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OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment

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The case for countries to invest in women’s economic empowerment has never been stronger. A growing body of evidence is demonstrating that economies are more resilient, productive and inclusive when they reduce gender inequalities and actively support women’s equal participation in all spheres of life. Further impetus for action has been provided in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development which places the empowerment of women at the centre of many initiatives required to deliver on these commitments. The Policy Dialogue is co-ordinated by the OECD Development Co-operation Directorate, the Development Centre, and the Statistics Directorate.

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OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment

  1. 1. OECD Policy Dialogue Women’s Economic Empowerment Paris, 25 January 2018 Twitter: #WomensEconomicEmpowerment
  2. 2. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment Recognising, Reducing and Redistributing unpaid care and domestic work 25 January 2018
  3. 3. • The need to address the burden of unpaid care work for achieving gender equality and women’s economic empowerment was recognised explicitly in the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 5.4, which identifies “the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection and the promotion of shared responsibility” as policy enablers for women’s economic empowerment. • The OECD is moving from the “why this is important to the “how can we drive change” and the Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment is the platform created for addressing this question. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment
  4. 4. • The objective of the Policy Dialogue is to generate data, evidence and inclusive policy guidance for policy makers and development partners on “what works” to achieve SDG target 5.4 as an entry point for promoting women’s economic empowerment and well-being in low- and middle-income countries. • The initial Dialogue with a number of countries and development partners offers a forum to share experiences, challenges and knowledge gaps among Dialogue members with regard to addressing unpaid care and domestic work in the four policy domains. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment
  5. 5. Status of implementation and monitoring of SDG target 5.4 OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment, 25 January 2018, OECD, Paris
  6. 6. Unpaid care and domestic work in SDGs Indicator 5.4.1 will track progress on Target 5.4 Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls Target 5.4: Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate Indicator 5.4.1: Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location
  7. 7. Gender inequalities persist in unpaid care and domestic work Women: 18%, Men 7%, with clear age gradient for women Note: Data disaggregated by age are available for 29 countries
  8. 8. Implementation: Country selection process  Data available for 83 countries covering 52% of world population over the period 2000-2016; Disaggregated and trend data even more limited;  Based on expensive, complex time use surveys – ad- hoc and extra budgetary in most developing countries  Difficult to capture person-to-person activities (e.g. children, the elderly and the sick) often overlaps with domestic work  Challenges regarding comparability because of different classification & methodologies  Micro data not always publicly available Significant challenges to monitor 5.4.1
  9. 9. Institutional collaboration is necessary • Share data & analysis related to SDG 5 indicators, such as indic 5.4.1 (OECD contributes data for OECD countries, ensures comparability etc.) • Intellectual inputs to methodology and data related to gender statistics • Organisation of events on gender statistics • Mutual contributions to reports and other knowledge products • Joint policy briefs or analytical reviews on gender statistics, social norms and related topics
  10. 10. Beyond 5.4.1; How can UN Women contribute to the policy dialogue  SDG Monitoring – First edition of Gender and SDGs monitoring report (February, 14 2018); Chapter looks at policy options to recognize, reduce and redistribute (3R) unpaid care and domestic work provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family  “as nationally appropriate”: Still a contentious issue, research and advocacy needed – leaders championing similar issues  Progress of the World’s Women: Families in a changing world – how families and roles are changing, implications for care work  UN Women’s Making Every Woman and Girl Count programme: Methodological work as a key focus area of UNW & INEGI Centre of Excellence on Gender Statistics located in Mexico
  11. 11. Thank you gender.data@unwomen.org
  12. 12. EXTENDING THE OECD TIME USE DATABASE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A Study on Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Peru, and South Africa
  13. 13. The Beijing Platform for Action: • “Improving data collection on the unremunerated work, […] such as non-market production activities” • “Developing methods quantifying the value of unremunerated work that is outside national accounts, such as caring for dependents and preparing food, for possible reflection in satellite accounts” “Stiglitz Commission” on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social progress (Stiglitz et al., 2009): • Recommendation 5: Broaden income measures to non-market activities: • “This should start with information on how people spend their time that is comparable both over the years and across countries. Comprehensive and periodic accounts of household activity as satellites to the core national accounts should complement the picture” Measuring unpaid work is a long-standing goal
  14. 14. Unpaid care and domestic work: housework; childcare; elderly care; community/volunteer work; etc.  Unpaid = the individual performing this activity is not remunerated  Care and domestic = the activity provides what is necessary for the health, well-being, maintenance, and protection of someone or something  Work = the activity involves mental or physical effort and is costly in terms of time resources Unpaid work and women Time Use Surveys (TUS): record information on how people allocate their time across different day-to-day activities; typically through diaries.
