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PIT Interpretation - Use only PIT-W EN.ppt

A pile integrity test (PIT) is a non-destructive testing method used to assess the integrity of a pile by analyzing its response to an impact or vibration. The test involves striking the pile head with a hammer or applying a vibration to the pile and measuring the resulting waveforms. The waveforms are recorded using sensors that are attached to the pile and are analyzed using specialized software. The information obtained from the analysis can provide useful information about the structural integrity of the pile, such as the presence of cracks, voids, or other defects. PIT is commonly used in the construction and engineering industries to assess the quality and integrity of piles in foundation systems for buildings, bridges, and other structures. It is a relatively quick and cost-effective method of testing that can provide valuable information about the condition of a pile without damaging or destroying it. PIT can be used in combination with other testing methods, such as sonic logging or borehole drilling, to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the pile and the surrounding soil conditions. #pit #bridgeengineering #civilengineering #nepaliengineer #construction #civilengineer #bridgeengineer #siteengineer #pilefoundation #pilecap #riverbridge #bridge #pit #piletesting #nepalitechnocrats #piling

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PIT(Pile Integrity Test)
Application and Data
Interpretation
Nepali Technocrats|2023
Pile Integrity Testing looks for defects
Small hammer
impact device
Accelerometer
measures response
(defect)
One person operation
Nepali
Technocrats|2023
PIT-FV/VV PIT-X
PIT-X
• Wireless and Small
• Fixed Sampling Freq.
• Able to adjust senility
• Input of gage SN
Nepali Technocrats|2023
Accelerometers
Non-instrumented hammer Instrumented hammer
Nepali Technocrats|2023
PIT motivation and advantages
• prime function is to locate major defects
(to evaluate questionable shafts)
Important
• inexpensive, can test many piles
(good for quality assurance)
• no advance selection required
(good for forensic purposes)
Nepali Technocrats|2023
Nepali
Technocrats|2023

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PIT Interpretation - Use only PIT-W EN.ppt

