• Exacerbated by pandemic
• 700% increase in calls
to domestic abuse
hotline
• 86% increase seeking
help for addictions
Enter →COVID-19
illness/death
+++
rampant unemployment
lost health insurance
evictions/homelessness
hunger/food lines
Pandemic precarity: COVID-19 exposed & exacerbated
inequalities in the American heartland (Indiana)
(Perry et al, 2021, PNAS)
Ryff (2022) Journal of Constructivist Psychology
“Intersecting Catastrophes”
(pandemic & plague of inequality)
• relevant emotions:
➢ anger, shame
• compromised well-being
• how to fix:
➢ individual level
➢ societal/ structural
• arts/humanities:
➢ activate caring &
compassion
Where are we headed?
➢ eudaimonia increasingly
sequestered among the
privileged?
20-Year Trajectories of Purpose
in Life By Education
p = 0.002
p = 0.010
20-Year Trajectories of Personal
Growth by Education
p = 0.008
p < 0.001
20-Year Trajectories of
Autonomy by Education
p = 0.007
p < 0.001
Without a College Degree, Life in
America is Staggeringly Shorter
Case & Deaton, October 3, 2023
Return to OECD Agenda
➢ which aspects of eudiamonia to assess?
❖ purpose in life: predicts diverse health outcomes
(policy import – reduced healthcare costs)
❖ personal growth: closest to Aristotle’s definition –
way of tracking personal becoming across nations
❖ self-acceptance: balanced self-evaluation – import
for virtue & ethics
❖ autonomy: variation across individualist/collectivist
countries
➢ CREDIBLE MEASUREMENT IS KEY
Repeat Opening Observation
Build on synergies between OECD
& longitudinal cohort studies (LCS)
✓ Cohort studies bring evidential basis –
which indicators of well-being matter
for health & mortality
✓ OECD brings public policy focus – which
needs greater focus in LCS especially
during major historical stressors
Thanks for listening
cryff@wisc.edu
http://midus.wisc.edu

More Related Content

Similar to Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdf

ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course NameINTRODUCTION TO HOS.docx
ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course NameINTRODUCTION TO HOS.docxASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course NameINTRODUCTION TO HOS.docx
ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course NameINTRODUCTION TO HOS.docxbraycarissa250
 
Slides on health and disease by dr. rajan bikram rayamajhi
Slides on health and disease by dr. rajan bikram rayamajhiSlides on health and disease by dr. rajan bikram rayamajhi
Slides on health and disease by dr. rajan bikram rayamajhiwrigveda
 
Reasons for Disparities in Health and HealthCare
Reasons for Disparities in Health and HealthCareReasons for Disparities in Health and HealthCare
Reasons for Disparities in Health and HealthCareYiscah Bracha
 
Population disparities in health & health care
Population disparities in health & health carePopulation disparities in health & health care
Population disparities in health & health caregueste165460
 
Postpartum Health India # 2
Postpartum Health India # 2Postpartum Health India # 2
Postpartum Health India # 2Mohit Sharma
 
Ageism, Healthy Life Expectancy and Population.pdf
Ageism, Healthy Life Expectancy and Population.pdfAgeism, Healthy Life Expectancy and Population.pdf
Ageism, Healthy Life Expectancy and Population.pdfFULYAENAYAVCI
 
6 determinants of health
6 determinants of health6 determinants of health
6 determinants of healthAnup Kharde
 
Concept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseaseConcept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseasesirjana Tiwari
 
Quality Of Life of Elderly in India
Quality Of Life of Elderly in IndiaQuality Of Life of Elderly in India
Quality Of Life of Elderly in Indiaiosrjce
 
Presentation of determinants of health
Presentation of determinants of healthPresentation of determinants of health
Presentation of determinants of healthIrfan Youngman
 
FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FALTA DE ESPERANZA
FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FALTA DE ESPERANZAFACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FALTA DE ESPERANZA
FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FALTA DE ESPERANZAKaierleiki
 