  15. 15. • TUS have been conducted in 65 countries (29 OECD countries + 36 non-OECD economies): all these 36 countries were reviewed for this project Data issues and selection criteria: Population coverage (e.g., national, urban, rural) Year of the survey (TUS are conducted every 5/10 years) Differences in precision, definition, and classification of the activities Availability of micro data 24 hour diary vs stylized questions Primary/secondary activities Period over which the data have been collected Regional coverage and different income levels (low- and middle-income countries) 6 surveys satisfied the selection criteria above, and 4 were retained Time Use Surveys to measure unpaid care work
  16. 16. Australia Austria Belgium … Turkey United Kingdom United States 2006 2008-09 2005 … 2006 2005 2014 1 Paid work or study 238 306 227 … 242 246 282 1.1 paid work (all jobs) 186 251 163 … 178 213 229 1.2 travel to and from work/study 25 29 27 … 40 22 21 1.3 time in school or classes 16 17 25 … 24 7 18 1.4 research/homework 11 9 12 … - 4 11 1.5 job search … 3 1.6 other paid work or study-related … 2 Unpaid work 243 203 200 … 247 201 196 2.1 routine housework 132 125 134 … 141 100 100 2.2 shopping 29 21 26 … 14 33 23 2.3 care for household members 45 34 16 … 32 48 32 2.3.1 child care … 39 30 2.3.2 adult care … 3 2 2.4 care for non household members - 3 0 … - 5 2.5 volunteering 6 4 5 … 19 3 7 2.6 travel related to household activities 32 17 19 … 40 16 26 2.7 other unpaid … 3 3 Personal care 657 642 684 … 669 587 645 3.1 sleeping 512 509 504 … 508 484 525 3.2 eating & drinking 89 79 106 … - 59 62 3.3 personal, household, and medical services + travel related to personal care 56 54 74 … 161 44 58 4 Leisure 281 280 326 … 263 360 295 4.1 sports 19 30 23 … 7 22 18 4.2 participating / attending events 6 10 11 … 3 23 7 4.3 visiting or entertaining friends 10 70 59 … 71 84 47 4.4 TV or radio at home 140 109 135 … 122 140 152 4.5 Other leisure activities 106 62 98 … 61 92 71 5 Other 20 8 3 … 19 47 22 5.1 religious / spiritual activities and civic obligations 13 3 2 … 19 3 9 5.2 other (no categories) 7 5 1 … - 44 13 T Total 1440 1440 1440 … 1440 1440 1440 OECD time use database http://www.oecd.org/gender/data/
  17. 17. • Time Use Surveys (TUS): record information on how people allocate their time across different day-to-day activities. • TUS have been conducted in 65 countries (29 OECD countries + 36 non-OECD economies): all these 36 countries were reviewed for this project • A number of comparability issues affect TUS, e.g. different classifications, population coverage, simultaneity of activities, etc… • Selection criteria:  Population coverage (e.g., national, urban, rural)  Year of the survey (TUS are conducted every 5/10 years)  Availability of micro data  Coverage of different world regions and income levels (low- and middle-income countries) • 6 surveys satisfied the selection criteria above, and 4 were retained Time use surveys to measure unpaid care work
  18. 18. Country Survey name Year Sampled population Bangladesh Feed the Future 2011-2012 Rural areas only Ethiopia Ethiopia Time Use Survey 2013 (ETUS) 2013 National Peru Encuesta Nacional de Uso del Tiempo 2010 National South Africa A Survey of Time Use 2010 National Selected time use surveys
  19. 19. Gender gap in unpaid work (I) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 W to M ratio of unpaid work time W to M ratio of housework time W to M ratio of childcare time 11 16 • Routine housework is the main constituent of unpaid work and childcare is the second most important • The gender gap in routine housework time in the four selected countries is similar to some OECD countries • However, a larger gender gap in childcare time can be observed
  20. 20. Gender gap in unpaid work (II) ETH IND BGD PER ZAF KOR IRL NOR R² = 0.4677 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 Women’s unpaid work vs. GDP/capita ETH IND BGD PER ZAF EST PRT JPN DNK IRL NOR R² = 0.492 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 Gender gap in unpaid work vs. GDP/capita Women spend less time on unpaid work as GDP/capita increases The gender gap in unpaid work time decreases as GDP/capita increases
  21. 21. • Indicator 5.4.1 requires to look at the time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location. • Overall, women’s childcare time increases with: – the number of children, – living in urban areas (+9 minutes on average), – no particular pattern regarding the other demographic characteristics. • Overall, women’s routine housework time increases with: – age up to 40-50 years old, above which routine housework time decreases with age, – marital status (+25 minutes on average), – number of children, – living in rural areas (+33 minutes on average), – inverted U-shaped effect of education, – no particular pattern regarding the other demographic characteristics. Women are not a homogenous group…
  22. 22. • Unfortunately most TUS do not provide the required information to link infrastructure and time spent on unpaid work • Using the 2009 Ghana TUS we explored the effect of various water sources and access to electricity on time use and women’s empowerment. • Preliminary results suggest that having electricity at one’s house increases women’s time in paid activities (formal or informal) by 73 minutes and easier access to water decreases unpaid work time by 25 minutes. Infrastructures and time spent on unpaid work
  23. 23. • Extend country coverage to other LICs and MICs depending on data availability • Deepen the analysis on the effect of infrastructures on time use and women’s empowerment • Explore the determinants of intra-household inequalities in the use of time • Value women’s unpaid care and domestic work Next steps
  24. 24. Thank you! http://www.oecd.org/gender/data
  25. 25. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment SOCIAL PROTECTION
  26. 26. Social protection The design of social protection programmes has tended to be gender blind, reinforcing patriarchal family structures and being based on gender stereotypes of women as the primary caregiver, thereby increasing rather than reducing their time poverty. This session aims to identify: good practices in social protection that reduce unpaid care and domestic work; knowledge and data gaps to understand the impact of social protection policies on women’s time use; and key actors to catalyse more gender- responsive social protection systems. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment
  27. 27. • Facilitator: Alessandra Heinemann (Co-ordinator, Social Protection Project, OECD Development Centre) • Contributors: – Reaching informal women workers (Rachel Moussié, Social Protection Advisor, WIEGO) – Gender equality in family policy in Finland (Anneli Miettinen, Kela Social Insurance Institution, Finland) – Brazil’s experience with cash transfers (Joana Mostafa, Social policy and economics researcher at the Research Institute of Applied Economics (IPEA), Federal Government of Brazil) Session: Social Protection
  28. 28. Gender and social protection: insights from the Brazilian experience. Joana Mostafa - IPEA 1st OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment January 2018
  29. 29. 1st OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment January 2018 Social Protection in Brazil Landscape of Social Protection in Brazil  Contributory protection coupled with labor regulations – income substitution to tackle risks that hinder “work” capacity. Pensions, survivor, accidents and disability benefits, maternity leave (4 months), paternal leave (5 days!), unemployment benefit (3-5 months), lumpsum benefit for unjustified layoffs, remunerated vacations, regulated work hours, etc.  Non Contributory – benefit values depend on demographics and poverty BPC Old Age and Disability: income substitution. Bolsa Família: income complement. Social Protection Figures: “inactive” population • Old Age Coverage: 22% of women unprotected x 13% of men. • Disability: no data. • Both important to protect women and to pay for caregivers.
