•NATURE OF CURRICULUMCURRICULUM-what is taught to students, including planned & unplanned information, skills & attitudes.
•NATURE OF CURRICULUM Klein (1991) categorizes these in deciding what can & should be selected in giving solutions in curriculum decisions: – Content – Purposes, goals & objectives – Materials & resources – Activities & teaching strategies – Evaluation – Grouping, time & space
•NATURE OF CURRICULUM1. CONTENT – Comes from the disciplines or other organized bodies of knowledge & can take several forms, such as facts, concepts & generalization.
•NATURE OF CURRICULUM2. GOALS, OBJECTIVES & PURPOSES – are labels applied to the results of students’ participation in purposeful learning activities. GOALS – referring to general learning outcomes OBJECTIVES – referring to specific learning outcomes PURPOSES – eventual outcomes of learning that result from work in a curriculum over a period of time are commonly called “purposes of education”
•NATURE OF CURRICULUM3. MATERIALS & RESOURCES – include “the objects, places & people used to facilitate the learning process— the tools used with students to assist learning” (Klein, 1991, p. 3).
•NATURE OF CURRICULUM4. ACTIVITIES & TEACHING STRATEGIES – are ways in which students become involved in learning the curriculum ACTIVITIES – can be passive or active, self-directed or teacher- directed TEACHING STRATEGIES – describe teachers’ roles within activities that help students meet the learning outcomes
•NATURE OF CURRICULUM5. EVALUATION – includes the procedures for determining degrees of student learning as well as methods of analyzing & interpreting results. Program evaluation focuses on determining how well the curriculum works.
•NATURE OF CURRICULUM6. GROUPING ,TIME & SPACE – are all important issues in the use of curricula in classrooms GROUPING – refers to the clustering of students for particular experiences either by grade, by experiential background, or by ability levels TIME – Is a limited resource whose allocations are made by groups outside, as well as inside the school setting SPACE – refers to the design & use of school & classroom physical work & play areas
•NATURE OF CURRICULUM ADDITION: – Decisions also have a values dimensions – Curriculum decisions are made on the basis of people’s values & beliefs (Goodlad & Su, 1992, Tyler, 1949) • Values must satisfy the criteria of ideas chosen from alternatives, based on consideration s of their consequences, cherished enough to be made public, & acted upon in some way. • Beliefs refers to ideas accepted as true, but more susceptible to change than values (Raths, Harmin, & Simon, 1978)
Curriculum decisions involve values that people express through actions at different levels of a political decision- making hierarchy encompassing national, state & local levels. These arenas & decision categories typically affected are described here:
• National Level The U.S. Constitution assigns the primary power for educational matters to state governments who delegate authority for certain decisions to local educational authorities, usually school districts.
Examples:a. From the late 1950s through 1970s, federal funding pushed evaluation & brought about significant changes in program evaluation (Stufflebeam & Shinkfeild, 1985).b. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975 changed school curricula by requiring that handicapped individuals be provided educational opportunities in least-restrictive environments (Elmore & Sykes, 1992)c. The Supreme Court decisions banning school- sponsored religious activities deleted curricular activities that had been included on a daily basis in some districts (van Geel, 1991).
•State Level Traditionally, states have boards of education that set of policies for public schools in matters such as; • achievement testing • high school graduation requirements • state subject-specific curriculum guidelines • school evaluation & certification • materials selection processes • teacher certification requirements, & • educational information management systems (Tyree, 1993).
Twenty-two states that adopt textbooks for schools generally exert their control through mandates over the – Curriculum – curriculum guides – content coverage & – testing programs In the early 1990s, 42 states had some form of minimum competency testing that directly affected district curricula. • Mandated state test are usually based on list of basic/required/essential skills that students are expected to master before graduation. Gubernatorial offices & state legislatures through budgeting authority strongly influence the content and purpose of curricula. – Both agencies support or curtail certain programs based on a variety of reasons & values.
•Local level Decisions in all the categories are made or remade locally at either the districts, school or classroom level. Regardless of the level, local curricula must comply with federal & state guidelines.
Community Personnel – Include people not associated with particular schools or districts as employees or students. • Citizens • Parents & Guardians
•COMMUNITY-AT-LARGE Composed of individuals & groups who influence curricula, particularly at societal & institutional levels. Their agendas often dictate the school curricula’s • Purposes • Goals & • Content
•EXAMPLES 1993 Poll showed that: (public surveys)• 48% high schools should offer a wide variety of courses• 51% high schools should concentrate on basic courses such as English, Mathematics, History & Science• 1% did not express their opinions
(values emphasize)In 1994 poll showed that: • At least 90% or more of the respondents believed that people in communities could agree on a set of basic values.
•COMMUNITY-AT-LARGE Government officials & groups – It also seek to influence curriculum matters Professional groups – Include specialists in any of several diciplines Business & industries – Represent groups concerned about what students learn in schools because they provide jobs & careers. Civic groups Environmental groups Parents & guardians
•GOVERNING BOARD/SITE- BASED GROUPS Governing boards – Composed of citizens elected to serve their local school districts. Management groups – Typically schedule public hearings on curriculum matters to provide information to citizens & solicit input from them. – Expected to influence curriculum matters locally through leadership in districts or schools.