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Unconscious	cerebral	initiative	and	the	
role	of	conscious	will	in	voluntary	action	
Benjamin	Libet
THE	BEHAVIORAL	AND	BRAIN	
SCIENCES	(1985)	8,	529-566
Introduction	
• A	role	for	"the	unconscious"	in	modifying	and	controlling	volitional	
decisions	and	actions	was	advocated	long	ago	(e.g.,	Freud	1955;	
Whyte	1960).	
• In	the	1980’s	Neuroscientist	Benjamin	Libet ran	a	series	of	
experiments	to	explore	and	compare:	
– the	time	of	the	onset	of	conscious	intention	to	act	and	the	
time	of	onset	of	associated	cerebral	processes.
– does	conscious	intention	or	decision	to	act	actually	initiate	a	
voluntary	event.
– should	subjective	experience	of	this	intention	precede	or	at	
least	coincide	with	the	onset	of	the	specific	cerebral	processes	
that	mediate	the	act.
Test	yourself.	Don’t	try	this	at	home!
How	did	the	scientists	test	their	theory?
• 5	subjects	were	wired	up	to	EMG.	Scalp	
and	wrist/finger.	
• Measured	the	response	time	in	the	
appropriate	muscle	(finger	and	wrist	of	
the	right	hand).	40	trials.	
• For	each	trial,	subjects	were	asked	to	
perform	a	simple	quick	flexion	of	the	
wrist	or	fingers	at	any	time	they	felt	the	
"urge"	or	desire	to	do	so.	
• The	subject	was	then	asked	to	note	the	
position	of	the	moving	dot	when	he/she	
was	aware	of	the	conscious	decision	to	
move	a	finger	or	wrist	by	pointing.
How	did	the	scientists	test	their	theory?
• Important:	They	were	also	free	NOT	to	act	out	
any	given	urge	or	initial	decision	to	act.		
• Each	subject	reported	frequent	experiences	of	
aborted	attempts.
Key	terms	explained
• ‘Voluntary	Action’		and	‘will’	
• “an	act	is	regarded	as	voluntary	and	a	
function	of	the	subject's	will	when:
– (a)	it	arises	internally	and	not	in	direct	
response	to	an	external	stimulus	or	cue;
– (b)	there	are	no	externally	imposed	
restrictions	or	compulsions	that	directly	or	
immediately	control	subjects	initiation	and	
performance	of	the	act.	
– (c)	subjects	feel	introspectively	that	they	are	
performing	the	act	on	their	own	initiative	and	
that	they	are	free	to	start	or	not	to	start	the	
act	as	they	wish.”
Key	terms	explained
• RPs	"readiness	potentials"	
• Voluntary	acts	are	preceded	by	
electrophysiological	"readiness	potentials"	
(RPs).	
• An	RP	is	a	scalp-recorded	slow	negative	shift
in	electrical	potential	that	is	generated	by	the	
brain	and	beginning	up	to	a	second	or	more
before	a	self-paced,	apparently	voluntary	motor
act.	
– With	spontaneous	acts	involving	no	
preplanning,	the	main	negative	RP	shift	begins	
at	about	-550	ms.
What	did	Libet learn?
• General	evidence	suggested	that	brain	activity	
initiated	the	movement	hundreds	of	milli seconds	
before	the	conscious	decision	was	reported.
What	did	Libet learn?	EMG	Traces
Summary	tables
Other	key	learnings	
• Due	to	these	findings	it	was	suggested	free	
will	might	not	exist.
• The	brain	maybe	able	to	consciously	veto	an	
action	that	has	already	started	in	the	brain.
• The	role	of	conscious	will,	would	be	not	to	
initiate	a	specific	voluntary	act	but	rather	to	
select	and	control	an	intentional	outcome.
• Subjects	do	not	judge	the	onset	of	an	mental	
event	such	as	conscious	intention	the	same	
way	they	judge	the	onset	of	an	experience	
induced	externally	by	a	skin	stimulus.
Brain	Veto
• Subjects	in	the	study	of	RPs	and	conscious	
timings	reported	that	during	some	of	the	
trials	a	recallable	conscious	urge	to	act	
appeared	but	was	"aborted"	or	some	how	
suppressed	before	any	actual	movement	
occurred.
• There	is	no	technique	available	for	
recording	and	analyzing	any	RPs	that	may	
be	associated	with	such	spontaneous,	
irregularly	appearing	conscious	urges	to	
act	that	do	not	lead	to	an	actual	motor	
event.
Major	criticisms	of	the	approach
• Reliant	on	individual	response.	Timing	is	subjective.	
– e.g.		Repeated	testing	may	lead	to	boredom,	causing	
an	automatic	response	rather		than	a	conscious	one.
• The	subject’s	voluntary	choice	of	when	to	act	may	
have	been	influenced	by	an	external	requirement.	
– Such	acts	have	features	that	may	compromise	the	
exercise	of	free	volition	or	confuse	its	interpretation.
• Is	the	RP	a	valid	indicator	of	voluntary	acts.	
– Recording	an	RP	requires	averaging	many	events.
• The	kinds	of	deliberative	and	evaluative	processes	
that	are	important	for	free	will	involve	longer	time	
periods	than	those	studied	by	Benjamin	Libet.
• Could	Libets findings	be	applied	to	more	complex	
conscious	decisions	based	on	reasons,	such	as	free	reject	
his	hypothesis!
Summary	&	Conclusion
We	move	before	we	think.
Summary	&	Conclusion
• The	present	experimental	findings	provide	direct	
evidence	that	unconscious	processes	can	and	do	initiate	
voluntary	action	and	point	to	a	definable	cerebral	basis	
for	this	unconscious	function.	
• The	brain	"decides"	to	initiate	or,	at	least,	to	prepare	to	
initiate	the	voluntary	act	before	there	is	any	reportable	
subjective	awareness	that	such	a	decision	has	taken	
place.
• The	brain	has	the	ability	to	veto	an	action	that	has	
already	started.
• Statistical	and	mathematical	evaluation	of	the	
experimental	data	supported	the	view	that	each	of	us	
move	before	we	have	conscious	urge	to.	
• The	freedom	of	the	subject	to	act	at	the	time	of	his	
choosing	actually	provides	the	crucial	element	in	this	
study.
• That	Libet’s study	was	heavily	critiqued.
Impact
• Libet’s experiments	and	measurements	of	the	time	
before	a	subject	is	aware	of	self-initiated	actions	
have	had	a	enormous,	mostly	negative,	impact	on	
the	case	for	human	free	will.
• Building	on	the	essence	of	Libet’s findings.	Donald	
Hoffman’s	work	has	further	explored	the	relationship	
between	the	brain	and	conscious	experience.	
• And	Daniel	Wolpert’s work	has	reflected	and	built	
upon	some	of	Libet’s findings.	For	example	
suggesting	that	the	only	reason	we	have	a	brain	is	to	
guide	adaptable	and	complex	movements.	 And	that	
movement	is	the	only	way	we	have	of	affecting	the	
world	around	us.

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Free Will or Free Won't? - Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action