  30. 30. 1st OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment January 2018 % Women % Men 36 52 Non-poor 6 13 Poor 8 6 7 6 57 78 43 22 100 100 Total Active Total Working Age Adults Labor/Income/Contribution Categories Working Age Adults Active Inactive Occupied Protected Unprotected Unemployed Social Protection in Brazil Social Protection Figures: working age population Subsidiary protection based on the Breadwinner Model • Survivor benefits: 74% to women • 2011 “housewife” scheme (pension, disability, sickness, child allowance): poor HHs, women with no paid activity, lower contribution rate. • Relevant take-up rate, but requires permanent inactivity and poverty, has a benefit denial of 40%...after having collected contributions!
  31. 31. 1st OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment January 2018 Bolsa Família Program – 2003 Objective: reduce POVERTY.  Cash • Average benefit: $100/HH/month PPP (minimum wage $500) • Poverty lines: $85/capita and $42/capita PPP • Benefit varies with poverty, number of children, youth and pregnant/nursing women.  Follow up of education and health: rights based approach  Other coordinated public offers: housing (1 million houses delivered of which 86% are entitled to women); electric bill in the name of women with discounts of up to 65%; professional courses 66% women… Figures  Covers 25% of the population (40 MM people)  Costs 0,5% of GDP  Substantially reduced inequality, poverty and extreme poverty  Contributed to elevating health and education status of poorer HHs
  32. 32. 1st OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment January 2018 Bolsa Família Program and Gender The transfer is preferably made to women (92%) on the grounds that the money is better spent in the benefit of children. Feminist Critique:  Indeed, qualitative studies have shown that the managers and women beneficiaries of Bolsa Família activate the ‘maternity condition’ to render moral authority: • Against the widespread prejudice of transferring money to the poor • To legitimize women as worthy and rational beneficiaries  So in terms of discursive norm Bolsa Família adds another layer of gender discrimination, but with contradictions, tensions and displacements. Reinforce Gender Roles X Increases Autonomy
  33. 33. 1st OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment January 2018 Quantitative and qualitative studies also show a number of positive results in terms of greater autonomy to women…  BF women have a 10 p.p. greater chance of taking reproductive decisions on their own, including the use of contraceptive methods  38% of the beneficiaries say their decision power over the HH money has increased  48% feel more financially independent  38% more respected by their partners  Indirectly, the increase in school attendance, children’s health and domestic appliances (stability of the transfer) is a positive result for time-use efficiency for women  Number of work-hours reduced as a result of better labor market bargaining position: greater autonomy to flee from degrading work Bolsa Família Program and Gender
  34. 34. 1st OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment January 2018 http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/eng/PRB57_Bolsa_Familia_and_women_s_autonomy.pdf http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/eng/PRB55EN_Bolsa_Familia_gender_relation.pdf http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/eng/PIF38_Social_protection_towards_gender_equality.pdf Resources on Brazilian Experience Thank you! joana.mostafa@ipea.gov.br
  35. 35. Gender equality in family policy in Finland: promoting fathers’ involvement in childcare Anneli Miettinen Kela Research Unit 25.1.2018
  36. 36. Family leaves in Finland 36 Paid maternity leave, 2017: 4 mths Paid parental leave (can be shared between parents), 2017: 6 mths Paid paternity leave, 2017: 2 mths Home care leave (relatively low rate compensation 340 e/mth) up until the child turns 3 yrs (either parent can take) Until 2010s, fathers did not have an independent right to family leave.
