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Models of curriculum dvelopment

models of curriculum development, tyler model, taba model, The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model, the oliva model

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Presented by:
Jasleen Kaur Brar
#
What is
curriculum?
• Curriculum is a design plan for
learning that requires the
purposeful and proactive
organization, sequencing, and
management of the interactions
among the teacher, the students,
and the content knowledge we
want students to acquire.
#
Definition of Curriculum
“The planned and guided learning experiences and
intended learning outcomes, formulated through
the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and
experiences, under the auspices of the school, for
the learners’ continuous and willful growth in
personal social competence.”
(Daniel Tanner, 1980)
#
What is a curriculum model?
A model is a format for
curriculum design
developed to meet unique
needs, contexts, and/or
purposes. In order to
address these goals,
curriculum developers
design, reconfigure, or
rearrange one or more key
curriculum components.
#
Curriculum designs
• Subject-Centered Curriculum
• Learner-Centered Curriculum
• Problem-Centered Curriculum
#
Subject/ Teacher-Centered
Curriculum
• This model focuses on the content of the
curriculum.
• The subject centered design corresponds
mostly to the textbook written for the
specific subject.

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Models of curriculum dvelopment

  • 2. # What is curriculum? • Curriculum is a design plan for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive organization, sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the students, and the content knowledge we want students to acquire.
  • 3. # Definition of Curriculum “The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence.” (Daniel Tanner, 1980)
  • 4. # What is a curriculum model? A model is a format for curriculum design developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or purposes. In order to address these goals, curriculum developers design, reconfigure, or rearrange one or more key curriculum components.
  • 5. # Curriculum designs • Subject-Centered Curriculum • Learner-Centered Curriculum • Problem-Centered Curriculum
  • 6. # Subject/ Teacher-Centered Curriculum • This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. • The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject.
  • 7. # •The subject-centered curriculum can be focused on – traditional areas in the traditional disciplines – interdisciplinary topics that touch on a wide variety of fields – on processes such as problem solving – on the goal of teaching students to be critical consumers of information. • A curriculum can also be organized around a subject center by focusing on certain processes, strategies, or life-skills, such as problem solving, decision making, or teamwork.
  • 9. #
  • 10. # Drawbacks Ignores interest of students No process of insight or thinking Remote memory Neglects social problems and demands
  • 11. # Learner-Centered Curriculum •centered on certain aspects of the learners themselves. •may explore the learner’s own life or family history or local environment.
  • 12. # Advantages: • It gives power to the learners: they are identified as the experts in knowing what they need to know. • The constructivist element of this approach honors the social and cultural context of the learner. • It creates a direct link between in-class work and learners' need for literacy outside the classroom.
  • 13. # Disadvantages: • It often relies on the teacher's ability to create or select materials appropriate to learners' expressed needs. • Teachers may also find it difficult to strike an acceptable balance among the competing needs and interests of students.
  • 14. # Teachers Centered V/S Learner- Centered Curriculum Teacher-Centered Learner-Centered  Focus is on instructor  Focus is on both students and instructor  Instructor talks; students listen  Instructor models; students interact with instructor and one another  Students work alone  Students work in pairs, in groups, or alone depending on the purpose of the activity  Instructor monitors and corrects every student utterance  Students talk without constant instructor monitoring  Instructor chooses topics  Students have some choice of topics  Instructor answers student’s questions about language  Students answer each other’s questions, using instructor as an information resource  Classroom is quite  Classroom is often noisy and busy  Instructor evaluates student learning  Students evaluate their own learning; instructor also evaluates
  • 15. # Problem-Centered Curriculum •Problem-centered curriculum, or problem based learning, organizes subject matter around a problem, real or hypothetical, that needs to be solved. •Problem-centered curriculum is inherently engaging and authentic, because the students have a real purpose to their inquiry -- solving the problem.
  • 16. # • Types of problems to be explored may include: – Life situations involving real problems of practice – Problems that revolve around life at a given school – Problems selected from local issues – Philosophical or moral problems Problem-Centered Curriculum
  • 17. # Curriculum Development Models Tyler’s model Taba’s model Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s model Oliva model
  • 18. # THE TYLER MODEL o Introduced in 1949 by Ralph Tyler in his classic book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. ○ One of the best known models for curriculum development. ○ Known for the special attention it gives to the planning phases. ○ deductive for it proceeds from the general (examining the needs of society, for example) to the specific (specifying instructional objectives).
  • 19. # • Tyler recommends that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from three sources: ○ the learners ○ contemporary life outside the school ○ subject matter. • After identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine them by filtering them through two screens: ○ the philosophical screen ○ the psychological screen
  • 20. # • In the Tyler Model, the general objectives that successfully pass through the two screens become what are now popularly known as instructional objectives.
  • 21. # Setting Objectives • What educational purposes should the institution seek to attain? Learning experiences and content • What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? Organizing learning experiences • How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? Evaluation • How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? Figure 1: The Tyler Model of Curriculum Development Stages Process Questions
  • 22. # Society Philosophy Subject Matter SOURCES Objectives Screens Instructional Objectives Learner Psychology Selection of Learning Experiences Organization of Learning Experiences Evaluation Curriculum Planning Curriculum Design Curriculum Evaluation
  • 23. # Why do you need instructional objectives in your curriculum? 1. When clearly defined objectives are lacking, there is – no sound basis for the selection or designing of instructional materials, content, or methods. – If you don't know where you are going, it is difficult to select a suitable means for getting there. 2. To find out whether or not the objective, has in fact been accomplished. • Test items designed to measure whether important instructional outcomes have been accomplished can be selected or created intelligently only when those instructional outcomes have been made explicit.
