Developmental Supervision: An Exploratory
Study of A Promising Model
Journal Article Review
Developmental Supervision: An
Exploratory Study of A promising Model
In 1990 an article was published in the Journal of Education by
Stephan Gordon at the University of Pennsylvania. (Glickman)
Carl Glickman developed supervisory approached that called for
educational leaders to have alternative approaches for
supervising teachers to develop improved instruction and
Tactical Phase Strategic Phase
Supervisor Diagnoses teacher
Conceptual level (CL)
Initially Low (CL )
Directive (Directing and
problem solving negotiating)
Non directive (listening,
The Supervisory Behavior Continuum
Nondirective Collaborative Directive Control Directive
Teacher (Mutual plan) (Supervisor-suggested plan) (Supervisor Assign)
Directive Control Behaviors
1. Presenting: Identify the problem.
2. Clarifying: Ask teacher for input into the problem.
3. Listening: Attend carefully to understand the teacher’s
point of view.
4. Problem Solving: Mentally determine the best solution
5. Directing: Tell expectations to the teacher.
6. Clarifying: Ask the teacher for input into the
7. Standardizing: Detail and modify expectations.
8. Reinforcing: Repeat and establish follow-up on
Directive Informational Behaviors
1. Presenting: Identify the goal.
2. Clarifying: Ask the teacher for input into the goal.
3. Listening: Attend carefully to understand the teacher’s point
4. Problem Solving: Mentally determine possible actions.
5. Directing: Provide alternatives for the teacher to consider.
6. Listening: Ask the teacher for input into alternatives.
7. Directing: Frame the final choice.
8. Clarifying: Ask the teacher to choose.
9. Standardizing: Detail the actions to be taken.
10. Reinforcing: Repeat and suggest follow-up on the plan.
When to Use Directive Informational
1. When the teacher or group is functioning at fairly low
2. When the teacher or group does not possess the
knowledge about an issue that the supervisor does
3. When the teacher or group feels confused,
inexperienced, or at a loss for what to do, and the
supervisor knows of successful practices
4. When the supervisor is willing to take responsibility for
what the teacher or group chooses to try
5. When the teacher or group believes that the supervisor
6. When time is short, the constraints are clear, and quick,
concrete actions are needed
Comparing Directive Control with Directive
It is essential that you…
One of my expectations
is that you…
You need to…
You will be required to…
One alternative is…
In my own teaching, I’ve
Which alternative do
you wish to try?
I would be willing to…
Focus of the study was to match the supervisors style with
the teachers cognitive level during teachers post
Gathering Descriptive Data
Supervisors effectiveness at using approaches (D. C. ND)
Teachers view of the use of the approaches
Supervisors view of the use of the approaches
Participants in the Study
1. There were 16 supervisors who were enrolled in either
graduate supervision courses or workshops.
2. 47 teachers took part in the study and represented a
range of urban, suburban, rural, elementary, middle
and secondary schools as well as all the content areas.
Supervisor Training and Field
3 hours training sessions
Review of the principles and stages of clinical
Training included video tape demonstrations, role
play, presentation and feedback.
Clinical supervision phases pre-conference, classroom
observation, analysis, planning,
post conference, action plan, follow up and post
Conference items discussed:
Missing lesson plans.
Missing Grades for Art.
Absence of a teacher’s webpage.
Failure to use the district adopted lesson plan
Failure to use comprehensive behavior charting
Gordon, S. (1990). Developmental Supervision: An
Exploratory Study of A Promising Model. Journal of
Curriculum and Supervision Vol. 5 Num. 4 293-307