  37. 37. Family leaves for fathers 37 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Daysperfather Fathers Fathers on paternity/parental leave Days per father Fathers’ use of paid family leaves has gradually increased Source: KELA Statistics on family leaves Fathers on paternity/parental leave = number of fathers who have used at least a part of leave Days per father = average number of leave days that fathers take
  38. 38. Promotion of fathers’ leaves 38 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Percentoffathers Leave around birth "Daddy-month" Series3 Fathers on paternity leave: on paternity leave around birth and on ’daddy-month’, % of all fathers Source: KELA Statistics on family leaves Impl. of ”daddy- month” (4 wk) Flexibility increased 4 wk -> 6 wk 6 wk -> 9 wk Flexibility inc. Flexibility = father could leave a part of his daddy-month to be taken later, until the child is 1.5-2 yrs old
  39. 39. Possibilities, challenges 39 Key issues in promoting fathers’ involvement in childcare - High financial benefit/compensation rate (in Finland: 70 %) - Independent & non-transferable right - Flexibility - AND: positive attitudes of employers towards fathers on leave! Challenges - A considerable proportion of fathers do not use paternity leave at all – low-income, less educated, working in manual professions or entrepreneurs - -> differences between families in how much well-paid family leave (in total) they are taking
  40. 40. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment PUBLIC SERVICES
  41. 41. Public services Public services to address unpaid care and domestic work include child care and health care services, among others. They can alleviate women’s time spent on unpaid care activities as well as help generate employment opportunities for them. The public provision of care services for children through crèches or services for the elderly, sick and disabled can redistribute care work that may traditionally fall to women. Access to basic health services can cut down on the amount of time women spend travelling and waiting to receive health care for themselves or their dependents. This session will aim to identify: existing public services that reduce and redistribute unpaid care and domestic work; knowledge and data gaps to understand the impact of services on women’s time use; and keys actors to catalyse more gender-responsive service delivery. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment
  42. 42. Facilitator: Thalia Kidder (Senior Advisor, Women’s Economic Rights, Oxfam Great Britain) • Contributors: ─ The Business Case for Employer-Supported Childcare in Developing Countries (Henriette Kolb, Head, Gender Secretariat, International Finance Corporation) ─ Care systems for promoting social justice (Luiza Carvalho, Regional Director, Regional Office for the Americas and Caribbean, UN Women) ─ Uruguay’s experience in implementing the Care Act (Patricia Cossani, Deputy Director, National Care System, Uruguay) ─ Linking Domestic Workers Organizing with Macroeconomic Planning (Marina Durano, Programme Officer, Open Society Foundation) Session: Public services
  43. 43. OECD Policy Dialogue Tackling Childcare: What Can Private Sector Employers Do? Prepared by IFC Gender Secretariat www.ifc.org/tacklingchildcare March 20, 2018
  44. 44. The Childcare Business & Development Case: Good for Children, Employees, Economies &… Good for Children: • Benefits of ECE: Healthy development, greater capacity to learn in school, and increased productivity in adulthood (World Bank, 2015). • Yet, only around half of 3-5 year olds in developing countries participate in some form of ECE, typically for a few hours daily (GBC-Education, 2016) Good for Women’s Employment: • Where governments support early childcare, women are more likely to receive a formal wage (Women, Business and the Law, 2016) • Evidence from the Caribbean, Latin America, and OECD countries suggests that access to subsidized childcare can have a significant positive impact on women’s employment rates and work hours (Mateo- Diaz and Rodrigues-Chamussy, 2013; Thévenon, 2013) Good for Economies: • Value of unpaid care estimated at $10 trillion or 13% of global GDP (McKinsey, 2016) • Investing 2% of GDP in the care economy of 7 developed countries would create more than 21 million jobs and help address challenges of aging populations and economic stagnation (ITUC, 2016)
  45. 45. IFC’s Tackling Childcare Project Business Case Research Afrifresh, S. Africa Akamai, U.S. Bauducco, Brazil Borusan, Turkey BTMU, Japan MAS Kreeda, Jordan Martur, Turkey Mindtree, India Safaricom, Kenya Schön Klinik, Germany Policy Research Desk research in 50 economies. Detailed WBL childcare questions rolled out in more than 100 economies Coverage in 2018 WBL Report Partnerships CGI Commitment Partners: Care.com, ILO, IWPR, Kidogo, UN Global Compact, and UN Women Tackling Childcare Report launched at the 2017 WBG/IMF Annual Meetings • Housed in IFC’s Gender Secretariat, funded by WBG’s Jobs MDTF and the Gov. of Japan. • Implemented in partnership with Women, Business and the Law (WBL) and IWPR (consultancy firm). • Aligned with WBG’s Gender Strategy, IFC’s 3.0 vision of creating markets and cascade, and the SDGs. • Substantiates the business case and highlights best practices for employer-supported childcare. • Explores how government regulations can further incentivize employers to support childcare. The WBG Advisory Council on Gender & Development AeroMexico, Afrifresh, Danone Nutricia, Dialog Axiata, Grupo M, HBL, MAS Kreeda, Mindtree, Pandurata Alimentos, Safaricom, Sumitomo Chemical AeroMexico, Afrifresh, Danone Nutricia, Dialog Axiata, Grupo M, HBL, MAS Kreeda, Mindtree, Pandurata Alimentos, Safaricom, Sumitomo Chemical Phase II - Implementation
  46. 46. New WBL Research on Employer-Supported Childcare Laws in 50 Economies: Government Support and Oversight HOW DO WE CLASSIFY CHILDCARE? • Childcare covers children ages 0 to completing 2 years old • Preschool or preprimary education starts at 3 years old WHAT IS THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK? • Legal obligation for employers in the private sector to support or provide childcare • Specific laws and regulations applicable to employer-supported childcare WHAT TYPE OF CHILDCARE ARE WE EXAMINING? • Employer provided or supported on-site childcare • Employer provided or supported off-site child care • Private childcare centers WHAT ARE GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES (e.g. child allowances) AND INCENTIVES (tax/non-tax)? • Incentives for employers in the private sector to support or provide childcare • Incentives and subsidies for private standalone childcare centers • Support to parents with children under the age of primary education A SPOTLIGHT ON THE QUALITY OF CHILDCARE • Including safety standards, teacher qualifications, teacher/student ratio, licensing and registration Source: Women, Business and the Law, 2017
  47. 47. WBL – Key Findings Across 50 Economies Source: Women, Business and the Law, 2017 39 6 4 1 No Yes (based on # women employed) Yes (regardless of # employees) Yes (based on # of employees, gender-neutral) Numberofeconomies 11 Are employers legally obligated to provide or support childcare? • 11 out of 50 economies mandate employers to provide or support early childcare: Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, India, Iraq, Japan, Jordan, The Netherlands, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. • To access the WBL Tackling Childcare Policy Note, click here.
