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Long Range UltrasoundApplications of Long Range Ultrasound:Benefits, limitations, and technology comparisons.Copyright 2009 – WavesinSolids LLC
IntroductionPseudonymsTypes of guided  wavesPrinciples of guided waves in platesPrinciples of guided waves in pipeHow to generate guided wavesApplications of guided wavesCopyright 2009 – WavesinSolids LLC
Basic RequirementsThere are a lot of types of guided waves out there but they all have a common denominator:A well defined boundaryPipeline ID and ODAt an interfaceCopyright 2009 – WavesinSolids LLC
Basic RequirementsThickness is comparable to wavelengthPiezoelectric elementThicknesslZone of constructive/destructive interferenceCopyright 2009 – WavesinSolids LLC
Basic RequirementsWhat happens when thickness >>> wavelengthlSurface waveThicknessBulk wave in volume of material, L-wave or T-waveCopyright 2009 – WavesinSolids LLC
Basic RequirementsWhat is frequency range for ¼” steelt ~l ~ ¼ in. (6 mm) f (MHz) = v / l= 0.24 (in./us) / 0.25 (in.)=  1 MHz Testing a frequencies above 1 MHz is not recommended for guided wavesCopyright 2009 – WavesinSolids LLC
PseudonymsThe name of a guided wave is dependent on the structuretype and how energy is transmitted through the structure. Generic TerminologyGuided wavesLong range ultrasoundBoundary SpecificSurface wavesInterface wavesStructure SpecificPlatewavesRod wavesCylindrical waves Rail wavesCopyright 2009 – WavesinSolids LLC
PseudonymsThe name of a guided wave is dependent on the structure type and how energy is transmitted through the structure. Plate Waves NamesLamb wavesAxisymmetric wavesAnti-symmetric wavesFlexural CompressionalShear horizontalCylindrical wavesLongitudinalFlexuralTorsionalInterface wavesLove wavesScholte wavesCopyright 2009 – WavesinSolids LLC
Unique CharacteristicsGuided wave velocities are dispersiveTheir velocity changes with frequencyL- and T-wave velocities do not vary with frequencyGroup Velocity  in Aluminum ModesGroup velocityFrequency
Unique CharacteristicsThere are two different types of dispersion curvesPhase Velocity  Dispersion Curves  Velocity at which a constant wavelength is generated for a given frequency.
 Used to select incident angle for wedge transducer
 Used to select element spacing for array transducer.
 Velocity at guided wave travels in the material.
 Used to confirm mode experimentally
 Used for flaw locating with time-of-flightGroup Velocity  in Aluminum
Unique CharacteristicsWave structure can vary through thickness and with frequencyUnderstanding Wave Structure Normalized in-plane displacementTop surfaceConclusions  At this frequency OOP is dominant
  Most displacement is 25% of top and bottom surfaces
  Bad frequency for defect detection in middleNormalized out-of-plane displacementBottom surface
Using the Phase Velocity CurvesUse Snell’s Law the same way you would for surface wave generationGenerate L(0,2) mode at 0.2 MHzPhase velocity   ~ 5.3 mm/usSnell’s Law: sin(q1)/v1 = sin(q2)/v2q2 = 90 degreesq1 = 30 degreesL(0,2)L(0,1)
Using the Phase Velocity CurvesUse phase velocity to calculate spacing of elements of array transducersGenerate L(0,2) mode at 0.2 MHzPhase velocity   ~ 5.3 mm/usWavelength, l = v / f  Element spacing = l = 26 mm – 1 in.L(0,2)L(0,1)
Guided Waves in PlatesSH–waves travel via a shearing motion parallel to the surface and  perpendicular to wave propagation direction.  Shearing motion is not attenuated by water and less attenuated by coatings.Lamb waves travel via flexural/compressionalmotion perpendicular  and parallel to surface.  Flexural motion is significantly attenuated by water, coatings, etc.
Guided Waves in PipeTorsional waves (T-modes) travel via a shearing motion parallel to the circumferential direction (q ).Shearing motion is attenuated less by water and less attenuated by coatings.Angular vibrationRadial and axial vibrationLongitudinal waves (L-modes) travel via flexural/compressionalmotion in the radial and axial directions and may be  attenuated significantly by water, coatings, etc.
VisualizationPlate waves
VisualizationGuided waves in pipe
Generating Guided WavesPiezoelectric TransducersAngle beam Array Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs)Shear horizontal waves in plateLamb wave in plateTorsional waves in pipeLongitudinal waves in pipeMagnetostrictive TransducersTorsional waves in pipesShear horizontal waves in plate
Generating Guided WavesPiezoelectric TransducersAdvantagesDirectional control
Change angle to get different modes
Low-costAdvantagesDirectional control
Full OD loading
T- and L-modes
Premanent installationAngle beamPiezoceramic ArraysDisadvantagesExpensive
Multiple installation steps
Directional control is not 100%DisadvantagesDifficult to generate Torsional modes
Many acoustic interfaces
Liquid couplant requiredGenerating Guided WavesEMAT TransducersAdvantagesLamb and SH-wave generation
T-wave and L-wave generation
No couplant required
Possibility for non-contact
Bi-directionalDisadvantagesHigh voltage pulsersreq’d
Comparable low SNR

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Guided Wave Ultrasound - Principles and Apllications