Ageing & HIV - 50 Plus Research
Ageing & HIV - 50 Plus ResearchAgeing & HIV - 50 Plus Research
Ageing & HIV - 50 Plus ResearchWaverley Care
 

Similar to Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdf (20)

ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course NameINTRODUCTION TO HOS.docx
ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course NameINTRODUCTION TO HOS.docxASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course NameINTRODUCTION TO HOS.docx
ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course NameINTRODUCTION TO HOS.docx
 
Slides on health and disease by dr. rajan bikram rayamajhi
Slides on health and disease by dr. rajan bikram rayamajhiSlides on health and disease by dr. rajan bikram rayamajhi
Slides on health and disease by dr. rajan bikram rayamajhi
 
Reasons for Disparities in Health and HealthCare
Reasons for Disparities in Health and HealthCareReasons for Disparities in Health and HealthCare
Reasons for Disparities in Health and HealthCare
 
Population disparities in health & health care
Population disparities in health & health carePopulation disparities in health & health care
Population disparities in health & health care
 
Postpartum Health India # 2
Postpartum Health India # 2Postpartum Health India # 2
Postpartum Health India # 2
 
Ageism, Healthy Life Expectancy and Population.pdf
Ageism, Healthy Life Expectancy and Population.pdfAgeism, Healthy Life Expectancy and Population.pdf
Ageism, Healthy Life Expectancy and Population.pdf
 
6 determinants of health
6 determinants of health6 determinants of health
6 determinants of health
 
Concept of health and disease
Concept of health and diseaseConcept of health and disease
Concept of health and disease
 
Neighborhood walking tours for physicians in-training
Neighborhood walking tours for physicians in-trainingNeighborhood walking tours for physicians in-training
Neighborhood walking tours for physicians in-training
 
Concept of health 2017
Concept of health 2017Concept of health 2017
Concept of health 2017
 
Quality Of Life of Elderly in India
Quality Of Life of Elderly in IndiaQuality Of Life of Elderly in India
Quality Of Life of Elderly in India
 
HBSS 5110 Group Presentation
HBSS 5110 Group PresentationHBSS 5110 Group Presentation
HBSS 5110 Group Presentation
 
Health
HealthHealth
Health
 
Old age psychiatry ppt
Old age psychiatry pptOld age psychiatry ppt
Old age psychiatry ppt
 
Old age psychiatry ppt
Old age psychiatry pptOld age psychiatry ppt
Old age psychiatry ppt
 
determinants of health as a theological issue
 determinants of health as a theological issue determinants of health as a theological issue
determinants of health as a theological issue
 
Presentation of determinants of health
Presentation of determinants of healthPresentation of determinants of health
Presentation of determinants of health
 
FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FALTA DE ESPERANZA
FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FALTA DE ESPERANZAFACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FALTA DE ESPERANZA
FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FALTA DE ESPERANZA
 
Ageing & HIV - 50 Plus Research
Ageing & HIV - 50 Plus ResearchAgeing & HIV - 50 Plus Research
Ageing & HIV - 50 Plus Research
 
Session 2: Carol Brayne
Session 2: Carol Brayne Session 2: Carol Brayne
Session 2: Carol Brayne
 

More from StatsCommunications

Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdfStatsCommunications
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...StatsCommunications
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...StatsCommunications
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...StatsCommunications
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...StatsCommunications
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdfStatsCommunications
 
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...StatsCommunications
 
DeNeve_Wellbeing at Work_OECD.pdf
DeNeve_Wellbeing at Work_OECD.pdfDeNeve_Wellbeing at Work_OECD.pdf
DeNeve_Wellbeing at Work_OECD.pdfStatsCommunications
 

More from StatsCommunications (20)

Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
 
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
 
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
 
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
 
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
 
Presentation Tatsuyoshi Oba.pdf
Presentation Tatsuyoshi Oba.pdfPresentation Tatsuyoshi Oba.pdf
Presentation Tatsuyoshi Oba.pdf
 