  48. 48. “Why” and “How” Employers Support Childcare HOWWHY
  49. 49. Care Systems for SocialJustice Luiza Carvalho, Regional Director UNWomen for the Americas and theCaribbean Paris , 25th January 2018
  50. 50. Major Gains and Progress Education Women equaled or surpassed men In high school and tertiary level in the majority of countries in the region. Social Protection Increased public spending and coverage in pensions, cash transfers and health Focus of programs on women. Almost 30% more women with pension coverage since1990. Labor Force Participation and Employment Increased labor participation, access to employment, reduction in wage gap From 44.5% of participation to 56.4%, rate of employment grew to almost 50%, income disparity reduced 9 percentage points. Access to personal income Improved access toown income From 41,7% of women that had no income to 28,9%. Fertility Increased access to contraceptives and fertility control methods Total Fertility Rate reduced from 3.51 to 2.26 from 1990 to 2015. Access to modern contraception from 44% to 60%.
  51. 51. Scenarios of Economic Empowerment 72 % 58 % 40 % 8% 17% Labour Force Participatio n Women between 25 and 29 years who aresingle mothers Mothers by the age of 19 years Women who have no income of their own 6 % 30 % 59 % 19 % 31 % 43 % Unpaid work (hours/wee k) 15% 33 h/w 41 h/w 46 h/w GLASSCEILINGS BROKENLADDERS STICKYFLOORS
  52. 52. Transformative Policies
  53. 53. Politics &Policies: Strategy1 Recognizing, reducing and redistributing unpaid care and domestic work Subsidies and incentives for access to critical time saving facilities, public goods and utilities • Formulate comprehensive national care strategies; • Improve care systems for veryyoung children; • Combat systemic undervaluation of paid care work; • Reform maternity, paternity and parental leaves; • Invest in basic social infrastructure such as drinking water, sanitation, electricity. •Basic services and utilities (water, electricity,sanitation) • Transport and public spaces safety andquality •Collective and time saving technologies(washing, cleaning, cooking, access to market and income opportunities, etc.) •Cooperative/pooling of resources (mobility, leisure, care)
  54. 54. Politics &Policies: Strategy2 Establishing universal and gender- responsive social protection systems • Expand the coverage of cashtransfers for families with children; • Extend the coverage of cash transfersfor older persons; • Enhance coverage among informal workers through contributory, non- contributory and mixed socialprotection schemes.
  55. 55. Politics &Policies: Strategy3 Creating more and better jobs and transform labour markets for women’s rights • Establish afloor of labour rights for the entire working population; • Establish, implement and equalize minimum wages; • Takeeffective measures against employment discrimination; • Strengthen labour inspections and direct their efforts towards precarious employment in highly feminized sectors; • Increase employment opportunities for women and promote theiradvancement in maledominated fields
  56. 56. Politics &Policies: Strategy4 Promoting egalitarian family relationships that recognize the diversity of households and the rights and obligations of their members • Reform maternity, paternity and parental leaves; • Develop robust mechanisms to guarantee the exercise ofresponsible fatherhood, including regular child support payments; • Implement integrated measures to prevent and eliminate violenceagainst women at the hands of their partners and husbands.
  57. 57. Politics &Policies: Strategy5 Creating the conditions for women to fully enjoy their sexual and reproductive health and rights: motherhood as a choice • Improve and equalize access to modern contraception; • Prevent teenage pregnancy; • Make comprehensive and gender- responsive sex education universally available; • Remove barriers that preventpregnant teenagers or teenage mothers from continuing their education; • Decriminalize the interruption of pregnancy recognizing it as a major public health concern.
  58. 58. Politics &Policies: Strategy6 Containing the adverse effects of economic slowdown on gender equality • Avoid hyper-restrictive monetary policies; • Maintain current exchange rates orallow for their depreciation; • Protect social spending with positive effects on gender equality andwomen’s economic empowerment; • Incorporate a gender perspectiveinto programmes aimed at managing, reducing and preventing the indebtedness of countries in the Caribbean; • Increase tax revenues through anew fiscal pact; • Advance towards gender-responsive and redistributive public spending.
  59. 59. Care Systems for SocialJustice Increasing women´s participation in the labor market is their right as well as an efficient means for managing demographic transition and taking advantage of increased women´s humancapital Care and leave policies, if adequately designed and implemented, contribute to women´s empowerment outside and within the household, challenge gender stereotypes and discrimination in the workplace and increase men’s responsibilities in the family Astratified care regime will lead to orreinforce stratified socioeconomic outcomes for both women and children. Tackling this is tackling a major source of socioeconomic inequality
  60. 60. Thank you!
