A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself if a knowledgeable reader would be familiar with the information in question. If he or she would have to look it up to confirm it, you should usually document it. If you're not sure, cite it to play it safe.APA advises: “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support of dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition….provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge” (p. 169).Don’t have to cite your own ideas of course, but other people do, even if a close friend!
For example, if Whyte’s work is cited in McCallum and you did not read Whyte’s work, list McCallum reference in the reference list. In text, reference McCallum, using the phrase ‘as cited in’
An exampleNotice all in alphabetical orderDouble spaced
Cite It Right! (advanced)
Cite It Right! Advanced Fall 2011
Objectives• Review why we cite• Learn some ‘advanced’ APA citation rules• Construct some citations for non-standardresources
What is APA? APA = American Psychological AssociationThe Publication Manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation is a style manual that provides guidanceand standards in: • research ethics • the publication process • article format and presentation • AND
Why do we cite?• Citations demonstrate how you developed your argument and ideas from the ideas of others• Citations give credit where credit is due• Citations give the reader of your work a path to the sources you used, so they can investigate those sources if interested (Mohanty et al., 2009)
Why do we cite?• If you don’t acknowledge other people’s work, words or ideas you commit plagiarism “Penalties for plagiarism serve both to educate students about standards of scholarship and to deter deception and poor scholarly practices. Penalties will reflect the seriousness of the offence; including whether the offence was intentional or unintentional and whether it was a first or a repeat offence” (Okanagan College, 2010, Penalties section, para. 1 ).Okanagan College Academic Offenses regulations and policies
What do we cite?• Direct quotes• Paraphrases• Words or terminology specific to or unique to theauthor’s research, theories, or ideas• Use of an authors argument or line of thinking• Historical, statistical, or scientific facts• Graphs, drawings, etc.• Articles or studies you refer to in your work (Mohanty et al., 2009)
How do we cite? Refer to APA resources to determine citation style. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed., second printing Available at all OC Library campuses; Call no. BF 76.7 .P83 2009 OC Library APA style guide webpage • PDF and HTML versions of most common APA examples • other APA resources, including apastyle.org Important: The APA manual is the definitive source of APA citationinformation. If a resource contradicts the manual – use the manual.
How do we cite?What is it?• Journal article• Book• Report Building blocks?What format? • Author(s)• Print • Publication date• Electronic/Online • Title• DVD/CD • Publication information • Format-specific details (i.e. page numbers, doi)
How do we cite?But … what if there’s a missing building block?• No author?• No date?
How do we cite? No author / no date: Some APA rules to note• “In a reference to a work with no author move the title to the authorposition, before the date of publication … A period follows thetitle.”(APA, 2009, p. 184).• “If no date is available, write n.d. in parentheses.”(APA, 2009, p. 185).• Follow rules appropriate to resource type.
How do we cite? Web page: Some APA rules to note• Non periodical title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of thesubtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; italicize the title (APA, 2009, p. 185).• Title: “Articles found on the web … are not italicized in the reference entry … just like a newspaper or magazine article. Reports found on the web would be italicized in the reference list,” (“How do you reference,” n.d.). About Okanagan College. (n.d.).
How do we cite? Web page: Some APA rules to note• Provide direct URL (see example in “How do you reference” (n.d.).• “Do no include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis)” (APA, 2009, p. 192). About Okanagan College. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.okanagan.bc.ca/about.html
How do we cite? In text• In text: “References … are cited in text with an author date citationsystem” (APA, 2009, p. 174).• “When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few wordsof the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use doublequotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web pageand italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report”(APA, 2009, p. 176). (“About Okanagan,” n.d.) “About Okanagan” (n.d.)
How do we cite? In text• Direct quotes: “always provide the author, year, and specific page citationor paragraph number for nonpaginated material” (APA, 2009, p. 170).• “Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraphnumbers are visible, use them… Use the abbreviation para.” (APA, 2009, p.172).• “If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor pagenumbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraphfollowing it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material”(APA, 2009, p. 172).• “In some cases … headings may be too unwieldy to cite in full. Instead, usea short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation”(APA, 2009, p. 172).• For more direction, visit APAstyle.org’s FAQ on citing website material.
How do we cite? In text“direct quote” (“About Okanagan,” n.d., “History of,” para. 2).
How do we cite?How do I cite a source I found in another source?
