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General characteristics of fungi

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The overall general characteristics of fungi is given under each headings. The reproduction process is given brief along with diagrams. The contents are taken from the references given.

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General characteristics of fungi

  1. 1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI DONE BY RAJA RAJESWARI.S I MSC MICROBIOLOGY
  2. 2. TOPICS Etymology Introduction Origin General Characteristics of Fungi References
  3. 3. ETYMOLOGY • The word fungus (plural fungi) is derived from the Latin word ‘fungus’ meaning (“mushroom”) which in turn is derived from the Greek word ‘sphongos’ to describe eukaryotic organisms that are spore-bearing, have absorptive nutrition, lack chlorophyll, and reproduce both sexually and asexually. • The study of fungi is called as mycology. • The person who studies about fungi are called as mycologists. • The study of fungal toxins and their effects is called as mycotoxicology. • The diseases called by fungi in animals are called as mycoses.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • Fungus is a member of large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts, moulds and mushrooms. • These organisms comes separately under the kingdom Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, protists and bacteria. • This is because of the difference in the fungal cell wall which consists of chitin whereas others consists of cellulose, peptidoglycan, etc. • Mycology has often been regarded as a branch of botany, even though it is a separate kingdom in biological taxonomy. • Genetic studies have shown that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants.
  5. 5. ORIGIN • Three billion years • Hippocrates- Cauterization. • Tinder Fungi- “Surgeon’s Agaric”. • Hallucinogenic Fungi- Heart of the Sahara desert • Founder of Modern Mycological Science- Pier Antonio Micheli. • Giacomo Bresadola- taxonomy and mycological diffusion. Fig: Sculptures and etchings clearly outlining mushrooms date back to 1300 BC is found in Mexico and Guatemala, attributing to the Mayan civilization.
  6. 6. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI • ECOLOGY • MORPHOLOGY I. Size II. Structure III. Colony Morphology • PHYSIOLOGY I. Nutrition II. Parameters III. Antibiotic Susceptibility • CLASSIFICATION • REPRODUCTION
  7. 7. ECOLOGY FUNGI Saprophyte Parasite • Heterotrophs • Decomposers Predator Mutualistic • Digest compounds
  8. 8. MORPHOLOGY • Size- unicellular and multicellular. • Structure a. cell wall b. body/ vegetative part i. Thallus ii. Hyphae c. nucleus and cell organelles • Colony morphology a. form b. size c. elevation d. margin e. surface f. opacity g. colour
  9. 9. PHYSIOLOGY • Nutrition a. heterotrophic i. carbon source ii. nitrogen source b. oxygen requirement • Parameters a. temperature b. pH c. light • Antibiotic susceptibility a. resistance b. sensitive
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION I. Chytritiomycota II. Zygomycota III. Ascomycota IV. Basidiomycota V. Urediniomycota VI. Ustilaginomycota VII. Glomeromycota VIII. Microsporidia By International Society of Protistologists (2005), fungi is classified into 8 subclass viz.,
  11. 11. REPRODUCTION • Sexual • Asexual
  12. 12. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION BUDDING
  13. 13. GERMINATION OF ASEXUAL SPORES
  14. 14. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  15. 15. REFERENCES 1. Prescott’s ‘Microbiology’ by Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, Christopher J. Woolverton, McGraw Hill international edition, eighth edition. 2. http://www.nios.ac.in/media/documents/dmlt/Microbiology/Lesson-51.pdf 3. MLG_104bis_2013_History_of_italian_mycology_Iparte.pdf 4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8125/ 5. ‘Microbiology’ by Michael J. Pelczar, E.C.S Chan, Noel R. Krieg, Tata McGraw Hill, fifth edition. 6. International Society of Protistologists, adapted from: Adl, S. M., et al, 2005. 7. https://www.nicholls.edu/boil-ds/Biol156/Lectures/Fungi.pdf

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