  61. 61. Linking Domestic Workers Organizing with Macroeconomic Planning By Dr. Marina Durano, Program Officer Open Society Foundations
  62. 62. I was in a forum so many years ago when I heard a feminist activist describing their strategy for change as similar to how a rice cake is baked. This is a rice cake called bibingka. (Slide 1) Before the modern day ovens made an appearance, the rice cake was cooked in a three-tier charcoal fired clay pot that looks like this. (Slide 2) The bottom layer clay pot has charcoal inside it. The middle layer is where you put the pan with the rice cake batter. The topmost layer is a metal basin that has charcoal in it. You can’t bake the rice cake unless you have fire at the bottom and fire at the top. The feminist activist said that their strategy was to light up the fires of organizing and mobilizing marginalized women at the bottom rungs of society. But they also need to light up the fires of policymaking often made by people at the top. I think it is an analogy worth borrowing. The Strategy: Fire from the top, fire from the bottom
  63. 63. My work at the Open Society Foundations is to generate a grant making portfolio that promotes economic justice for women. Given this broad remit, the Women’s Rights Program decided last year to work more closely on the rights of informal workers with the objective of mobilizing the political power of women in the informal sector to claim their rights. The focus recognizes the nature of the labor market where jobs are increasingly precarious and the need to do something about it. Given that the performance of care work has implications on the kind of occupations and the amount of pay that women are able to access, domestic workers was identified as a meaningful sector that can be targeted for grant making. We provide funding to local organizing as well as to migrant worker organizing. Advocacy work is often targeted at the ratification of ILO Convenion No. 189. A key grantee here is the International Domestic Workers Federation. This portion of grant-making is about lighting the fire at the bottom. Fire from the bottom: Organizing and Mobilizing Domestic Workers
  64. 64. When we first approached the Gender Working Group of the American University Department of Economics, we were interested in supporting their teaching and research under the Program on Gender Analysis of the Economy. We asked them about the possibility of learning from their experience to inform potential replication in other universities. They are how providing training to faculty members from different countries so that they can design the gender courses and perhaps move to change the curriculum to include these new courses. The idea is to produce a new generation of economists and analysts who have the skills to undertake gender analysis. We are looking to ignite the fire at the bottom by providing a grant to Rethinking Economics, a student network based in the UK advocating to increase the pluralism of the economics curriculum. Fire from the top #1: Gender Analysis in Economics Teaching and Economics Curricula
  65. 65. In course of our grant to AU, Hewlett Foundation awarded AU with a $1.8 million grant to host a multi-disciplinary, multi-country team that will develop a care-focused macroeconomic model using South Korea data. Feminist economists working with sociologists will be creating tools for planners and policy makers to answer questions related to recognition, redistribution, and reduction as a consequence of demographic change. I recently gave AU an additional grant to undertake a feasibility study of implementing this care-focused macro-model using Colombian data in cooperation with the Central Bank of Colombia. This is an opportune moment since Colombia is discussing the possibility of designing a National Care System. I am preparing a scoping mission to South Korea and to Colombia to meet with women’s rights organizations and domestic workers organizations to see who might be interested in engaging with these processes. I expect that some of these organizations will be the in-country affiliates of the International Domestic Workers Federation. Fire from the top #2: Care-focused Macroeconomic Policy
  66. 66. Supporting multiple actors with their own specializations is the direction we are taking. What we hope for is synergy and complementarity among different types of organizations so that a range of skills are brought together to work on a viable feminist alternative. Right now, the worlds of domestic workers and macroeconomists are light years apart. But for this portfolio, this need not be the case. Working together to bake a rice cake
  67. 67. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment INFRASTRUCTURE
  68. 68. Infrastructure Infrastructure is often considered to be gender-neutral yet women are disproportionally affected by a lack of water or electricity, by poor local roads and inadequate transport – all of which increase their time spent on domestic tasks. By applying a gender lens to the design of public investment in infrastructure, including information and communications technology (ICTs), infrastructure can both save time and be a source of decent work for women. This session will aim to identify: gender-responsive infrastructure projects and investments that can reduce unpaid care and domestic work; knowledge and data gaps to understand the impact of gender-blind infrastructure on women’s time use; and keys actors to catalyse more gender-responsive investments in infrastructure. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment
  69. 69. Facilitator: Molly Walton (Energy Analyst, International Energy Agency) • Contributors: ─ Women's Economic Empowerment from the KC-NCDDP experience (Joanne Barriga Quintana, Gender Specialist, KALAHI-CIDSS Community- Driven Development Program, Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines) ─ Integrating gender equality into private sector investments (Martine Vullierme, SVP Veolia Africa / Middle East in charge of Operations) ─ Applying a gender lens to infrastructure investment (Cynthia Kamikazi, African Development Bank) ─ Care economy, public infrastructure and social norms: emerging findings from the GrOW program (Arjan de Haan, Program Leader, Employment and Growth, International Development Research Center) Session: Infrastructure
  70. 70. Promoting Gender Equality in Public Procurement focused in Infrastructure in the Philippines: 1st OECD Policy Dialogue on Women's Economic Empowerment 25 January 2018, OECD Conference Centre Achievements and Lessons in Engendering Women's Economic Empowerment in rural PH KALAHI–CIDSS National Community-Driven Development Project
  71. 71. 15 Regions 58 Provinces 800 Municipalities 18,768 Barangays (Villages) Program COVERAGE OF KALAHI CIDSS NATIONAL Community Driven Development (KC NCDDP) 5.16 Million Households
  72. 72. Procurement in Community-Driven Development  gives control over decisions and resources to citizens  empowers women as members & leaders of procurement team for subproject implementation
  73. 73. • Community Led Procurement empowers communities by providing spaces for citizens to  Actively take part in the entire procurement process  Decide on how to address needs & control resources  Participate and manage procurement activities  Ensure accountability, transparency propose use of resource • Community procurement provides equal opportunities for men and women in all procurement activities Procurement in Community-Driven Development
  74. 74. Community Force Account Community  executes the work  procures materials, equipment, labor required for the implementation of the project  ensure capacity to perform such works is available