How do we cite? Secondary source: Some APA rules to note• “Use secondary sources sparingly, for instance, when the originalwork is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not availablein English. Give the secondary source in the reference list; in text, namethe original work and give a citation for the secondary source”(APA, 2009, p. 178 ).• For more direction, visit APAstyle.org’s blogpost on secondarysources. Secondary source = McCallum (2007) Original source = Whyte (1930)
How do we cite? Secondary sourceReference list citation:McCallum, T. (2007). Vancouver through the eyes of a hobo: Experience, identity, and value in the writing of Canadas depression- era tramps. Labour/Le Travail, 59, 43-68. Retrieved from http://www.cclh.ca/llt/index.phpIn text citation:Whyte’s letter reveals the desperate conditions of Vancouver in the 1930s(as cited in McCallum, 2007).
How do we cite?What do I do with a citation in a quotation?
How do we cite? Citations within quotations: Some APA rules to note• “Do not omit citations embedded within the original material you arequoting. The works cited need not be included in the list of references(unless you happen to cite them as primary sources elsewhere in yourpaper” (APA, 2009, p. 173 ).
How do we cite? Citations within quotationsReference list citation:McCallum, T. (2007). Vancouver through the eyes of a hobo: Experience, identity, and value in the writing of Canadas depression- era tramps. Labour/Le Travail, 59, 43-68. Retrieved from http://www.cclh.ca/llt/index.php In text citation: “Parr (1995) captures the antihumanist sentiments that inform this critique” (McCallum, 2007, p. 46).
How do we cite?How do I cite an interview/conversation?
How do we cite? Personal communication: Some APA rules to note• Personal communications • Private letters • Memos • Email messages • Personal interviews • Telephone conversations, etc. (APA, 2009, p. 179)
How do we cite?Personal communication: Some APA rules to note• “because they do not provide recoverable data, personalcommunications are not included in the reference list. Citepersonal communications in text only. Give the initials as well asthe surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date aspossible” (APA, 2009, p. 179).• “Some forms of personal communication are recoverable, andthese should be referenced as archival materials” (APA, 2009, p.179). Examples include items from anarchive, repository, transcript of a recorded interview, photograph.
How do we cite? Personal communicationIn text citation:(L. Jantzi, personal communication, October 19, 2011).According to L. Jantzi (personal communication, October 19, 2011) …Reference list citation: N/A
How do we cite? Blog post: Some APA rules to note• See example in APA, 2009, p. 215• For more direction, visit APAstyle.org’s blogpost on how to site itemsfound on websites.
How do we cite? Blog postReference list citation:Lee, C. (2010, November 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA style [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org /apastyle/2010/11 /how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in- apa-style.html In text citation: (Lee, 2010) According to Lee (2010) …
How do we cite? Video blog post: Some APA rules to note• See example in APA, 2009, p. 215• For more direction, visit APAstyle.org’s blogpost on how to site itemsfound on websites.
How do we cite? Video blog postReference list citation:PsycINFO. (2009, November 23). How to find DOIs in APA PsycINFO [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Afmknkzeo In text citation: (PsycINFO, 2009). According PsycINFO (2009) …
How do we cite? ReferencesAbout Okanagan College. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.okanagan.bc.ca/about.htmlLee, C. (2010, November 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA style [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11 /how-to-cite- something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.htmlMcCallum, T. (2007). Vancouver through the eyes of a hobo: Experience, identity, and value in the writing of Canadas depression-era tramps. Labour/Le Travail, 59, 43-68. Retrieved from http://www.cclh.ca/llt/index.phpPsycINFO. (2009, November 23). How to find DOIs in APA PsycINFO [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Afmknkzeo
Remember• Give credit where credit is due• Consult OC Library APA Citation Style guide• Consult APA Publication Manual• If you are unable to identify a specific example, use an example that is most like your source• OC Library Research Writing & Citing guide• Ask!
ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.Mohanty , S., Orphanides, A., Rumble, J., Roberts, D., Norberg, L., Vassiliadis, K. (2009). University libraries citing information tutorial. Retrieved from http://www.lib.unc.edu /instruct/citations/introduction/Okanagan College. (2010). Academic offenses. Retrieved from http://webapps1.okanagan.bc.ca/ok/calendar /Calendar.aspx?page=AcademicOffenses LJ | 10/18/2011