Amy slides.pdf
Amy slides.pdfAmy slides.pdf
Amy slides.pdf
 
DeNeve_Wellbeing at Work_OECD.pdf
DeNeve_Wellbeing at Work_OECD.pdfDeNeve_Wellbeing at Work_OECD.pdf
DeNeve_Wellbeing at Work_OECD.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

basics of data science with application areas.pdf
basics of data science with application areas.pdfbasics of data science with application areas.pdf
basics of data science with application areas.pdfvyankatesh1
 
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdfAI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdfMichaelSenkow
 
Machine Learning For Career Growth..pptx
Machine Learning For Career Growth..pptxMachine Learning For Career Growth..pptx
Machine Learning For Career Growth..pptxbenishzehra469
 
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理cyebo
 
2024-05-14 - Tableau User Group - TC24 Hot Topics - Tableau Pulse and Einstei...
2024-05-14 - Tableau User Group - TC24 Hot Topics - Tableau Pulse and Einstei...2024-05-14 - Tableau User Group - TC24 Hot Topics - Tableau Pulse and Einstei...
2024-05-14 - Tableau User Group - TC24 Hot Topics - Tableau Pulse and Einstei...elinavihriala
 
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group MeetingAlison Pitt
 
How can I successfully sell my pi coins in Philippines?
How can I successfully sell my pi coins in Philippines?How can I successfully sell my pi coins in Philippines?
How can I successfully sell my pi coins in Philippines?DOT TECH
 
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理pyhepag
 
Exploratory Data Analysis - Dilip S.pptx
Exploratory Data Analysis - Dilip S.pptxExploratory Data Analysis - Dilip S.pptx
Exploratory Data Analysis - Dilip S.pptxDilipVasan
 
how can i exchange pi coins for others currency like Bitcoin
how can i exchange pi coins for others currency like Bitcoinhow can i exchange pi coins for others currency like Bitcoin
how can i exchange pi coins for others currency like BitcoinDOT TECH
 
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理cyebo
 
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflictSupply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflictJack Cole
 
Business update Q1 2024 Lar España Real Estate SOCIMI
Business update Q1 2024 Lar España Real Estate SOCIMIBusiness update Q1 2024 Lar España Real Estate SOCIMI
Business update Q1 2024 Lar España Real Estate SOCIMIAlejandraGmez176757
 
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理pyhepag
 
Webinar One View, Multiple Systems No-Code Integration of Salesforce and ERPs
Webinar One View, Multiple Systems No-Code Integration of Salesforce and ERPsWebinar One View, Multiple Systems No-Code Integration of Salesforce and ERPs
Webinar One View, Multiple Systems No-Code Integration of Salesforce and ERPsCEPTES Software Inc
 
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptxPre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptxStephen266013
 
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Calllward7
 
How I opened a fake bank account and didn't go to prison
How I opened a fake bank account and didn't go to prisonHow I opened a fake bank account and didn't go to prison
How I opened a fake bank account and didn't go to prisonPayment Village
 

Recently uploaded (20)

basics of data science with application areas.pdf
basics of data science with application areas.pdfbasics of data science with application areas.pdf
basics of data science with application areas.pdf
 
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdfAI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
AI Imagen for data-storytelling Infographics.pdf
 
Machine Learning For Career Growth..pptx
Machine Learning For Career Growth..pptxMachine Learning For Career Growth..pptx
Machine Learning For Career Growth..pptx
 
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版纽卡斯尔大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
2024-05-14 - Tableau User Group - TC24 Hot Topics - Tableau Pulse and Einstei...
2024-05-14 - Tableau User Group - TC24 Hot Topics - Tableau Pulse and Einstei...2024-05-14 - Tableau User Group - TC24 Hot Topics - Tableau Pulse and Einstei...
2024-05-14 - Tableau User Group - TC24 Hot Topics - Tableau Pulse and Einstei...
 