  75. 75. Committee Membership 63% of community volunteers are women Procurement Team 31,039 63% 35,758 74% 751 87% Bids & Awards Committee Audit & Inventory Team BookKeeper Ensure balanced representation of women and men in the selection of community volunteers in subproject implementation Project Implementation 31,039 63% 26,181 56% Monitoring & Inspectorate 25,728 54%
  76. 76.  Women are given equal opportunities to participate  Men and women have an equal payment rate for labor done Community Force Account
  77. 77. Women’s participation in all capacity building activities is 62% Community Procurement 23,809 65% 30,910 64% 16,586 62% 5,604 62% Community Finance Community Infrastructure Operations & Maintenance Establish balanced (50%) women’s participation in all community capacity development activities generated through the project Capacity Building Activities
  78. 78. “We never thought that ordinary citizens like us would be able to implement a large-scale [infrastructure] project such as this. From the writing of the proposal to canvassing and purchase of the materials for the construction, to computing the salaries of the laborers and coordinating with high-ranking local government officials, we went through all that. We, Women, achieved all that.” Necitas Estrella, 53 years old head of the community volunteers in coastal community of Rizal, Tagkawayan, Quezon Province
  79. 79. Veolia Activités en Afrique Recognizing, Reducing and Redistributing unpaid care and domestic work OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment Thursday 25th 2018 Martine VULLIERME SVP Veolia Africa Middle East
  80. 80. Access Policy to Water & Energy 85 + 155% 2,9 million inhabitants served + 58% 4243 standposts + 62% 65 490 social connections Payment of Water & Energy with a mobile phone (Gabon, Niger) Women are the ones who benefit from investments in water & energy access 2017 figures
  81. 81. 86 CITY TAPS – Niger Prepaid Water Meters Project phase 1: Pilot 20 meters deployed Project phase 2: Experiment 1325 meters being currently deployed in Niamey Partnership SEEN / City Taps Objectives For suscribers: time and money savings, better budget management For SEEN : operational savings (shut off and reactivation costs, invoice reminders), cash management
  82. 82. 87 OASIS – Niger & Project Inspiration : la REcyclerie in Paris, Third location dedicated to circular economy Model : association linked with a commercial company Co-founded with Empow’Her, association who supports women entrepreneurs throughout the world. Project supported by the Veolia Foundation and Veolia in 2016, 2017, 2018 and the SEEN Sponsorship by the Niger First Lady: Lalla Malika Issoufou Inauguration on January 18th 2018 Objectives Train 10 000 women in 3 years Raise awareness of 3000 visitors each year Support 15 women entrepreneurs Financial autonomy of the commercial company in 2019
  83. 83. CARE ECONOMY, PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE, SOCIAL NORMS: EMERGING GROW FINDINGS Arjan de Haan OECD Policy Dialogue Women’s Economic Empowerment 25 January 2018
  84. 84. Syntheses (on-going) 2 GrOW partnership since 2013 Goals • Strengthened evidence: ✓ women’s economic barriers ✓ growth -> empowerment ✓ equality -> growth • Stronger research capacities for innovative analysis on women’s economic empowerment • Research used by decision-makers Outputs after 4 years 14 research projects in 50 countries 96 Southern policy-oriented researchers - 57 women & 39 men 33 research papers 12 working papers 9 policy briefs 11 policy instances / references
  85. 85. Findings emerging from projects GrOW • Definitions really matter. • Central role of the care economy in low- income contexts. • Reinforcing constraints and the role of social norms. 3 Focus today
  86. 86. 40 different definitions of WEE in 25 GrOW papers The Challenges of Measuring Women’s Economic Empowerment: Evidence from the GrOW Program Important distinctions – not always explicit Objective <–> Subjective, Agency Outcomes <–> Processes 1. Definitions - they really matter • SDGs: gender equality more central, but indicators limited, do they reflect gender priorities? • No one-best WEE indicator: but need be appropriate and justified
  87. 87. Unequal burden remains common, growing data In low-income contexts physical and mental depletion (IDS research) Low-income solutions: - child care (Nairobi project) - infrastructure …. Key role of social norms –> but by no means static 5 2. Care economy
  88. 88. • In specific contexts: priority reduce drudgery (often rural infrastructure) • Gender perspective poor household perspective ✓means to reduce drudgery can take different forms ✓impact female labour force participation ✓indirect impacts may be significant, cross generation • Public works ✓can increase time burden ✓reduce drudgery unpaid work • Access is gendered: safety and norms 6 3. Insights WEE research: prioritising infrastructure
  89. 89. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment SHARED RESPONSIBILITY WITHIN THE HOUSEHOLD
  90. 90. Shared responsibility within the household Redistributing tasks within households addresses social norms and expectations about women’s roles, which constitute some of the underlying causes of gender inequality. The unequal share of unpaid care and domestic work has an adverse impact on women’s time use and their and ability to seek economic opportunities outside the home and restricts their voice and agency within the home. This session will aim to identify policies and initiatives to transform negative social norms in the household and key entry points to address the unequal distribution of care and domestic work in policy design and implementation. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment
  91. 91. • Facilitator: Ursula Keller (Gender Policy Advisor, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, and Co-Chair DAC Network on Gender Equality (GENDERNET)) • Contributors: ─ Getting Men in the Kitchen in Mozambique (Julio Langa, Research and Network Programme Manager, HOPEM, and Elisa Mutisse, Head of the Gender Equality Promotion Department, Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Action, Mozambique) ─ Lessons on social norm change from DFID’s Voices for Change Programme (Caroline Enye, Team Leader, Voices for Change programme) ─ Challenging stereotypes in rural households (Azzurra Chiarini, Global Coordinator, Joint Programme on Rural Women’s Economic Empowerment, FAO/IFAD/UN Women and WFP) Session: Shared responsibility within the household
  92. 92. Men in the Kitchen for Gender Equality in Mozambique Presentation by Julio Langa, National Coordinator, HOPEM Network Elisa Mutisse, Head of Gender Department, Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Affairs OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment Paris, January 2018
  93. 93. About HOPEM • HOPEM is a network of organizations and human rights activists in Mozambique. • Founded in 2009, to address masculinities in human rights, gender equality and development. • About 32 staff in 3 offices located in Southern, Central and Northern Mozambique • Uses a wide range of social change initiatives. • Close collaboration with several government departments at the Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Industry and Commerce and others, as well as leading feminist networks such as Forum Mulher and WLSA. • Engagement with multiple human rights and development partners (NGOs, INGOs, UN women, UNFPA etc). • Implemented a number of promising programs, between 2009-2017, with funding support from multiple foundations and donors.