  • 1. PIT(Pile Integrity Test) Application and Data Interpretation Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 2. Pile Integrity Testing looks for defects Small hammer impact device Accelerometer measures response (defect) One person operation Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 3. PIT-FV/VV PIT-X PIT-X • Wireless and Small • Fixed Sampling Freq. • Able to adjust senility • Input of gage SN Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 5. PIT motivation and advantages • prime function is to locate major defects (to evaluate questionable shafts) Important • inexpensive, can test many piles (good for quality assurance) • no advance selection required (good for forensic purposes) Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 7. Real data is not perfect • Imperfect piles – pile top contact surface not smooth – inhomogeneous material (modulus versus length) – inhomogeneous material (particle sizes) – Pile shape non-uniform versus length – pile material damping – soil resistance Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 8. Real data is not perfect • Imperfect impacts – spherical point contact versus plane wave (pile not one dimensional) – protruding reinforcement “rings” – Rayleigh waves (surface waves) – “long” inputs versus “short” defects Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 9. Grinding top surface to make flat spot Pile top preparation is key to good data which is the key to best interpretation. Shortcuts cause questionable data. Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 10. Minimum Pile Preparation •locate pile •clean pile top •smooth surface •attach accelerometer can select any pile to test after installation (no pre-construction access tubes required) Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 11. Real data is not perfect, so... “data enhancements” play an important part in evaluating low strain integrity tests • Collect multiple blows: averaging reduces “random” effects • Use best possible equipment low noise, high A/D resolution signal processing options Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 12. Collect Several Blows of Data No clear toe signal, need more data processing Same trigger time Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 14. Now can clearly see toe Can also spot defect Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 15. Raw data (nothing to base evaluation on) Select & enter “MAgnification” MA = 40 Drift? Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 17. Altered shape Too small Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 18. HI pass filters: • Removes slow drifts; straightens curve • Use low values without reducing details • Avoid very low values that remove detail (use a value of “HI” that is at least 10 x the input pulse width) Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 19. -0.56 -0.28 0.00 0.28 0.56 4: # 101 cm/s V 0.360 cm/s (0.375) 43 CAISSON 600MM 07/17/2007 06:49:02 AM Hi 200.0 m 9.7 Hz 2W 1.00 m 1934 Hz 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 m x 15 L/D=16 (D=91.41 cm) 14.90 m (3868 m/s) Example of Improper Application of Hi Pass Filter (HI) -0.56 -0.28 0.00 0.28 0.56 4: # 101 cm/s V 0.360 cm/s (0.375) 43 CAISSON 600MM 07/17/2007 06:49:02 AM 2W 1.00 m 1934 Hz 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 m x 15 L/D=16 (D=91.41 cm) 14.90 m (3868 m/s) -0.56 -0.28 0.00 0.28 0.56 4: # 101 cm/s V 0.360 cm/s (0.375) 43 CAISSON 600MM 07/17/2007 06:49:02 AM Hi 50.0 m 38.7 Hz 2W 1.00 m 1934 Hz 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 m x 15 L/D=16 (D=91.41 cm) 14.90 m (3868 m/s) Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 20. -0.56 -0.28 0.00 0.28 0.56 4: # 101 cm/s V 0.360 cm/s (0.375) 43 CAISSON 600MM 07/17/2007 06:49:02 AM Hi 25.0 m 77.4 Hz 2W 1.00 m 1934 Hz 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 m x 15 L/D=16 (D=91.41 cm) 14.90 m (3868 m/s) -0.56 -0.28 0.00 0.28 0.56 4: # 101 cm/s V 0.360 cm/s (0.375) 43 CAISSON 600MM 07/17/2007 06:49:02 AM Hi 15.0 m 128.9 Hz 2W 1.00 m 1934 Hz 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 m x 15 L/D=16 (D=91.41 cm) 14.90 m (3868 m/s) Example of Improper Application of Hi Pass Filter (HI) Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 21. Example of Improper Application of Hi Pass Filter (HI) -0.47 -0.24 0.00 0.24 0.47 4: # 101+1% cm/s V 0.360 cm/s (0.375) Reference 43 CAISSON 600MM High Pass:1000.0 m 1.9 Hz Wavelet 1.00 m 1934 Hz Pivot 1 % Relative Vol.: Construct. Vol.: Construct. Area: Max Profile: Min Profile: 1.19 1.00 1.00 1.75 at 9.07 m 0.99 at 5.62 m 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 m 14.90 m (3868 m/s) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 diam x 15 Magn Use of reference line instead of HI Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 22. Show MA magnification function. Do not use high MD delay. ? Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 23. High frequency noise: “noise” or “ringing” complicates evaluation ( where does noise come from? ) “smoothing” the curve with LoPass filter (“LO”) helps simplify evaluation Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 25. Wavelet (WL) might be more effective than LO to remove high frequency noise and smoothen the curve Is there an easier and better way to smooth the curve? Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 26. Use wavelet (WL) Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 27. Investigate the cause of “ringing” in this record. 18” augercast pile (38’ long) with 22’ cage #8 bars and 18” stickup. #11 center bar full length – initial 7’ stickup 6# 3# Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 28. Investigate the cause of “ringing” in this record. #11 center bar full length – initial 7’ stickup (trimmed to 3’) 3# 6# Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 29. 24” augercast piles Pile 4 12 ft protruding rebar Pile 6 50.5 ft Pile 7 114.5 ft (L/D = 57) ( Pile installation was monitored with a PIR-A ) Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 30. Improperly data processing could lead to wrong conclusions: • Magnification(MA and MD):avoid high MD • LO Pass or Wavelet filtering (LO or WL) :avoid high value • HI Pass(HI):avoid low value Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 32. Lesson 1: Location of accelerometer and force impact make a difference. Lesson 2: Test at multiple locations at top of larger diameter shafts. Lesson 3: Can recommend excavation to inspect / repair near top defects Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 33. Good pile with local bulge at about 25 ft and clear toe Major defect near top Excavation reveals neck Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 34. 1 lb. Hammer 6 lb. Hammer “Pulse width” affects evaluation. For wide pulse, defect reflection superimposes on input to make what looks like extra wide input. No Defect Pile with Defect near top Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 35. If only measure velocity and if pile test has unusually wide input pulse, Then pile may have defect near top. Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 36. 1 lb hammer 18 lb hammer (92 ft, 72” shaft) center north west east south Larger hammers sometimes makes inspection of large shafts easier. Try different hammers on same pile. Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 37. Testing same pile with different hammer sizes is often helpful, especially for larger, longer piles. Small hammer to find defects near top Larger hammer for defects at depth Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 38. PIT detected bored pile defect at 4.1 m depth; confirmed by core Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 39. Pile 028 Pile 072 Pile 027 Other piles from same site: good pile pile with bulge severe defect near pile top Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 40. “We excavated and found some caves. I could stick my hand all the way to the middle of the pile and pull out hand-fulls of soil.” Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 41. – Averaging several blows (reduce random noise) – Magnification versus time (compensate for losses) – High pass filtering (or pivoting) to remove soil effects (eliminates very low frequencies; keep data near zero) – Wavelet filters (or low pass); (use one OR other) (eliminates very high frequencies from “ringing”) Conclusions Important! • Use similar processing for similar piles in similar soils. Compare results to spot unusual piles. • Data processing usually includes: Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 42. • Interpretation looks for: – Good data (consistent & reasonable) – Similarity or differences for different piles – Rapidly changing features in data – Toe signal (tension or compression) – Shaft uniformity – Indications of major defects (+/- cycle) – Comparison with soil profile, installation records • Integrity testing locates major defects. It is limited to general interpretations rather than exact detail. Do not use “heroic effort” to read more than data really tells. Conclusions Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 43. • Some studies suggest a 30 L/D limit. Actually this is only a “rule of thumb” and useable length depends on: – soil strength, – pile uniformity, – actual diameter and length, – and equipment noise, filters and resolution. • We often see much farther ( even to 60 L/D ) PIT Limitations • Highly non-uniform piles difficult to interpret • Cracks or mechanical joints block waves • Small defects or short length hard to find • Not always applicable: pile type, walls, in structure • Says little to nothing about pile capacity Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 44. • Compare with other observations • Re-test with PIT (trim pile top to solid concrete) • Excavate if near top • Request pile core • Request a PDA test or a static test • Replace pile (or repair) • Other? • Have a plan what to do if find a defect What to do if find a “problem” ? Nepali Technocrats|2023
  • 45. • Integrity testing is not applicable to ALL situations. Do not promise results and even try to discourage use in obviously difficult conditions, or at least inform client of low possibility of success. • Impossible to predict load capacity by low strain PIT. At best, gives relative stiffness from mobility analysis, or identify soft toes from high toe response. Conclusions Nepali Technocrats|2023