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
2024 Q2 Orange County (CA) Tableau User Group Meeting
 
How can I successfully sell my pi coins in Philippines?
How can I successfully sell my pi coins in Philippines?How can I successfully sell my pi coins in Philippines?
How can I successfully sell my pi coins in Philippines?
 
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版西悉尼大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
Exploratory Data Analysis - Dilip S.pptx
Exploratory Data Analysis - Dilip S.pptxExploratory Data Analysis - Dilip S.pptx
Exploratory Data Analysis - Dilip S.pptx
 
how can i exchange pi coins for others currency like Bitcoin
how can i exchange pi coins for others currency like Bitcoinhow can i exchange pi coins for others currency like Bitcoin
how can i exchange pi coins for others currency like Bitcoin
 
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp ClaimsSlip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
Slip-and-fall Injuries: Top Workers' Comp Claims
 
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflictSupply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
Supply chain analytics to combat the effects of Ukraine-Russia-conflict
 
Business update Q1 2024 Lar España Real Estate SOCIMI
Business update Q1 2024 Lar España Real Estate SOCIMIBusiness update Q1 2024 Lar España Real Estate SOCIMI
Business update Q1 2024 Lar España Real Estate SOCIMI
 
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
一比一原版(Monash毕业证书)莫纳什大学毕业证成绩单如何办理
 
Webinar One View, Multiple Systems No-Code Integration of Salesforce and ERPs
Webinar One View, Multiple Systems No-Code Integration of Salesforce and ERPsWebinar One View, Multiple Systems No-Code Integration of Salesforce and ERPs
Webinar One View, Multiple Systems No-Code Integration of Salesforce and ERPs
 
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptxPre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
Pre-ProductionImproveddsfjgndflghtgg.pptx
 
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
2024 Q1 Tableau User Group Leader Quarterly Call
 
How I opened a fake bank account and didn't go to prison
How I opened a fake bank account and didn't go to prisonHow I opened a fake bank account and didn't go to prison
How I opened a fake bank account and didn't go to prison
 
Machine Learning for Accident Severity Prediction
Machine Learning for Accident Severity PredictionMachine Learning for Accident Severity Prediction
Machine Learning for Accident Severity Prediction
 

Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdf

  • 1. Bringing Eudaimonia to OECD Measures of Subjective Well-Being Carol D. Ryff University of Wisconsin-Madison OECD Center on Well-Being, Inclusion, Sustainability and Equal Opportunity (WISE) Paris, France, March 4, 2024
  • 2. Plan ❖ How to define and measure eudaimonia ➢ Return to Aristotle + 20th century views ➢ Scale development & evaluation ➢ Distinguish eudaimonia from hedonia ❖Scientific findings on eudaimonia [MIDUS, HRS] ➢ Links to health (biomarkers, morbidity, mortality, brain & genetic assessments) ➢ Links to growing inequality ❖Synergies: longitudinal cohort studies (LCS) & OECD ➢ LCS bring evidence for what matters ➢ OECD brings public policy focus
  • 3. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Nichomachean Ethics • Question: what is the highest of all human goods? • Answer: happiness, but noted different meanings “The general run of men say that happiness is some plain and obvious thing, like pleasure, wealth or honor.” Aristotle likened this to a life “suitable for beasts.” • Instead, he defined happiness as: activity of the soul in accord with virtue
  • 4. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Nichomachean Ethics • Next question: what is the highest virtue? • Answer: eudaimonia – achieving the best that is within us ❖ personal excellence unique to one’s talents and capacities, involves growth & self-realization ֍ virtuous personal becoming ֍
  • 5. Ryff (1989) “Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Reaching beyond happiness and life satisfaction
  • 8. Personal Growth: making the most of your talents and capacities Imagerie Pellerin d’Epinal (19th century)
  • 9. Positive Relations with Others: taking care of your social ties
  • 10. Purpose in Life: finding meaning and direction in your life
  • 11. Self-Acceptance: recognizing and accepting your strengths and weaknesses Self-portrait by Kseniya Beliaeva, woman artist from Belarus
  • 12. Theory-Guided Definitions (construct-oriented approach) Psychometric Progression Writing items 80 items written for high/low scorer on each of six dimensions (positively/negatively worded) Culling item pools Face validity checks by independent raters; extensive checks of item-to-scale correlations Reliability checks Test-retest reliability; internal consistency (alpha coefficients) Validity checks Convergent/discriminant validity; confirmatory factor analyses
  • 13. 2021 ● Eudaimonic & Hedonic Well- Being (Ryff, Boylan, & Kirsch, 2021) – links to demographic factors & health ● Debate about measurement recommendations ➢problem of thin, poorly validated measures ➢inadequate assessment tools undermine science of well- being
  • 14. Eudaimonia Greets Hedonia Empirically ➢ hedonic & eudaimonic measures ➢ related but distinct constructs ➢ different correlates/predictors (age, education, personality) Journal of Personality & Social Psych, 2002
  • 15. 30+ Years After Ryff (1989) 40 languages & 1400+ pubs
  • 16. Topical Areas ❑Psychometric Properties ❑Adult Development & Aging ❑Personality Correlates ❑Family Life ❑Work & Volunteer Engagements ❑Health & Biomarkers ❑Intervention/Clinical Studies
  • 19. Purpose in Life/Eudaimonia → • longevity • protection against disease • physiological regulation • brain-based emotion regulation • gene expression Select Findings
  • 20. Cohen, Bavishi, & Rozanski (2016) Psychosomatic Medicine 10 prospective studies (n=136,265): • Higher purpose in life → reduced risk all-cause mortality • Higher purpose in life → reduced cardiovascular events
  • 21. Purpose in life protects against Alzheimer’s and mild cognitive impairment. (Boyle et al., Archives Gen Psychiatry, 2010) Rush MAP
  • 22. Purpose in life modifies association between Alzheimer’s disease pathology in the brain and cognitive function (Boyle et al., Arch Gen Psych, 2012) Rush MAP
  • 23. ➢Purpose in life →reduces risk of myocardial infarction among adults with coronary heart disease (Kim et al., J Behav Med, 2013) ➢Purpose in life → reduced risk of stroke (Kim et al., J Psychosomatic Res, 2013) ➢ Purpose in life →more preventive health behaviors (cholest tests, cancer screenings). (Kim, Strecher, & Ryff, PNAS, 2014) Health and Retirement Study (HRS) ➢ Purpose in life →decreased risk of functional decline (grip strength, walking speed) (Kim, Kawachi, Chen, Kubzansky, JAMA Psychiatry, 2017)
  • 24. High Purpose →reduced risk future drug misuse Kim et al (2020), Psychosomatic Medicine
  • 25. Purpose in life → lower levels of allostatic load (summary index of biological risk) (Zilioli et al. 2015, J of Psychosomatic Research)
  • 26. Eudaimonic well-being protects against inflammation among the less educated (Morozink & Ryff, 2010, Health Psychology)
  • 27. Lower educational attainment predicts higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) Interleukin-6 • marker of inflammation involved in etiology of numerous diseases (cardiovascular, cancer, rheumatological, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s)
