SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Educational Aims, Goals
and Objectives
Outline
• Introduction
1. Terminological Issues
• Aims
• Goals
• Objectives
2. Formulating Instructional Objectives
Blooms’ Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
3. Smart Objectives
Conclusion
Bibliography
Aims
• General statements that provide a sense of direction and serve as guiding
principles for educational policy;
• Aims are the translations of the general philosophy and needs of the
country;
• Aims are designed at the national/state level by policy making groups;
• Aims can be based on the constitution of the country;
Ornstein (1990, p. 84)
«We use the term Aims to refer to broad statments about the intent of
education. They are value-laden statments, written by panels, commissions, or
policy-making groups, that express a philosophy of education and concepts of
the social role of schools and the needs of schools and youth. In short, they
are broad guides for translating the needs of society into educational policy»
Ennaji (1994, p. 158)
• « Educational theorists distinguish three types of ELT aims: the goverment’s
aims, the educational administrators’ aims, and the teachers’ aims. The first
type is termed ends, the second goals and the third objectives »
Examples of aims
• To prepare students for democratic citizenship;
• To develop a moral character and personal descipline;
• To strenghten ethical and spiritual values;
• To teach the rights and duties of citizenship;
• To encourage creative and critical thinking.
Goals
• Derived from aims;
• Aims become goals when they become more specific and refer to a particular
school or school system and to a specific subject area of the curriculum;
• Goals translate aims into statements that will describe what schools are
expected to accomplish;
• Goals are more specific and definite than aims, but they are still
nonbehavioral and therefore nonobservable and non-measureable.
Wilson (2005, p. 46)
• « Goals are the statements of educational intention which are more specific
than aims but less specific than objectives »
Examples of Goals
• The development of reading skills;
• The appreciation of arts;
• The understanding of scientific and mathematical concepts.
Objectives
Philosophy ----Aims--- Goals -----Objectives
• Objectives are stated in observable and measurable terms (outcomes,
proficiencies or competences);
• Objectives are behavioral in nature and more precise than goals;
• Objectives state what students should know at the end of the course and
what is expected from them;
Examples of Objectives
• To identify the main idea of the author;
• To be able to express advice, apology, complaint, etc.;
• To be able to locate the topic sentence and the supporting details;
• To be aware of the differences between the present simple and present
perfect.
Why use learning objectives?
(Gronlund, 2000)
• To provide a focus for instruction;
• To provide guidelines for learning;
• To provide targets for assessment;
• To communicate expectations to learners;
• To convey instructional intent to others;
• To provide for evaluation of instruction.
Types of Educational Objectives
(Orenstein, 1990)
• Program Objectives:
• Address subjects at particular grade levels
• Course Objectives:
• Relate to particular courses within grade levels
• Classroom Objectives:
• Divided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectives
Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956)
• Cognitive Domain;
• Affective Domain;
• Psychomotor Domain;
Cognitive Domain
• Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Knowledge;
• Comprehension;
• Application;
• Analysis;
• Synthesis;
• Evaluation;
Affective Domain
• Krathwohl’s Taxonomy
• Receiving;
• Responding;
• Valuing;
• Organization;
• Characterization;
Psycho-motor Domain
• Harrow’s Taxonomy
• Reflex Movements;
• Fundamental Movements;
• Perceptual Abilities;
• Physical Abilities;
• Skilled Movements;
• Nondiscursive Communication.
Smart Objectives
• S--------- Specific;
• M---------Mesurable;
• A----------Achievable;
• R----------Result-based;
• T-----------Time-bound.
Conclusion
• In sum, an objective is a specific, measurable and observable behviour of less
than a day’s duration. A goal is the outcome of successfully completed
objectives measured over a series of days. An aim is the product of a long
term endevour measured over a course of one or more years.
Bibliography
• Anderson, L.W. and Krathwohl(Eds.) 2001 A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy
of Educational Objectives.New York, Longman.
• Ennaji, M. & Sadiqi, F? (1994). Applications of Modern Linguistics. Afrique Orient.
• Grunlund, N. (1990). Mesurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New York: MacGraw-Hill.
• Orenstien, A. (1990). Strategies for Effective Teaching. Loyla University of Chicago.

