A SEMINAR ON
SPHERIFICATION IN MOLECULAR
PRESENTED BY :
MR. KARAD SANTOSH NAVNATH
ROLL NO : 08
EXAM NO : 62
M TECH 1ST YEAR
DEPARTMENT OF TECHNOLOGY SUK
Molecular gastronomy is the scientific discipline that explores the
phenomena occurring during culinary transformations.
The objective of molecular gastronomy is the determination of
physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the preparation and
processing of food
Molecular gastronomy is the study of chemical and physical changes
in food during processing.
In 1988, Hungarian physicist Nicholas Kurti and French chemist
Hervey dedicated the term “Molecular & physical gastronomy”
The spherification technique was introduced by Ferran Adria in
It consists of a controlled jellification of a liquid which forms
spheres when submerged in a bath.
Turn any drink or pureed food into small spheres
The spheres have a gelatinous outside with a liquid center.
Caviar -small size.
Ravioli - larger size.
Calcium chloride and sodium alginate are the two basic components
used for this technique.
A slight pressure of the mouth on the sphere makes it burst and
release an amazing explosion of flavor.
TYPES OF SPHERIFICATION
A) Basic/ Direct Spherification.
B) Reverse Spherification.
A) Direct Spherification :
Flavored liquid containing sodium alginate is dripped into a water
bath that is mixed with calcium (either calcium chloride or calcium
Outer layer is induced by calcium to form a thin gel layer, leaving a
In this version, the spheres are easily breakable and should be
Removed and rinsed with
water to remove any excess
Alginate used 0.5% - 1%
B) Reverse spherification
A flavorful calcium rich solution is dropped into a bath of sodium
The calcium causes the sodium alginate to gel into a thin film
around the flavorful liquid.
This method is used to produce larger spheres.
Sodium alginate used 0.5-0.8% .
Chemicals used in Spherification
1) Sodium Alginate :
Origin - Seaweed
Generally Use - 0.5% - 1%
Sodium alginate, which is also called algin.
Natural gelling agent.
Cell walls of certain Brown seaweed species.
This salt is obtained by drying the seaweed, followed by cleaning,
boiling, gelling, and pulverizing it.
A light yellow powder is produced from the process.
Sodium alginate acts as a thickener, creating a viscous fluid.
Alginate does not work properly with mixtures which are too acidic
Alginate mixtures should be allowed to settle after blending in order to
allow the alginate to fully hydrate and trapped air to escape from the
2) Calcium chloride :
At room temperature it is a solid salt.
Calcium chloride, (CaCl2), is a compound of chlorine and calcium
that is a by-product of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
3) Calcium lactate :
Calcium lactate is a calcium salt resulting from the fermentation of
lactic acid and calcium.
White crystalline powder when solid and is highly soluble in cold
Used as a thickener in reverse spherification
Important factors affecting
1) Dispersion and hydration :
Use of cold water.
Avoid hot water because it forms gel before powder dispersed.
Blend dry sodium alginate with dry sugar.
Use of sphere magic.
2) Getting the pH right :
Below pH 3.6 SA convert into insoluble alginic acid.
Use of sodium hexametaphosphate.
3) Avoiding excess calcium :
Avoid hard water.
Use of distilled water.
4) Preserving the flavor of spheres :
Keep sphere in the same liquid.
Use of oil bath.
EQUIPMENT USED FOR
It is a equipment generally used for to make the spheres of fruit juices.
How to operate Spherificator
1) Dissolve 2-3g of sodium alginate into 250ml of the liquid ingredient.
2) Keep for 15 minutes as it is.
3) Prepare a calcium chloride bath :by dissolving 5g of calcium
chloride into 500ml of water.
4) Stir with a spoon until dissolved.
5) Select a needle and screw into the bottom opening of the
6) Strain the sodium alginate mixture through a strainer.
7) Pour the preparation containing alginate into the Spherificator.
8) Drip droplets into the calcium chloride bath by pressing the button.
9) Collect the caviar from the calcium chloride bath using a slotted
spoon or a sieve
10) Rinse the caviar in cold water
Caviar making :Strawberry, Cucumber, Ginger, Lemon, Whiskey.
Ravioli making : fruit juices.
Seasoning of other food : Cakes.
Making dishes delicious.
To decorate alcohol shots.
1)Strawberry Caviar :
Place 150 ml water and strawberry syrup in a blender and blend for 30
Mix sugar with sodium alginate (2-3 gm).
Sprinkle sodium alginate onto the spinning liquid.
Mix until the powder is absorbed by the liquid.
Let rest 15-20 minutes to allow all the air to escape.
Strain strawberry mixture through a small strainer. Pour into
Dissolve the 5gm calcium chloride in 500 ml water by mixing with a
spoon for 30 seconds.
Press the button on the Spherificator and drop the strawberry solution
into the calcium bath and leave sit for 1 minute.
Collect the pearls in a strainer, rinse by water, drain and serve.
It is necessary to improve shelf life or stability of the spheres.
Frozen spherification technique is also useful.
It can be used in the bakery sector.