  • 24. # 3. Good objectives provide students with a means to organize their own efforts toward accomplishment of those objectives. • Experience has shown that with clear objectives in view, students at all levels are better able to decide what activities on their part will help them get to where it is important for them to go.
  • 25. # The Taba Model • Another approach to curriculum development was proposed by Hilda Taba in her book Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice published in 1962. • An inductive approach to curriculum development, starting with specifics and building up to a general design . • Taba took what is known as a grass-roots approach to curriculum development.
  • 26. # • She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. • Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather initially in creating a general curriculum design. • She noted 7 major steps to her grass-roots model in which teachers would have major input. • She was of the opinion that the Tyler model was more of an administrative model.
  • 27. # Hilda Taba : Grassroots Approach 1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society. 2. Formulation of learning objectives. 3. Selection of the learning content. 4. Organization of learning content. 5. Selection of the learning experiences. 6. Organization of learning activities. 7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
  • 28. # The Taba Model • Diagnosis of need: The teacher who is also the curriculum designer starts the process by identifying the needs of students for whom the curriculum is planned. For example, the majority of students are unable to think critically. • Formulation of objectives: After the teacher has identified needs that require attention, he or she specifies objectives to be accomplished.
  • 29. # The Taba Model • Selection of content: The objectives selected or created suggest the subject matter or content of the curriculum. Not only should objectives and content match, but also the validity and significance of the content chosen needs to be determined. i.e. the relevancy and significance of content. • Organisation of content: A teacher cannot just select content, but must organise it in some type of sequence, taking into consideration the maturity of learners, their academic achievement, and their interests.
  • 30. # • Selection of learning experiences: Content must be presented to students and students must be engaged with the content. At this point, the teacher selects instructional methods that will involve the students with the content. • Organisation of learning activities: Just as content must be sequenced and organised, so must the learning activities. Often, the sequence of the learning activities is determined by the content. But the teacher needs to keep in mind the particular students whom he or she will be teaching.
  • 31. # • Evaluation and means of evaluation: The curriculum planner must determine just what objectives have been accomplished. Evaluation procedures need to be designed to evaluate learning outcomes.
  • 32. # Evaluation Formulation Of Objectives Diagnosis of Needs Selection of Content Organization Of Content Selection of Learning Activities Organization of Learning Activities Teacher Input Teacher Input Teacher Input Taba’s Curriculum Development Model
  • 33. # The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model • Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to be accomplished.
  • 34. # Bases (external Variables) Goals, objectives And Domains Curriculum Implementation Curriculum Evaluation Curriculum Designing Feedback The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model
  • 35. # GOALS & OBJECTIVES CURRICULUM DESIGNING Decisions as to design(s) made by the responsible curriculum planning group(s) for a particular educational center. Various prior decisions by political and social agencies may limit the final design(s). CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION (Instruction)Decisions as to instructional modes made by responsible teacher(s). The curriculum plan includes alternative modes with suggestions as to resources, media, and organization, thus encouraging flexibility and more freedom for the teacher(s) and students. CURRICULUM EVALUATION Decisions as to evaluative procedures for determining learner progress made by the responsible teacher(s). Decisions as to evaluative procedures for evaluating the curriculum. Plans are made by the responsible planning group. Evaluative data become bases for decision making in further planning. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s conception of the curriculum planning process:
  • 36. # THE OLIVA MODEL • The Oliva Model is a deductive model that offers a faculty a process for the complete development of a school’s curriculum. • Oliva recognized the needs of students in particular communities are not always the same as the general needs of students throughout our society.
  • 37. # THE OLIVA MODEL In the Oliva Model a faculty can fashion a plan: • for the curriculum of an area and design ways in which it will be carried out through instruction • to develop school-wide interdisciplinary programs that cut across areas of specialization such as career education, guidance, and class activities. • for a faculty to focus on the curricular components of the model to make programmatic decisions. • to allow a faculty to concentrate on the instructional components.
  • 38. # Summarization • Introduction • Definition • Curriculum designs – Subject-Centered Curriculum – Learner-Centered Curriculum – Problem-Centered Curriculum • Curriculum models – Tyler’s model – Taba’s model – Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s model – Oliva model
  • 39. #
  • 40. #
  • 41. # Recaptualization Fill in the blanks • In teacher centered curriculum, the focus is only on ____. • Tyler model was introduced in ____. • The grassroot approach was given by ____. • The disadvantage of learner centered curriculum is ____. • Various sources in curriculum planning in Tyler model are _____.
  • 42. # True/False • Subject centered curriculum focuses on the content of the curriculum. T/F • Oliva model is an inductive model. T/F • Hilda Taba believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers. T/F • Tyler model was introduced in 1949. T/F • Problem centered curriculum explores philosophical or moral problems. T/F
  • 43. # ASSIGNMENT To evaluate education curriculum and enlist any deficits according to your point of view. due date- 18 March, 2014
  • 44. # Bibliography • Neerja KP, Textbook of Nursing Education;[1];270-76 • Basavanthappa T B. Nursing Education; 2nd edition;141-46 • http://curriculum-models-by-fkv.wikispaces.com/Taba+Model • http://prezi.com/abq6f-nhdzma/hilda-tabas-inverted-model-of-curriculum- development/ • http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fr ed%20C.%20Curriculum%20Development-Inductive%20Models- Schooling%20V2%20N1%202011.pdf
  • 45. # A GOOD CURRICULUM CAN CHANGE THE FACE AND FATE OF A NATION
  • 46. #

Editor's Notes

  1. A deductive model proceeds from the general (examining the needs of society, for example) to the specific (specifying instructional objectives, for example). ○ An inductive model starts with the development of curriculum materials and leads to generalization.