More Related Content

What's hot

Models of curriculum
Models of curriculumModels of curriculum
Models of curriculum
j_allsopp
 
Curriculum development
Curriculum developmentCurriculum development
Curriculum development
cuterodz042909
 
Foundation of curriculum
Foundation of curriculumFoundation of curriculum
Foundation of curriculum
Nourin Arshad
 
Curriculum organization and design
Curriculum organization and designCurriculum organization and design
Curriculum organization and design
Carl Richard Dagalea
 
Skilbeck model of curriculum development
Skilbeck model of curriculum developmentSkilbeck model of curriculum development
Skilbeck model of curriculum development
HadeeqaTanveer
 

What's hot (20)

Models of curriculum
Models of curriculumModels of curriculum
Models of curriculum
 
Instructional objectives ppt.
Instructional objectives ppt.Instructional objectives ppt.
Instructional objectives ppt.
 
Curriculum its meaning, nature and scope
Curriculum   its meaning, nature and scopeCurriculum   its meaning, nature and scope
Curriculum its meaning, nature and scope
 
Tyler model of curriculum development
Tyler model of curriculum developmentTyler model of curriculum development
Tyler model of curriculum development
 
Curriculum development
Curriculum developmentCurriculum development
Curriculum development
 
Problems and issues in curriculum development
Problems and issues in curriculum developmentProblems and issues in curriculum development
Problems and issues in curriculum development
 
Subject centred curriculum
Subject centred curriculumSubject centred curriculum
Subject centred curriculum
 
Learner centred curriculum
Learner centred curriculumLearner centred curriculum
Learner centred curriculum
 
Foundation of curriculum
Foundation of curriculumFoundation of curriculum
Foundation of curriculum
 
Role of teacher in curriculum development
Role of teacher in curriculum developmentRole of teacher in curriculum development
Role of teacher in curriculum development
 
Stake's Model of curriculum Evaluation
Stake's Model of curriculum Evaluation Stake's Model of curriculum Evaluation
Stake's Model of curriculum Evaluation
 
Curriculum change/ Curriculum Change Process / Issues in Curriculum Change
Curriculum change/ Curriculum Change Process / Issues in Curriculum Change Curriculum change/ Curriculum Change Process / Issues in Curriculum Change
Curriculum change/ Curriculum Change Process / Issues in Curriculum Change
 
Curriculum organization and design
Curriculum organization and designCurriculum organization and design
Curriculum organization and design
 
Placement & diagnostic assessment
Placement & diagnostic assessmentPlacement & diagnostic assessment
Placement & diagnostic assessment
 
Skilbeck model of curriculum development
Skilbeck model of curriculum developmentSkilbeck model of curriculum development
Skilbeck model of curriculum development
 
Curriculum Development Process in Pakistan
Curriculum Development Process in PakistanCurriculum Development Process in Pakistan
Curriculum Development Process in Pakistan
 
TYPES OF CURRICULUM
TYPES OF CURRICULUMTYPES OF CURRICULUM
TYPES OF CURRICULUM
 
Elements/Components of Curriculum
Elements/Components of CurriculumElements/Components of Curriculum
Elements/Components of Curriculum
 
Components of Curriculum
Components of CurriculumComponents of Curriculum
Components of Curriculum
 
Problems in curriculum implementation
Problems in curriculum implementationProblems in curriculum implementation
Problems in curriculum implementation
 

Similar to Aims, goals and objectives

Curriculum development sreens
Curriculum development  sreensCurriculum development  sreens
Curriculum development sreens
sm mm
 
Unit I - Nature of the Curriculum.pptx
Unit I - Nature of the Curriculum.pptxUnit I - Nature of the Curriculum.pptx
Unit I - Nature of the Curriculum.pptx
RegineVelano1
 
Curriculumdevelopment 120207205808-phpapp01
Curriculumdevelopment 120207205808-phpapp01Curriculumdevelopment 120207205808-phpapp01
Curriculumdevelopment 120207205808-phpapp01
Bherlyn Cantil
 

Similar to Aims, goals and objectives (20)

Foundations of education 831 unit 5 aims of education - dr. zaheer ahmad
Foundations of education 831   unit 5 aims of education - dr. zaheer ahmadFoundations of education 831   unit 5 aims of education - dr. zaheer ahmad
Foundations of education 831 unit 5 aims of education - dr. zaheer ahmad
 
Planning aims and objectives in language programs.pptx 1
Planning aims and objectives in language programs.pptx 1Planning aims and objectives in language programs.pptx 1
Planning aims and objectives in language programs.pptx 1
 
Educational Objectives
Educational Objectives Educational Objectives
Educational Objectives
 
Curriculum development sreens
Curriculum development  sreensCurriculum development  sreens
Curriculum development sreens
 
55610 633999983287741250
55610 63399998328774125055610 633999983287741250
55610 633999983287741250
 