  • 28. High well-being protects against high IL-6 among the less educated
  • 29. Reward circuitry, eudaimonic well-being, and cortisol (Heller et al., Psych. Science, 2013)
  • 30. Sustained engagement of ventral striatum in response to positive stimuli → higher eudaimonia
  • 31. Sustained ventral striatal activity Residualized AUCg(nm/L) Cortisol magnitude (nmol/L) Walking 30-Mins. post Walking Lunch Bed-time Sustained VS activity → reduced cortisol output over the day Schaefer et al., (2013). Purpose in life predicts better emotional recovery from negative stimuli. PLoS ONE Nair et al., (2024). Purpose in life as resilience factor in brain health. Frontiers in Psychiatry
  • 32. Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being and Gene Expression Fredrickson et al., (2013) PNAS • inflammatory gene expression (CTRA) • healthy pattern linked with eudaimonia • unhealthy pattern linked with hedonia Apsley et al., (2024) Brain, Behavior & Immunity Cuevas et al., (2023) Brain, Behavior, & Immunity Mann et al., (2021) Biodemography & Social Biology
  • 33. Problems of inequality forces against eudaimonia
  • 34. Growing Inequality in America: Psychosocial/Biological Pathways Kirsch, Love, Radler, & Ryff, American Psychologist, 2019 • Summarized MIDUS findings on health inequalities • Compared two national samples from before to after Great Recession
  • 35. Links between SES & health mediated or moderated by psychosocial factors
  • 36. ➢ MIDUS Core (1995) ➢ MIDUS Refresher (2012) [pre/post Recession] Despite gains in education over time: ❖ Refresher had worse economics, worse health, less well-being than Core Kirsch, Love, Radler, & Ryff (2019) American Psychologist
  • 37. Higher Distress & Lower Well-Being Concentrated Among Low SES Individuals Goldman, Glei, & Weinstein (2018). Declining mental health among disadvantaged Americans. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences Differences between pre- & post-Recession samples (1995 – 2012)
  • 38. 2017 Growing Class Divide in U.S. (top 20% vs. rest) The upper middle class have privileged access to… ❖Better education and jobs ❖Stable marriages to equally or more successful partners ❖Safe, thriving neighborhoods ❖Higher income and more wealth ❖Healthier lifestyles and longer life-spans
  • 39. Preceding discrepancies translate to compromised levels of: • Optimism • Life satisfaction • Happiness among the disadvantaged 2017
  • 40. 2020 Past two decades: • rise in deaths from suicide, drugs (opioids) & alcohol • context • broken families • declining wages • healthcare costs
  • 41. 2023 ….“persistence of extreme want in a nation of extraordinary wealth” Exploitation: • paying undocumented workers < minimum wage • overdraft fees (banks) • high rent for low-income tenants with no alternatives • payday lenders charging high interest
  • 42. Poverty in UK: • Deeply divided society • family fragility, stagnating wages, poor housing, frayed communities, unsafe streets • Exacerbated by pandemic • 700% increase in calls to domestic abuse hotline • 86% increase seeking help for addictions
  • 43. Enter →COVID-19 illness/death +++ rampant unemployment lost health insurance evictions/homelessness hunger/food lines
  • 44. Pandemic precarity: COVID-19 exposed & exacerbated inequalities in the American heartland (Indiana) (Perry et al, 2021, PNAS)
  • 45. Ryff (2022) Journal of Constructivist Psychology “Intersecting Catastrophes” (pandemic & plague of inequality) • relevant emotions: ➢ anger, shame • compromised well-being • how to fix: ➢ individual level ➢ societal/ structural • arts/humanities: ➢ activate caring & compassion
  • 46. Where are we headed? ➢ eudaimonia increasingly sequestered among the privileged?
  • 47. 20-Year Trajectories of Purpose in Life By Education p = 0.002 p = 0.010
  • 48. 20-Year Trajectories of Personal Growth by Education p = 0.008 p < 0.001
  • 49. 20-Year Trajectories of Autonomy by Education p = 0.007 p < 0.001
  • 50. Without a College Degree, Life in America is Staggeringly Shorter Case & Deaton, October 3, 2023
  • 51. Return to OECD Agenda ➢ which aspects of eudiamonia to assess? ❖ purpose in life: predicts diverse health outcomes (policy import – reduced healthcare costs) ❖ personal growth: closest to Aristotle’s definition – way of tracking personal becoming across nations ❖ self-acceptance: balanced self-evaluation – import for virtue & ethics ❖ autonomy: variation across individualist/collectivist countries ➢ CREDIBLE MEASUREMENT IS KEY
  • 52. Repeat Opening Observation Build on synergies between OECD & longitudinal cohort studies (LCS) ✓ Cohort studies bring evidential basis – which indicators of well-being matter for health & mortality ✓ OECD brings public policy focus – which needs greater focus in LCS especially during major historical stressors