  94. 94. Program outline Objectives •Question opressing masculinities models and contribute to gender equality. •Increase male responsibility in unpaid care work by strengthening relevant knowledge and skills. •Contribute to the prevention of violence and to reducing discrimination against women that happens as a result of rigid division of social roles. •Challenge and transform masculinility and femininity norms in very practical ways. Themes: masculinities, power, violence, gender roles, health and hygiene, nutritional education, agro processing, cooking of innovative recipes with full use of ingredients etc
  95. 95. Program outline (cont.) Program components: Regular trainings (up to 50h) participatory sessions with mobile kitchen follow up sessions media and outreach campaigns monthly exhibitions Catering services Beneficiaries and geographic culture young & young adult men <35 All provinces of Mozambique (11)
  96. 96. • More than 1500 young men and boys directly reached through the regular trainings. • Segola (2012, 2015) evaluation revealed:  89% of participants agreeing that housework should be equally shared between women and men  95% of beneficiaries reporting to have a better understanding of domestic violence, therefore using conversation and dialogue for dealing with conflicts in their relationships  56% of participants reporting increased engagement in household work • Ongoing inclusion of MK in secondary school activities. • Increasing number of NGOs requesting and replicating MK approach. • Educational documentaries by the Mozambican Film Makers Association, National TV of Mozambique, Norwegian Film School exhibiting beneficiaries and others. Some achievements
  97. 97. • Review the training curricula based on participants feedback • Need of additional information on impact of the MK. • Use of engaging, concrete and easily replicable activities. • Multiple level interventions and learn by doing approaches • Transformation of masculinity concepts, stereotypes and practices demands a self reflective process by men themselves. • Multiple views of masculinity towards equal sharing of responsibilities offer entry points to engage men in supporting gender equality. • Strong focus on benefits. Challenges & Lessons learned
  98. 98. Contact information Julio Langa +258 82 28 700 60 Julio.langa@hopem.org.mz julioalanga27@yahoo.com.br www.hopem.org.mz Elisa Mutisse +258 84 86 31 541 lisamutisse@gmail.com
  99. 99. #IBelieveIn5050 Youthful Fresh Vibrant Bold Confident Inspiring Smart Creative People are: Voices for Change ‘marketing gender equality to young people’
  100. 100. 9 step approach to social norm change 1. Individual attitudes need to change 2. Individuals need to know that others in the community are ready to change 3. Public debate and deliberations are required 4. Communities need to change together 5. Positive deviants/role models to be more publicized 6. Benefits of new behavior demonstrated 7. Influential people/early adopters spread the new norm through organized diffusion 8. Highlight opportunities to bring behavior in line with the new norm 9. A new set of sanctions and rewards needs to be created to reinforce the new norm
  101. 101. Social norms marketing • Ambition - create a movement for gender equality, inspiring change • Young women and men needed to get behind this….at scale • Marketing approach – how would it sell? Different to male/female/North/South • Messaging is inspiration and aspirational, creating a sense of belonging • Dosage and saturation of messaging – key • Creating conversations – online, radio, physical spaces, television, music
  102. 102. So what did we achieve? • 2.4 million young people changed attitudes and behaviours around VAWG, women in leadership and women in decision making • Individuals are experiencing personal change and taking action to diffuse gender equality messages in both public and private spaces • Messages are reinforced by branded communications which diffuses at scale and supports personal change • Mass media is reaching broad group of young women and men • Young people recognising Purple show stronger, more positive change on women’s leadership, women in decision making, compared to non Purple people
  103. 103. Challenging stereotypes in rural households: the JPRWEE case 25 January 2018, OECD Policy Dialogue on WEE
  104. 104. WHAT - Outline  Integrated approach to WEE in development projects has multiplying effects → contribution to poverty reduction more sustainable  JPRWEE developed by FAO, IFAD, WFP and UN Women to respond to the multiple challenges faced by rural women in a holistic way  41,000 women and 213,000 HH members directly supported  7 COUNTRIES  4 main OUTCOMES important to recognise INEQUITABLE WORKLOADS
  105. 105. HOW – community level  Community Conversations in Ethiopia: over 6,700 members engaged in self-change process to help eradicate gender discriminatory practices through common “resolutions”  Dimitra clubs in Niger: 3,600 women and men – with the help of a community radio - work together to bring about changes in their communities  Awareness-raising and advocacy events led by rural women activists in Kyrgyzstan for over 1000 participants
  106. 106. HOW – Household level  Household Methodologies for more equitable intra-household relations Through a set of pictorial tools, household members build their vision for the future • Easy to scale up: Through pyramid learning, in few months participants trained in Kyrgyzstan went from 420 to 4700 • Potential to transform gender- based power relations • Improve livelihoods KEY COMPONENT OF SUSTAINABILITY
  107. 107. WHY: EMERGING LESSONS  Challenging stereotypes and working to transform gender relations is a key strategy to promote WEE but necessary to work at both community and HH levels  Interviews show how this twin-tracked approach has made a significant impact on women’s lives  However, challenges remain as to how to measure the results on unpaid care work  JPRWEE uses WEAI – includes time use. But more should be done to build evidence
  108. 108. THANK YOU!
  109. 109. OECD Policy Dialogue on Women’s Economic Empowerment Recognising, Reducing and Redistributing unpaid care and domestic work 25 January 2018 For more information contact: Annelise.Thim@oecd.org

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