2 Writing Behavioral Objectives Taxonomy of educational objectives (2).pdf
2 Writing Behavioral Objectives Taxonomy of educational objectives (2).pdf2 Writing Behavioral Objectives Taxonomy of educational objectives (2).pdf
2 Writing Behavioral Objectives Taxonomy of educational objectives (2).pdf
 
PS Unit 2.pptx
PS Unit 2.pptxPS Unit 2.pptx
PS Unit 2.pptx
 
Unit I - Nature of the Curriculum.pptx
Unit I - Nature of the Curriculum.pptxUnit I - Nature of the Curriculum.pptx
Unit I - Nature of the Curriculum.pptx
 
Curriculumdevelopment 120207205808-phpapp01
Curriculumdevelopment 120207205808-phpapp01Curriculumdevelopment 120207205808-phpapp01
Curriculumdevelopment 120207205808-phpapp01
 
Curriculum Development
Curriculum DevelopmentCurriculum Development
Curriculum Development
 
Aims 2018
Aims 2018Aims 2018
Aims 2018
 
Chapter 6 curriculum design
Chapter 6 curriculum design Chapter 6 curriculum design
Chapter 6 curriculum design
 
_The-nature-and-scope-of-curriculum-development
_The-nature-and-scope-of-curriculum-development_The-nature-and-scope-of-curriculum-development
_The-nature-and-scope-of-curriculum-development
 
curriculum-development1.ppt
curriculum-development1.pptcurriculum-development1.ppt
curriculum-development1.ppt
 
Designing c urriculum new
Designing c urriculum newDesigning c urriculum new
Designing c urriculum new
 
Curriculum aku
Curriculum akuCurriculum aku
Curriculum aku
 
Curriculum aku
Curriculum akuCurriculum aku
Curriculum aku
 
55610_633999983287741250.ppt
55610_633999983287741250.ppt55610_633999983287741250.ppt
55610_633999983287741250.ppt
 
UNDERLYING ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN DESIGNING A CURRICULUM
UNDERLYING ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN DESIGNING A CURRICULUMUNDERLYING ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN DESIGNING A CURRICULUM
UNDERLYING ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN DESIGNING A CURRICULUM
 
GROUP 2_ REPORTS_PROF ED 6.pptxggggggggg
GROUP 2_ REPORTS_PROF ED 6.pptxgggggggggGROUP 2_ REPORTS_PROF ED 6.pptxggggggggg
GROUP 2_ REPORTS_PROF ED 6.pptxggggggggg
 

More from Mohamed Benhima

The Errors Made in the Pronunciation of Moroccan EFL Learners
The Errors Made in the Pronunciation of Moroccan EFL LearnersThe Errors Made in the Pronunciation of Moroccan EFL Learners
The Errors Made in the Pronunciation of Moroccan EFL Learners
Mohamed Benhima
 
Teaching listening in secondary schools
Teaching listening in secondary schoolsTeaching listening in secondary schools
Teaching listening in secondary schools
Mohamed Benhima
 

More from Mohamed Benhima (16)

The Errors Made in the Pronunciation of Moroccan EFL Learners
The Errors Made in the Pronunciation of Moroccan EFL LearnersThe Errors Made in the Pronunciation of Moroccan EFL Learners
The Errors Made in the Pronunciation of Moroccan EFL Learners
 
Text based terminology of the moroccan civil code arabic, french and english
Text based terminology of the moroccan civil code arabic, french and englishText based terminology of the moroccan civil code arabic, french and english
Text based terminology of the moroccan civil code arabic, french and english
 
Teaching listening in secondary schools
Teaching listening in secondary schoolsTeaching listening in secondary schools
Teaching listening in secondary schools
 
Diagnostic assessment
Diagnostic assessmentDiagnostic assessment
Diagnostic assessment
 
Teaching listening in secondary schools (a survey in Morocco)
Teaching listening in secondary schools (a survey in Morocco)Teaching listening in secondary schools (a survey in Morocco)
Teaching listening in secondary schools (a survey in Morocco)
 
مصادر الأخطاء
مصادر الأخطاءمصادر الأخطاء
مصادر الأخطاء
 
مسطرة الاستيداع
مسطرة الاستيداعمسطرة الاستيداع
مسطرة الاستيداع
 
وضعيات الموظف
وضعيات الموظفوضعيات الموظف
وضعيات الموظف
 
النظام الاساسي العام للوظيفة العمومية
النظام الاساسي العام للوظيفة العموميةالنظام الاساسي العام للوظيفة العمومية
النظام الاساسي العام للوظيفة العمومية
 
