Unit IV


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1. Word formation - Affixation - Conversion - Compounding - Clipping - Port Manteau -
Onomatopoeia - Loan words- other minor devices.
2. Patterns of spelling.
3. Phrasal verbs and prepositional phrases.
4. Sentence connectors -Devices for cohesion and coherence

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Unit IV

  1. 1. UNIT IV: Lexis
  2. 2. First Point 1. Word formation - Affixation - Conversion Compounding - Clipping - Port Manteau Onomatopoeia - Loan words- other minor devices. 2. Patterns of spelling. 3. Phrasal verbs and prepositional phrases. 4. Sentence connectors -Devices for cohesion and coherence
  3. 3. Word formation • • • • • • • • • • • Loan Words (Borrowing) Eponyms – cassio, xerox, apple, sandwitch Conversion – text, skype Respelling – picz Port Manteau (Blending) - smog Acronyms - AIDS Clipping - Demo Affixation – prefix & suffix Onomatopoeia – giggle Backformation - enthusiasm Compounding
  4. 4. Patterns of Spelling • English is one of the first non-Latin / non-Greek languages to develop a writing system of its own. • Early English spelling was very consistent • After that the English language had changed. • The peasants had done away with most of the Latin grammar rules. • The language had also acquired many different words and sounds from Norman French.
  5. 5. • The early printers were nearly all foreign. • Caxton, who set up the first printing press in London, was English but had lived mainly in Belgium and had written mostly in Latin. • All his assistants came from the Continent. • English spelling rules were therefore devised almost entirely by non-native speakers of English.
  6. 6. • Dr. Johnson stamped his authority on English spelling with his famous dictionary. • In his day many words were spelt differently by different writers. • He chose his preferred versions, or linked different meanings to different spellings, e.g. 'there - their', paying very little heed to pronunciation. • Many of our worst problems are due to him.
  7. 7. The Basic English spelling system is more complicated • English spells many identical sounds differently when they occur in different positions in a word. • For example, the Sh-sound is spelt as in shop, station, vicious and session;the long A-sound as in plate and play; the long I-sound as in mine and dry.
  8. 8. Several basic spelling patterns are not followed • The 'ee' pattern is not used in at least 305 words: bead, beak, beam, bean; legal, lenient, legion ... • The -er endings pattern of 'mother, father, brother, sister' has at least 140 exceptions: actor, grammar, centre ... • The -en endings pattern of 'hasten, soften, weaken' is not followed by 134 words: abandon, urban, cousin ... • The -a...e- pattern of 'cake, make, take, same' is not followed by 107 words: main, great, eight, straight ...
  9. 9. Words which could be easy have difficult, unpredictable spellings • frend - friend; sed - said; ses - says; Wensday - Wednesday; sistem - system; cof - cough; cum - come; meel - meal; teech - teach; deleet - delete; sardeen sardine, shreek - shriek; theef - thief; weerd - weird; ate - eight; nite - night; buty - beauty; groop - group; moov move; yor - your; yung - young.
  10. 10. Students misspell words which do not follow the basic spelling rules • They fail to double the 'correct' consonants: acount, aply, ocurred. They double wrong consonants instead: accross, affraid, gett, leggs. • Spellers often fail to insert silent letters: bild, dout, frend, yor, yung. They put the surplus letters in the wrong place: freind, detb, lauhg. They insert surplus letters: chaeous, nervious, suddenely, vigourously, gowing, hellow. • When memory fails children try to spell logically: sed, thay, cupl, conjest, wate. • When identically sounding words are spelt differently, spellers often pick the wrong alternative, e.g. there/their, here/hear, two/too/to, allowed/aloud, see/sea, by/bye/buy, weather - whether.
  11. 11. Teachers Role • strike a balance between explaining spelling patterns and conventions, and building on pupils' existing knowledge; • strike a balance between recognising patterns and conventions, and acknowledging exceptions.
  12. 12. Phrasal verbs and prepositional phrases • A phrasal verb is a combination verb +preposition verb +adverb verb +adverb and a preposition. • Phrasal verbs are frequent in English • A phrasal verb has a meaning which is different from the original verb. • Alternative terms for phrasal verb are ‘compound verb’, ‘verb-adverb combination’ and ‘verb-particle construction.
  13. 13. Prepositional Phrase • A prepositional phrase is a phrase whose head is a preposition. For example: To the store From the house Under the fence
  14. 14. • A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition and a noun phrase.
  15. 15. 4. Sentence connectors –Devices for cohesion and coherence • It is a very important skill for students. • Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical link. • This includes use of synonyms, lexical sets, pronouns, verb, tenses, time references, grammatical reference, etc.
  16. 16. • The term coherence refers to content aspects. • The arguments must be clear and comprehensible. • It avoids unnecessary deviation. • The term cohesion refers to formal aspects of writing about the paragraph and sentence level. • In good papers there is a tight fit of meaning and form.
  17. 17. • Cohesion is the glue that holds a piece of writing together. • Cohesive devices include transitional words and phrases - therefore, furthermore. • Repetition of key words and use of reference words are also needed for cohesion.
  18. 18. • Coherence can be the meanings and sequences of ideas that relate to each other. • Typical examples would be general > particular; statement > example; problem > solution; question > answer; claim > counter-claim. When sentences, ideas, and details fit together clearly, readers can follow along easily, and the writing is coherent. The ideas tie together smoothly and clearly.
  19. 19. Repetition of a Key Term or Phrase • This helps to focus our ideas and to keep our reader on track. Example: The problem with contemporary art is that it is not easily understood by most people. Contemporary art is deliberately abstract, and that means it leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking at.
  20. 20. Synonyms • Synonyms are words that have the same meaning, and they provide variety. Example: Myths narrate sacred histories and explain sacred origins. These traditional narratives are, in short, a set of beliefs that are a very real force in the lives of the people who tell them.
  21. 21. Pronouns • This, that, these, those, he, she, it, they, and we are useful pronouns for referring back to something previously mentioned. Example: When scientific experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. Those that work out better the second time around are the ones that promise the most rewards.
  22. 22. Transitional Words • There are many words in English that cue our readers to relationships between sentences, joining sentences together. • Words such as however, therefore, in addition, also, but, moreover, etc. Example: I like autumn and therefore I used to go for long walks in the evening. I used to collect the fallen leaves and admire their colours. But my sister never likes autumn and also she sleeps in the evening.
  23. 23. Sentence Patterns • Sometimes, repeated or parallel sentence patterns can help the reader follow along and keep ideas tied together. Example: (from a speech by President John F. Kennedy) And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.