النظام الأساسي الخاص بموظفي وزارة التربية الوطنية
النظام الأساسي الخاص بموظفي وزارة التربية الوطنيةالنظام الأساسي الخاص بموظفي وزارة التربية الوطنية
النظام الأساسي الخاص بموظفي وزارة التربية الوطنية
 
The Need for Planning in Education
The Need for Planning in EducationThe Need for Planning in Education
The Need for Planning in Education
 
التخطيط التربوي
التخطيط التربويالتخطيط التربوي
التخطيط التربوي
 
Teachig Grammar in the post-method era
Teachig Grammar in the post-method eraTeachig Grammar in the post-method era
Teachig Grammar in the post-method era
 
Presentation natural-classes-and-naturalness-2-3
Presentation natural-classes-and-naturalness-2-3Presentation natural-classes-and-naturalness-2-3
Presentation natural-classes-and-naturalness-2-3
 
Test item formats: definition, types, pros and cons
Test item formats: definition, types, pros and consTest item formats: definition, types, pros and cons
Test item formats: definition, types, pros and cons
 
Revolutionary critical pedagogy in langauge education
Revolutionary critical pedagogy in langauge educationRevolutionary critical pedagogy in langauge education
Revolutionary critical pedagogy in langauge education
 

Recently uploaded

IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdffIATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
17thcssbs2
 
Industrial Training Report- AKTU Industrial Training Report
Industrial Training Report- AKTU Industrial Training ReportIndustrial Training Report- AKTU Industrial Training Report
Industrial Training Report- AKTU Industrial Training Report
Avinash Rai
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Basic_QTL_Marker-assisted_Selection_Sourabh.ppt
Basic_QTL_Marker-assisted_Selection_Sourabh.pptBasic_QTL_Marker-assisted_Selection_Sourabh.ppt
Basic_QTL_Marker-assisted_Selection_Sourabh.ppt
 
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
UNIT – IV_PCI Complaints: Complaints and evaluation of complaints, Handling o...
 
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
Incoming and Outgoing Shipments in 2 STEPS Using Odoo 17
 
Jose-Rizal-and-Philippine-Nationalism-National-Symbol-2.pptx
Jose-Rizal-and-Philippine-Nationalism-National-Symbol-2.pptxJose-Rizal-and-Philippine-Nationalism-National-Symbol-2.pptx
Jose-Rizal-and-Philippine-Nationalism-National-Symbol-2.pptx
 
How to Break the cycle of negative Thoughts
How to Break the cycle of negative ThoughtsHow to Break the cycle of negative Thoughts
How to Break the cycle of negative Thoughts
 
How to Split Bills in the Odoo 17 POS Module
How to Split Bills in the Odoo 17 POS ModuleHow to Split Bills in the Odoo 17 POS Module
How to Split Bills in the Odoo 17 POS Module
 
2024_Student Session 2_ Set Plan Preparation.pptx
2024_Student Session 2_ Set Plan Preparation.pptx2024_Student Session 2_ Set Plan Preparation.pptx
2024_Student Session 2_ Set Plan Preparation.pptx
 
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General QuizPragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
Pragya Champions Chalice 2024 Prelims & Finals Q/A set, General Quiz
 
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdffIATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
IATP How-to Foreign Travel May 2024.pdff
 
PART A. Introduction to Costumer Service
PART A. Introduction to Costumer ServicePART A. Introduction to Costumer Service
PART A. Introduction to Costumer Service
 
How to the fix Attribute Error in odoo 17
How to the fix Attribute Error in odoo 17How to the fix Attribute Error in odoo 17
How to the fix Attribute Error in odoo 17
 
Industrial Training Report- AKTU Industrial Training Report
Industrial Training Report- AKTU Industrial Training ReportIndustrial Training Report- AKTU Industrial Training Report
Industrial Training Report- AKTU Industrial Training Report
 
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. SalemOperations Management - Book1.p  - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
Operations Management - Book1.p - Dr. Abdulfatah A. Salem
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptxAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Discuss App.pptx
 
NCERT Solutions Power Sharing Class 10 Notes pdf
NCERT Solutions Power Sharing Class 10 Notes pdfNCERT Solutions Power Sharing Class 10 Notes pdf
NCERT Solutions Power Sharing Class 10 Notes pdf
 
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 4pptx.pptx
 
Instructions for Submissions thorugh G- Classroom.pptx
Instructions for Submissions thorugh G- Classroom.pptxInstructions for Submissions thorugh G- Classroom.pptx
Instructions for Submissions thorugh G- Classroom.pptx
 
Phrasal Verbs.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Phrasal Verbs.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXPhrasal Verbs.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Phrasal Verbs.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
 
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdfDanh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
Danh sách HSG Bộ môn cấp trường - Cấp THPT.pdf
 
How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
How to Manage Notification Preferences in the Odoo 17
 

Aims, goals and objectives

  • 2. Outline • Introduction 1. Terminological Issues • Aims • Goals • Objectives 2. Formulating Instructional Objectives Blooms’ Taxonomy of Educational Objectives 3. Smart Objectives Conclusion Bibliography
  • 3. Aims • General statements that provide a sense of direction and serve as guiding principles for educational policy; • Aims are the translations of the general philosophy and needs of the country; • Aims are designed at the national/state level by policy making groups; • Aims can be based on the constitution of the country;
  • 4. Ornstein (1990, p. 84) «We use the term Aims to refer to broad statments about the intent of education. They are value-laden statments, written by panels, commissions, or policy-making groups, that express a philosophy of education and concepts of the social role of schools and the needs of schools and youth. In short, they are broad guides for translating the needs of society into educational policy»
  • 5. Ennaji (1994, p. 158) • « Educational theorists distinguish three types of ELT aims: the goverment’s aims, the educational administrators’ aims, and the teachers’ aims. The first type is termed ends, the second goals and the third objectives »
  • 6. Examples of aims • To prepare students for democratic citizenship; • To develop a moral character and personal descipline; • To strenghten ethical and spiritual values; • To teach the rights and duties of citizenship; • To encourage creative and critical thinking.
  • 7. Goals • Derived from aims; • Aims become goals when they become more specific and refer to a particular school or school system and to a specific subject area of the curriculum; • Goals translate aims into statements that will describe what schools are expected to accomplish; • Goals are more specific and definite than aims, but they are still nonbehavioral and therefore nonobservable and non-measureable.
  • 8. Wilson (2005, p. 46) • « Goals are the statements of educational intention which are more specific than aims but less specific than objectives »
  • 9. Examples of Goals • The development of reading skills; • The appreciation of arts; • The understanding of scientific and mathematical concepts.
  • 10. Objectives Philosophy ----Aims--- Goals -----Objectives • Objectives are stated in observable and measurable terms (outcomes, proficiencies or competences); • Objectives are behavioral in nature and more precise than goals; • Objectives state what students should know at the end of the course and what is expected from them;
  • 11. Examples of Objectives • To identify the main idea of the author; • To be able to express advice, apology, complaint, etc.; • To be able to locate the topic sentence and the supporting details; • To be aware of the differences between the present simple and present perfect.
  • 12. Why use learning objectives? (Gronlund, 2000) • To provide a focus for instruction; • To provide guidelines for learning; • To provide targets for assessment; • To communicate expectations to learners; • To convey instructional intent to others; • To provide for evaluation of instruction.
  • 13. Types of Educational Objectives (Orenstein, 1990) • Program Objectives: • Address subjects at particular grade levels • Course Objectives: • Relate to particular courses within grade levels • Classroom Objectives: • Divided into unit objectives and lesson plan objectives
  • 14. Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956) • Cognitive Domain; • Affective Domain; • Psychomotor Domain;
  • 15. Cognitive Domain • Bloom’s Taxonomy • Knowledge; • Comprehension; • Application; • Analysis; • Synthesis; • Evaluation;
  • 16. Affective Domain • Krathwohl’s Taxonomy • Receiving; • Responding; • Valuing; • Organization; • Characterization;
  • 17. Psycho-motor Domain • Harrow’s Taxonomy • Reflex Movements; • Fundamental Movements; • Perceptual Abilities; • Physical Abilities; • Skilled Movements; • Nondiscursive Communication.
  • 18. Smart Objectives • S--------- Specific; • M---------Mesurable; • A----------Achievable; • R----------Result-based; • T-----------Time-bound.
  • 19. Conclusion • In sum, an objective is a specific, measurable and observable behviour of less than a day’s duration. A goal is the outcome of successfully completed objectives measured over a series of days. An aim is the product of a long term endevour measured over a course of one or more years.
  • 20. Bibliography • Anderson, L.W. and Krathwohl(Eds.) 2001 A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.New York, Longman. • Ennaji, M. & Sadiqi, F? (1994). Applications of Modern Linguistics. Afrique Orient. • Grunlund, N. (1990). Mesurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New York: MacGraw-Hill. • Orenstien, A. (1990). Strategies for Effective Teaching. Loyla University of Chicago.